West Fargo, North Dakota
West Fargo is a city in Cass County, North Dakota, United States. It is, as of the 2017 Census Estimates, the fifth largest city in the state of North Dakota with a population estimated at 35,708, it is one of the state's fastest growing cities. West Fargo was founded in 1926; the city is part of the ND-MN Metropolitan Statistical Area. West Fargo is located at 46°52′18″N 96°53′42″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 14.72 square miles, of which, 14.44 square miles is land and 0.28 square miles is water. This climatic region is typified by large seasonal temperature differences, with warm to hot summers and cold winters. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, West Fargo has a humid continental climate, abbreviated "Dfb" on climate maps. According to the 2008-2012 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates, the ancestry is as follows: German 46.2% Norwegian 35.4% Irish 7.6% Swedish 6.2% English 5.4% French 3.8% American 2.7% Polish 2.6% Russian 2.5% Czech 2.4% Subsaharan African 2.2% Italian 1.7% Scottish 1.3% Danish 1.2% At the 2010 census, there were 25,830 people, 10,348 households and 6,823 families residing in the city.
The population density was 1,788.8 inhabitants per square mile. There were 10,760 housing units at an average density of 745.2 per square mile. The racial makeup was 93.5% White, 2.0% African American, 1.0% Native American, 1.4% Asian, 0.4% from other races, 1.8% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.8% of the population. There were 10,348 households of which 36.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.8% were married couples living together, 9.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.0% had a male householder with no wife present, 34.1% were non-families. 26.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.49 and the average family size was 3.04. The median age was 32.6 years. 26.9% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 49.6% male and 50.4% female. At the 2000 census, there were 14,940 people, 5,771 households and 4,091 families residing in the city.
The population density was 2,049.2 per square mile. There were 5,968 housing units at an average density of 818.6 per square mile. The racial makeup was 96.40% White, 0.42% African American, 1.04% Native American, 0.28% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.67% from other races, 1.16% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.41% of the population. The top six ancestry groups in the city are German, Irish, French, English. There were 5,771 households of which 40.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.3% were married couples living together, 9.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.1% were non-families. 23.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.59 and the average family size was 3.09. 29.2% of the population were under the age of 18, 8.9% from 18 to 24, 34.0% from 25 to 44, 21.2% from 45 to 64, 6.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 32 years.
For every 100 females, there were 97.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.4 males. The median household income was $44,542 and the median family income was $51,765. Males had a median income of $32,105 and females $22,148; the per capita income was $19,368. About 4.7% of families and 6.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 7.8% of those under age 18 and 14.8% of those age 65 or over. The City of West Fargo is governed by a Board of City Commissioners, which consists of the President of the Board and four City Commissioners; the current mayor of West Fargo as of 2018 is Bernie Dardis. Staff Sharon Schacher retired in 2011 after 35 years as the City of West Fargo's finance director. Tina Fisk replaced Schacher in that year. Two new director positions were created: human resources, filled by Carmen Schroeder, information technology, filled by James Anderson, both in 2011. In 2015, Tina Fisk was named city administrator. Building City Hall's official ground breaking was held 9 May 1975, in 2005, City Hall was renovated when the library moved to its new facility.
City Hall's most recent renovation concluded in 2016, which brought building inspections and information technology under the same roof and included secure underground police parking. The $19 million renovation added 34,000 square feet to City Hall; the Police Department has grown in 1968, to its current 58 employees. "The West Fargo Police Department’s Mission is to provide quality service to residents and guests of West Fargo, ensuring a safe community by protecting their constitutional rights in the most professional manner possible." Police officers and other city employees enforce West Fargo city ordinances. Heith Janke is the current, as of Chief of Police; the previous chief was ousted by the city for inappropriate contact with city companies. The police department's community programs include Citizen Police Academy, Police Explorers Post 281, Night to Unite, Neighborhood Watch Program, TRIAD and Crime Free Multi-Housing. Business "The Business Development Department connects new and existing business owners and operators with city officials, helping to pave the way for the gro
Chinese Americans are Americans who are descendants of Chinese ancestry, which includes American-born Chinese persons. Chinese Americans constitute one group of overseas Chinese and a subgroup of East Asian Americans, a further subgroup of Asian Americans. Many Chinese Americans are immigrants along with their descendants from mainland China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, as well as from other regions that include large populations of the Chinese diaspora Southeast Asia and some Western countries like Canada, the United Kingdom, New Zealand and France; the Chinese American community is the largest overseas Chinese community outside Asia. It is the third largest community in the Chinese diaspora, behind the Chinese communities in Thailand and Malaysia; the 2016 Community Survey of the US Census estimates a population of Chinese Americans of one or more races to be 5,081,682. The Chinese American community comprises the largest ethnic group of Asian Americans, comprising 25.9% of the Asian American population as of 2010.
