The Soviet Union the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics, its government and economy were centralized; the country was a one-party state, governed by the Communist Party with Moscow as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Other major urban centres were Leningrad, Minsk, Alma-Ata, Novosibirsk, it spanned over 10,000 kilometres east to west across 11 time zones, over 7,200 kilometres north to south. It had five climate zones: tundra, steppes and mountains; the Soviet Union had its roots in the 1917 October Revolution, when the Bolsheviks, led by Vladimir Lenin, overthrew the Russian Provisional Government which had replaced Tsar Nicholas II during World War I. In 1922, the Soviet Union was formed by a treaty which legalized the unification of the Russian, Transcaucasian and Byelorussian republics that had occurred from 1918. Following Lenin's death in 1924 and a brief power struggle, Joseph Stalin came to power in the mid-1920s.
Stalin committed the state's ideology to Marxism–Leninism and constructed a command economy which led to a period of rapid industrialization and collectivization. During his rule, political paranoia fermented and the Great Purge removed Stalin's opponents within and outside of the party via arbitrary arrests and persecutions of many people, resulting in at least 600,000 deaths. In 1933, a major famine struck the country. Before the start of World War II in 1939, the Soviets signed the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, agreeing to non-aggression with Nazi Germany, after which the USSR invaded Poland on 17 September 1939. In June 1941, Germany broke the pact and invaded the Soviet Union, opening the largest and bloodiest theatre of war in history. Soviet war casualties accounted for the highest proportion of the conflict in the effort of acquiring the upper hand over Axis forces at intense battles such as Stalingrad and Kursk; the territories overtaken by the Red Army became satellite states of the Soviet Union.
The post-war division of Europe into capitalist and communist halves would lead to increased tensions with the United States-led Western Bloc, known as the Cold War. Stalin died in 1953 and was succeeded by Nikita Khrushchev, who in 1956 denounced Stalin and began the de-Stalinization; the Cuban Missile Crisis occurred during Khrushchev's rule, among the many factors that led to his downfall in 1964. In the early 1970s, there was a brief détente of relations with the United States, but tensions resumed with the Soviet–Afghan War in 1979. In 1985, the last Soviet premier, Mikhail Gorbachev, sought to reform and liberalize the economy through his policies of glasnost and perestroika, which caused political instability. In 1989, Soviet satellite states in Eastern Europe overthrew their respective communist governments; as part of an attempt to prevent the country's dissolution due to rising nationalist and separatist movements, a referendum was held in March 1991, boycotted by some republics, that resulted in a majority of participating citizens voting in favor of preserving the union as a renewed federation.
Gorbachev's power was diminished after Russian President Boris Yeltsin's high-profile role in facing down a coup d'état attempted by Communist Party hardliners. In late 1991, Gorbachev resigned and the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union met and formally dissolved the Soviet Union; the remaining 12 constituent republics emerged as independent post-Soviet states, with the Russian Federation—formerly the Russian SFSR—assuming the Soviet Union's rights and obligations and being recognized as the successor state. The Soviet Union was a powerhouse of many significant technological achievements and innovations of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite, the first humans in space and the first probe to land on another planet, Venus; the country had the largest standing military in the world. The Soviet Union was recognized as one of the five nuclear weapons states and possessed the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction, it was a founding permanent member of the United Nations Security Council as well as a member of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the World Federation of Trade Unions and the leading member of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance and the Warsaw Pact.
The word "Soviet" is derived from a Russian word сове́т meaning council, advice, harmony and all deriving from the proto-Slavic verbal stem of vět-iti, related to Slavic věst, English "wise", the root in "ad-vis-or", or the Dutch weten. The word sovietnik means "councillor". A number of organizations in Russian history were called "council". For example, in the Russian Empire the State Council, which functioned from 1810 to 1917, was referred to as a Council of Ministers after the revolt of 1905. During the Georgian Affair, Vladimir Lenin envisioned an expression of Great Russian ethnic chauvinism by Joseph Stalin and his supporters, calling for these nation-states to join Russia as semi-independent parts of a greater union, which he named as the Union of Soviet Republics of Europe and Asia. Stalin resisted the proposal, but accepted it, although with Lenin's agreement changed the name of the newly proposed sta
Motor Gun Boat
Motor Gun Boat was a Royal Navy term for a small military vessel of the Second World War. Such boats were physically similar to Motor Torpedo Boats, equipped instead with a mix of guns instead of torpedoes, their small size and high speed made them difficult targets for E-boats or torpedo bombers, but they were vulnerable to mines and heavy weather. The large number of guns meant the crew was large, numbering as high as thirty men. MGBs were heavily armed for vessels of their size. By 1945, MGB 658 carried two power-mounted QF 6-pounders in the A and Y turret positions, a twin 20 mm Oerlikon cannon in the X turret position, a single 20 mm Oerlikon on either side forward of the bridge and two twin.303 Vickers machine guns on the bridge wings. They were equipped with smoke-making equipment, basic radar and depth charges. In the early years of the war, they saw action defending shipping against enemy torpedo boats such as the German E-boats on the southern and eastern coasts of the UK. MGBs were involved in the protection of shipping after D-Day.