Americans of Chinese descent, including those with partial Chinese ancestry constitute 1.5% of the total U. S. population as of 2017. According to the 2010 census, the Chinese American population numbered 3.8 million. In 2010, half of Chinese-born people living in the United States resided in the states of California and New York; the first Chinese immigrants arrived in 1820, according to U. S. government records. 325 men are known to have arrived before the 1849 California Gold Rush, which drew the first significant number of laborers from China who mined for gold and performed menial labor. There were 25,000 immigrants by 1852, 105,465 by 1880, most of whom lived on the West Coast, they formed over a tenth of California's population. Nearly all of the early immigrants were young males with low educational levels from six districts in Guangdong Province. In the 1850s, Chinese workers migrated to the United States, first to work in the gold mines, but to take agricultural jobs, factory work in the garment industry.
Chinese immigrants were instrumental in building railroads in the American west, as Chinese laborers grew successful in the United States, a number of them became entrepreneurs in their own right. As the numbers of Chinese laborers increased, so did the strength of anti-Chinese attitude among other workers in the American economy; this resulted in legislation that aimed to limit future immigration of Chinese workers to the United States, threatened to sour diplomatic relations between the United States and China. The Chinese laborers worked out well and thousands more were recruited until the railroad's completion in 1869. Chinese labor provided the massive workforce needed to build the majority of the Central Pacific's difficult route through the Sierra Nevada mountains and across Nevada. American objections to Chinese immigration took many forms, stemmed from economic and cultural tensions, as well as ethnic discrimination. Most Chinese laborers who came to the United States did so in order to send money back to China to support their families there.
At the same time, they had to repay loans to the Chinese merchants who paid their passage to America. These financial pressures left them little choice. Non-Chinese laborers required much higher wages to support their wives and children in the United States, generally had a stronger political standing to bargain for higher wages. Therefore, many of the non-Chinese workers in the United States came to resent the Chinese laborers, who might squeeze them out of their jobs. Furthermore, as with most immigrant communities, many Chinese settled in their own neighborhoods, tales spread of Chinatowns as places where large numbers of Chinese men congregated to visit prostitutes, smoke opium, or gamble; some advocates of anti-Chinese legislation therefore argued that admitting Chinese into the United States lowered the cultural and moral standards of American society. Others used a more overtly racist argument for limiting immigration from East Asia, expressed concern about the integrity of American racial composition.
To address these rising social tensions, from the 1850s through the 1870s the California state government passed a series of measures aimed at Chinese residents, ranging from requiring special licenses for Chinese businesses or workers to preventing naturalization. Because anti-Chinese discrimination and efforts to stop Chinese immigration violated the 1868 Burlingame-Seward Treaty with China, the federal government was able to negate much of this legislation; the Chinese population rose from 2,716 in 1851 to 63,000 by 1871. In the decade 1861-70, 64,301 were recorded as arriving, followed by 123,201 in 1871-80 and 61,711 in 1881-1890. 77% were located in California, with the rest scattered across the West, the South, New England. Most came from Southern China looking for a better life, escaping a high rate of poverty left after the Taiping Rebellion. In 1879, advocates of immigration restriction succeeded in introducing and passing legislation in Congress to limit the number of Chinese arriving to fifteen per ship or vessel.
Republican President Rutherford B. Hayes vetoed the bill because it violated U. S. treaty agreements with China. It was still an important victory for advocates of exclusion. Democrats, led by supporters in the West, advocated for all-out exclusion of Chinese
Cuban Americans are Americans who trace their ancestry to Cuba. The word may refer to someone born in the U. S. of Cuban descent or to someone who has emigrated to the U. S. from Cuba. Cuban Americans are the third-largest Latino group in the United States. Many communities throughout the United States have significant Cuban American populations. Florida has the highest concentration of Cuban Americans in the US, standing out in part because of its proximity to Cuba, followed by California, New Jersey and New York. South Florida is followed by New York City, Union County and North Hudson, New Jersey areas Union City and West New York. With a population of 141,250, the New York metropolitan area's Cuban community is the largest outside Florida. Nearly 70% of all Cuban Americans live in Florida. Before the Louisiana Purchase and the Adams–Onís Treaty of 1819, Spanish Florida, when divided during British occupation, East Florida and West Florida, including what is now Florida and the Gulf Coast west to the Mississippi River were provinces of the Captaincy General of Cuba.
Cuban immigration to the U. S. has a long history, beginning in the Spanish colonial period in 1565 when St. Augustine, Florida was established by Pedro Menéndez de Avilés, hundreds of Spanish-Cuban soldiers and their families moved from Cuba to St. Augustine to establish a new life. Thousands of Cuban settlers immigrated to Louisiana between 1778 and 1802 and Texas during the period of Spanish rule. Since 1820, the Cuban presence was more than 1,000 people. In 1870 the number of Cuban immigrants increased to 12,000, of which about 4,500 resided in New York City, about 3,000 in New Orleans, 2,000 in Key West; the causes of these movements were both economic and political, which intensified after 1860, when political factors played the predominant role in emigration, as a result of deteriorating relations with the Spanish metropolis. The year 1869 marked the beginning of one of the most significant periods of emigration from Cuba to the United States, again centered on Key West; the exodus of hundreds of workers and businessmen was linked to the manufacture of tobacco.
The reasons are many: the introduction of more modern techniques of elaboration of snuff, the most direct access to its main market, the United States, the uncertainty about the future of the island, which had suffered years of economic and social unrest during the beginning of the Ten Years' War against Spanish rule. It was an exodus of skilled workers the class in the island that had succeeded in establishing a free labor sector amid a slave economy; the manufacture of snuff by the Cuban labor force, became the most important source of income for Key West between 1869 and 1900. Tampa was added to such efforts, with a strong migration of Cubans, which went from 720 inhabitants in 1880 to 5,532 in 1890. However, the second half of the 1890s marked the decline of the Cuban immigrant population, as an important part of it returned to the island to fight for independence; the War accentuated Cuban immigrant integration into American society, whose numbers were significant: more than 12,000 people.
In the mid- to late 19th century, several cigar manufacturers moved their operations to Key West to get away from growing disruptions as Cubans sought independence from Spanish colonial rule. Many Cuban cigar workers followed; the Cuban government had established a grammar school in Key West to help preserve Cuban culture. There, children learned folk songs and patriotic hymns such as "La Bayamesa", the Cuban national anthem. In 1885, Vicente Martinez Ybor moved his cigar operations from Key West to the town of Tampa, Florida to escape labor strife. Ybor City was designed as a modified company town, it attracted thousands of Cuban workers from Key West and Cuba. West Tampa, another new cigar manufacturing community, was founded nearby in 1892 and grew quickly. Between these communities, the Tampa Bay area's Cuban population grew from nothing to the largest in Florida in just over a decade, the city as a whole grew from a village of 1000 residents in 1885 to over 16,000 by 1900. Both Ybor City and West Tampa were instrumental in Cuba's eventual independence.