In the Mediterranean, they were used offensively to sink German shipping. They were formed into flotillas which operated alongside Motor Torpedo Boats and helped interdict supplies being sent from Italy to North Africa in 1943. After this campaign, they moved northwards and assisted with the invasion of Sicily, Sardinia and Elba. From island bases they patrolled along the western coast of Italy attacking small coastal ships and E-boats until mid-1944; as Italy was progressively liberated, certain flotillas, such as the 56th, were sent around to the Adriatic to assist partisans in the islands off Yugoslavia. They did not take the prefix HMS as they were only boats and instead used the prefix "HMMGB" on formal occasions; the crews referred to them by their numbers. In 1947, MGB 2009 was fitted with a Metrovick gas turbine, thereby becoming the world's first gas turbine powered naval vessel. Camper and Nicholsons MGB Pennants: MGB 502 to MGB 509 Length: 117 ft 0 in Beam: 20 ft 3 in Draught: 4 ft 1 in Displacement: 95 tons Propulsion: 3 × Paxman VRB diesel engines Total power output: 3,000 bhp Speed: Maximum: 28 knots Continuous: 25 knots Complement: 21 Endurance: 2,000 nautical miles at 11 knots Note: MGB 509 was powered by three Packard supercharged petrol engines giving a total output of 4,050 bhp and a maximum speed of 31 knots.
Re-numbered MGB 2009, this boat was fitted with a Metrovick gas turbine engine in 1947. Fairmile C motor gun boats were 110 ft long boats; the succeeding Fairmile D design could be fitted out either as MGB or MTB. The only restored and operational example of a Royal Navy Coastal Forces MGB which saw active service in WW2 is MGB-81, she was built by British Power Boat Co Ltd. Hythe, launched in 1942, served at the Normandy landings, she is now at Portsmouth. Motor Launch Harbour Defence Motor Launch Fairmile C Motor Gun Boat Steam Gun Boat Motor Torpedo Boat Coastal Forces of the Royal Navy Type Two 63 ft HSL Robert Peverell Hichens, renowned MGB Flotilla commander Guy Hamilton, film director who served on MGB's during the war. Motor Gunboat 658 LC Reynolds ISBN 0-304-36183-6 British Military Powerboat Trust Whaleback MGB
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
Naval artillery is artillery mounted on a warship used only for naval warfare also for shore bombardment and for anti-aircraft use. The term refers to tube-launched projectile-firing weapons and excludes self-propelled projectiles like torpedoes and missiles and those dropped overboard like depth charges and naval mines; the idea of ship-borne artillery dates back to the classical era. Julius Caesar indicates the use of ship-borne catapults against Britons ashore in his Commentarii de Bello Gallico; the dromons of the Byzantine Empire carried fire-throwers. From the late Middle Ages onwards, warships began to carry cannon of various calibres; the Battle of Arnemuiden, fought between England and France in 1338 at the start of the Hundred Years' War, was the first recorded European naval battle using artillery. The English ship Christopher was armed with one hand gun. By the 15th century most Mediterranean powers were utilising heavy cannon mounted on the bow or stern of a vessel and designed to bombard fortresses on shore.
By mid-century some vessels carried smaller broadside cannons for bombarding other vessels prior to an attempted boarding. These small guns were anti-personnel weapons and were fired at point blank range to accompany engagement with muskets or bows. From the 1470s both the Portuguese and Venetian navies were experimenting with cannons as anti-ship weapons. King John II of Portugal, while still a prince in 1474, is credited with pioneering the introduction of a reinforced deck on the old Henry-era caravel to allow the mounting of heavy guns for this purpose; these were wrought iron breech-loading weapons known as basilisks, but by the early fifteenth century the navies of the Mediterranean had universally adopted lighter and more accurate muzzleloaders, cast in bronze and capable of firing balls or stones weighing up to 60 lb. In 1489 John of Portugal further contributed to the development of naval artillery by establishing the first standardized teams of trained naval gunners; the 16th century was an era of transition in naval warfare.