Inspired by revolutionaries such as Jose Martí, who visited Florida several times, Tampa-area Cubans and their sympathetic neighbors donated money and sometimes their lives to the cause of Cuba Libre. After the Spanish–American War, some Cubans returned to their native land, but many chose to stay in the U. S. due to the physical and economic devastation caused by years of fighting on the island. Several other small waves of Cuban emigration to the U. S. occurred in the early 20th century. Most settled in Florida and the northeast U. S; the majority of an estimated 100,000 Cubans arriving in that time period came for economic reasons, but included anti-Batista refugees fleeing the military dictatorship, which had pro-U. S. Diplomatic ties. During the'20s and'30s, emigration from Cuba to U. S. territory comprised workers looking for jobs in New York and New Jersey. They were classified as labor migrants and workers, much like other immigrants in the area at that time, thus migrated more than 40,149 in the first decade, encouraged by U.
S. immigration facilities at the time and more than 43,400 by the end of the 30s. Subsequently, the flow of Cubans to the United States fluctuated, due to both the domestic situation in the 40s and 50s in Cuba, U. S. immigration policies, pl
Cass County, North Dakota
Cass County is a county in the U. S. state of North Dakota. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 149,778, was estimated to be 177,787 in 2017. Cass County is the most populous county in North Dakota, accounting for nearly 23% of the state's population in 2017, its county seat is the most populous city in the state. Cass County is part of ND-MN Metropolitan Statistical Area. Cass County was defined by action of the Dakota Territory legislature on January 4, 1873, its organization was effected on October 27 of that year, it was named for railroad executive George Washington Cass. Its boundaries were altered in 1875, in 1961. Cass County lies on the east side of North Dakota, its east boundary line abuts the west boundary line of the state of Minnesota across the river. The Red River flows northward along the county's east boundary, on its way to Lake Winnipeg and Hudson Bay; the county's terrain consists of low rolling hills, devoted to agriculture except around developed areas. Its terrain slopes to the north and east, with its highest point on the SW corner at 1,194' ASL.
The county has a total area of 1,768 square miles, of which 1,765 square miles is land and 3.0 square miles is water. Brewer Lake As of the 2000 United States Census, there were 123,138 people, 51,315 households, 29,814 families in the county; the population density was 70 people per square mile. There were 53,790 housing units at an average density of 30 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 95.10% White, 0.81% Black or African American, 1.08% Native American, 1.26% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.43% from other races, 1.29% from two or more races. 1.23% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 34.1% were of German and 32.4% Norwegian ancestry. There were 51,315 households out of which 29.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.3% were married couples living together, 7.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 41.9% were non-families. 31.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.32 and the average family size was 2.98. The county population contained 23.4% under the age of 18, 16.0% from 18 to 24, 31.3% from 25 to 44, 19.6% from 45 to 64, 9.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 31 years. For every 100 females, there were 100.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 99.5 males. The median income for a household in the county was $38,147, the median income for a family was $51,469. Males had a median income of $32,216 versus $22,300 for females; the per capita income for the county was $20,889. About 5.7% of families and 10.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 9.1% of those under age 18 and 8.1% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 census, there were 149,778 people, 63,899 households, 35,215 families in the county; the population density was 84.9 inhabitants per square mile. There were 67,938 housing units at an average density of 38.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 91.7% white, 2.4% Asian, 2.3% black or African American, 1.2% American Indian, 0.5% from other races, 1.9% from two or more races.
Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 2.0% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 45.4% were German, 35.8% were Norwegian, 9.2% were Irish, 6.3% were Swedish, 1.7% were American. Of the 63,899 households, 27.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.9% were married couples living together, 8.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 44.9% were non-families, 33.0% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.27 and the average family size was 2.94. The median age was 31.5 years. The median income for a household in the county was $47,600 and the median income for a family was $68,858. Males had a median income of $42,557 versus $31,916 for females; the per capita income for the county was $28,184. About 5.8% of families and 12.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 11.0% of those under age 18 and 10.1% of those age 65 or over. Cass County is governed by a board of commissioners elected to four-year terms. Other elected officials include the auditor, sheriff, state's attorney, treasurer.
Appointed officials include administrator, extension agent, director of tax equalization, highway engineer, information technology coordinator, social services officer, veterans service officer, weed control officer. The current Sheriff is Paul D. Laney. Laney has served as Sheriff of Cass County since January 2, 2007; the voters of Cass County tend to vote Republican. In only two national elections since 1960 has the county selected the Democratic Party candidate. Absaraka Chaffee Wild Rice National Register of Historic Places listings in Cass County, North Dakota Cass County official website
North Dakota is a U. S. state in northern regions of the United States. It is the nineteenth largest in area, the fourth smallest by population, the fourth most sparsely populated of the 50 states. North Dakota was admitted to the Union on November 3, 1889, along with its neighboring state, South Dakota, its capital is Bismarck, its largest city is Fargo. In the 21st century, North Dakota's natural resources have played a major role in its economic performance with the oil extraction from the Bakken formation, which lies beneath the northwestern part of the state; such development has led to reduced unemployment. North Dakota contains the tallest human-made structure in the KVLY-TV mast. North Dakota is a Midwestern state of the United States, it lies at the center of the North American continent. The geographic center of North America is near the town of Rugby. Bismarck is the capital of North Dakota, Fargo is the largest city. Soil is North Dakota's most precious resource, it is the base of the state's great agricultural wealth.
But North Dakota has enormous mineral resources. These mineral resources include billions of tons of lignite coal. In addition, North Dakota has large oil reserves. Petroleum was discovered in the state in 1951 and became one of North Dakota's most valuable mineral resources. In the early 2000's, the emergence of hydraulic fracturing technologies enabled mining companies to extract huge amounts of oil from the Bakken shale rock formation in the western part of the state. North Dakota's economy is based more on farming than are the economies of most other states. Many North Dakota factories manufacture farm equipment. Many of the state’s merchants rely on agriculture. Farms and ranches cover nearly all of North Dakota, they stretch from the flat Red River Valley in the east, across rolling plains, to the rugged Badlands in the west. The chief crop, wheat, is grown in nearly every county. North Dakota flaxseed, it is the country’s top producer of barley and sunflower seeds and a leader in the production of beans, lentils, oats and sugar beets.
Few white settlers came to the North Dakota region before the 1870's because railroads had not yet entered the area. During the early 1870's, the Northern Pacific Railroad began to push across the Dakota Territory. Large-scale farming began during the 1870's. Eastern corporations and some families established huge wheat farms covering large areas of land in the Red River Valley; the farms made such enormous profits. White settlers, attracted by the success of the bonanza farms, flocked to North Dakota increasing the territory's population. In 1870, North Dakota had 2,405 people. By 1890, the population had grown to 190,983. North Dakota was named for the Sioux people; the Sioux called meaning allies or friends. One of North Dakota's nicknames is the Peace Garden State; this nickname honors the International Peace Garden, which lies on the state's border with Manitoba, Canada. North Dakota is called the Flickertail State because of the many flickertail ground squirrels that live in the central part of the state.
North Dakota is in the U. S. region known as the Great Plains. The state shares the Red River of the North with Minnesota to the east. South Dakota is to the south, Montana is to the west, the Canadian provinces of Saskatchewan and Manitoba are to the north. North Dakota is near the middle of North America with a stone marker in Rugby, North Dakota marking the "Geographic Center of the North American Continent". With an area of 70,762 square miles, North Dakota is the 19th largest state; the western half of the state consists of the hilly Great Plains as well as the northern part of the Badlands, which are to the west of the Missouri River. The state's high point, White Butte at 3,506 feet, Theodore Roosevelt National Park are in the Badlands; the region is abundant in fossil fuels including crude oil and lignite coal. The Missouri River forms Lake Sakakawea, the third largest artificial lake in the United States, behind the Garrison Dam; the central region of the state is divided into the Missouri Plateau.
The eastern part of the state consists of the flat Red River Valley, the bottom of glacial Lake Agassiz. Its fertile soil, drained by the meandering Red River flowing northward into Lake Winnipeg, supports a large agriculture industry. Devils Lake, the largest natural lake in the state, is found in the east. Eastern North Dakota is overall flat. Most of the state is covered in grassland. Natural trees in North Dakota are found where there is good drainage, such as the ravines and valley near the Pembina Gorge and Killdeer Mountains, the Turtle Mountains, the hills around Devil's Lake, in the dunes area of McHenry County in central North Dakota, along the Sheyenne Valley slopes and the Sheyenne delta; this diverse terrain supports nearly 2,000 species of plants. North Dakota has a continental climate with cold winters; the temperature differences are significant because of its far inland position and being in the center of the Northern Hemisphere, with equal distances to the North Pole and the Equator.
As such, summers are subtropical, but winters are cold enough to ensure plant hardiness is low. Native American peoples lived in what is now North Dakota for thousands of year
Hawley is a town in Clay County, United States, along the Buffalo River. The population was 2,067 at the 2010 census; the town went through six quick name changes after 1871 until, in 1872, it was named after Thomas Hawley Canfield, an officer in the Northern Pacific Railway, which laid out the town. General Custer visited the town in 1876. In 2007, the town started an ad campaign called "Hawley Would"; the campaign focuses on both the small-town atmosphere of Hawley and its proximity to the Fargo-Moorhead metropolitan area. Hawley was at one time settled by a colony of immigrants from Somerset. Hawley is east of Moorhead, at the intersection of the Buffalo River, U. S. Route 10, the Burlington Northern Railroad. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 2.53 square miles, all of it land. It is located in Vikingland of Minnesota, has a number of pasture and farmlands nearby; the land is flat farmland west of the city, more hilly-forested land to the east. There is much wildlife including deer, waterfowl, skunk, wolf and many other indigenous animal species.
The indigenous trees in the forests are leafy, with few natural evergreens. As of the census of 2010, there were 2,067 people, 854 households, 553 families residing in the city; the population density was 817.0 inhabitants per square mile. There were 891 housing units at an average density of 352.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 96.3% White, 0.3% African American, 1.0% Native American, 0.7% Asian, 1.6% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino people of any race were 0.9% of the population. There were 854 households of which 37.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.2% were married couples living together, 10.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 3.6% had a male householder with no wife present, 35.2% were non-families. 32.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 17.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.42 and the average family size was 3.03. The median age in the city was 34.9 years.
29.2% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 48.5% male and 51.5% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,882 individuals, 744 households, 514 families residing in the city; the population density was 764.8 people per square mile. There were 787 housing units at an average density of 319.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 98.46% White, 0.11% African American, 0.37% Native American, 0.21% Asian, 0.85% from two or more races. 0.43% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 744 households out of which 34.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.9% were married couples living together, 8.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.8% were non-families. 28.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.45 and the average family size was 3.02. In the city, the population was spread out with 26.5% under the age of 18, 7.3% from 18 to 24, 26.8% from 25 to 44, 19.3% from 45 to 64, 20.0% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 95.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.5 males. The median income for a household in the city was $35,652, the median income for a family was $47,188. Males had a median income of $33,333 versus $21,284 for females; the per capita income for the city was $17,178. About 7.2% of families and 8.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 10.6% of those under the age of 18 and 12.2% of those 65 and older. The Hawley School district has a school building for grades K-6, a separate building for grades 7-12, their football team has won many section championships. Hawley has one radio station, KNNZ. Hawley may be best known for Hjemkomst; the building of this ship began in November 1973 by Robert Asp, modeled on the Norwegian ship the Gokstad, dating from about 950 A. D; the Hjemkomst sailed from Duluth, Minnesota to Bergen, Norway in 1982. The ship is now located at the Hjemkomst Center museum in nearby Moorhead.
Hawley has a country club with a golf course. Hawley's newspaper is the Hawley Herald. Hawley's official website
Indian Americans or Indo-Americans are Americans whose ancestry belongs to any of the many ethnic groups of the Republic of India. The U. S. Census Bureau uses the term Asian Indian to avoid confusion with the indigenous peoples of the Americas referred to as American Indians. In the Americas the term "Indian" has been most used to refer to the indigenous people of the continents after European colonization in the 15th century. Qualifying terms such as "American Indian" and "East Indian" were and are used to avoid ambiguity; the U. S. government has since coined the term "Native American" to refer to the indigenous peoples of the United States, but terms such as "American Indian" remain popular among both indigenous and non-indigenous populations. Since the 1980s, Indian Americans have been categorized as "Asian Indian" by the United States Census Bureau. While "East Indian" remains in use, the term "South Asian" is chosen instead for academic and governmental purposes. Indian Americans are a subgroup of South Asian Americans, a census group that includes Bangladeshi Americans, Bhutanese Americans, Nepalese Americans, Pakistani Americans, Burmese Americans, Sri Lankan Americans, etc.
Beginning in the 1600's the East India Company begins bringing indentured Indian servants to American colonies. In 1680, due to anti-miscegenation laws, a mixed-race girl born to an Indian father and an Irish mother is classified as'mulatto' and sold into slavery; the Naturalization Act of 1790 made Asians ineligible for citizenship, with citizenship limited to whites only. First significant wave of Indian immigrants enter America, with more than two thousand Indian Sikhs living in the United States in California, by the end of the century, they find work on farms and on lumber mills in the states of California and Washington. Many Punjabi Sikhs settle in California, around the Yuba City area, forming close ties with Mexican Americans; the presence of Indian-Americans helped develop interest in Eastern religions in the US and would result in its influence on American philosophies such as Transcendentalism. Swami Vivekananda arriving in Chicago at the World's Fair led to the establishment of the Vedanta Society.
Bhicaji Balsara became the first known Indian-born person to gain naturalized U. S. citizenship. As a Parsi, he was considered a'pure member of the Persian sect' and therefore a free white person; the judge Emile Henry Lacombe, of the Southern District of New York, only gave Balsara citizenship on the hope that the United States attorney would indeed challenge his decision and appeal it to create “an authoritative interpretation” of the law. The U. S. attorney adhered to Lacombe’s wishes and took the matter to the Circuit Court of Appeals in 1910. The Circuit Court of Appeal agreed that Parsees belong to the white race and were "as distinct from Hindus as are the English who dwell in India”. Prior to 1965, Indian immigration to the U. S. was isolated, with fewer than fifty thousand Indian immigrants in the country. The Bellingham riots in Bellingham, Washington on September 5, 1907 epitomized the low tolerance in the U. S. for Indians and Sikhs who were called hindoos by locals. While anti-Asian racism was embedded in U.
S. politics and culture in the early 20th century, Indians were racialized for their anticolonialism, with U. S. officials, casting them as a "Hindu" menace, pushing for Western imperial expansion abroad. Although labeled Hindu, the majority of Indians were Sikh. In the 1923 case, United States v. Bhagat Singh Thind, the Supreme Court ruled that Punjabis were not "white persons" and were therefore racially ineligible for naturalized citizenship; the Court argued that the racial difference between Indians and whites was so great that the "great body of our people" would reject assimilation with Indians. After the Luce–Celler Act of 1946 a quota of 100 Indians per year were permitted to immigrate to the U. S. and become citizens. The Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 opened entry to the U. S. to immigrants other than traditional Northern European groups, which would alter the demographic mix in the U. S. Not all Indian Americans came directly from India. S. via Indian communities in other countries, including the United Kingdom, the Asia-Pacific region, the Caribbean.
According to the 2010 United States Census, the Asian Indian population in the United States grew from 1,678,765 in 2000 to 2,843,391 in 2010, a growth rate of 69.37%, one of the fastest growing ethnic groups in the United States. The New York-Newark-Bridgeport, NY-NJ-CT-PA Combined Statistical Area, consisting of New York City, Long Island, adjacent areas within New York, as well as nearby areas within the states of New Jersey and including Pike County, was home to an estimated 711,174 uniracial Indian Americans as of the 2017 American Community Survey by the U. S. Census Bureau, comprising by far the largest Indian American population of any metropolitan area in the United States. Monroe Township, Middlesex County, in central New Jersey, the geographic heart of the Northeast megalopolis, has displayed one of the fastest growth rates of its Indian population in the Western Hemisphere, increasing from 25