Since ancient times, war at sea had been fought much like that on land: with melee weapons and bows and arrows, but on floating wooden platforms rather than battlefields. Though the introduction of guns was a significant change, it only changed the dynamics of ship-to-ship combat; as guns became heavier and able to take more powerful gunpowder charges, they needed to be placed lower in the ship, closer to the water line. Although some 16th-century galleys mounted broadside cannon, they did so at the expense of rowing positions which sacrificed speed and mobility. Most early cannon were still placed in the forecastle and aftercastle of a ship where they might be conveniently pointed in any direction. Early naval artillery was an antipersonnel weapon to deter boarders, because cannon powerful enough to damage ships were heavy enough to destabilize any ship mounting them in an elevated castle. Throughout the century, naval artillery was the single greatest advantage the Portuguese held over their rivals in the Indian Ocean, the Portuguese crown spared no expense in procuring and producing the best naval guns European technology permitted.
Being a crown industry, cost considerations did not curb the pursuit of the best quality, best innovations and best training. The crown paid wage premiums and bonuses to lure the best European artisans and gunners to advance the industry in Portugal; every cutting-edge innovation introduced elsewhere was appropriated into Portuguese naval artillery – that includes bronze cannon, breech-loading swivel-guns, truck carriages, the idea of cutting square gunports in the hull to allow heavy cannon to be mounted below deck. In this respect, the Portuguese spearheaded the evolution of modern naval warfare, moving away from the medieval warship, a carrier of armed men, aiming for the grapple, towards the modern idea of a floating artillery piece dedicated to resolving battles by gunnery alone. Gun ports cut in the hull of ships were introduced as early as 1501 in France, as early as before 1496 in some Mediterranean navies, in 1490 in Portugal, about a decade before the famous Tudor era ship, the Mary Rose, was built.
This made broadsides, coordinated volleys from all the guns on one side of a ship, possible for the first time in history, at least in theory. Ships, such as Mary Rose, carried a mixture of cannon of different types and sizes, many designed for land use, using incompatible ammunition at different ranges and rates of fire; the Mary Rose, like other ships of the time, was built during a period of rapid development of heavy artillery, her armament was a mix of old designs and innovations. The heavy armament was a mix of older-type wrought iron and cast bronze guns, which differed in size and design; the large iron guns were made up of staves or bars welded into cylinders and reinforced by shrinking iron hoops and breech loaded, from the back, equipped with simpler gun-carriages made from hollowed-out elm logs with only one pair of wheels, or without wheels entirely. The bronze guns were cast in one piece and rested on four-wheel carriages which were the same as those used until the 19th century.
The breech-loaders were cheaper to produce and both easier and faster to reload, but could take less powerful charges than cast bronze guns. The bronze guns used cast iron shot and were more suited to penetrate hull sides while the iron guns used stone shot that would shatter on impact and leave large, jagged holes, but both coul
Iran called Persia, the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th most populous country. Comprising a land area of 1,648,195 km2, it is the second largest country in the Middle East and the 17th largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, to the west by Turkey and Iraq; the country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE, it was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history.
The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE; the Islamization of Iran led to the decline of Zoroastrianism, by the country's dominant religion, Iran's major contributions to art and science spread within the Muslim rule during the Islamic Golden Age. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were conquered by the Seljuq Turks and the Ilkhanate Mongols; the rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses.
The Iranian Constitutional Revolution in the early 20th century led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing Western political influence. Subsequent widespread dissatisfaction and unrest against the monarchy led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for eight years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides; the sovereign state of Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy.
The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage sites, the third largest number in Asia and 11th largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians, Azeris and Lurs. Organizations including Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch have criticized Iran's women's rights record; the term Iran derives directly from Middle Persian Ērān, first attested in a third-century inscription at Rustam Relief, with the accompanying Parthian inscription using the term Aryān, in reference to the Iranians. The Middle Iranian ērān and aryān are oblique plural forms of gentilic nouns ēr- and ary-, both deriving from Proto-Iranian *arya-, recognized as a derivative of Proto-Indo-European *ar-yo-, meaning "one who assembles". In the Iranian languages, the gentilic is attested as a self-identifier, included in ancient inscriptions and the literature of the Avesta, remains in other Iranian ethnic names Alan and Iron.
Iran has been referred to as Persia by the West, due to the writings of Greek historians who referred to all of Iran as Persís, meaning "land of the Persians", while Persis itself was one of the provinces of ancient Iran, today defined as Fars. As the most extensive interaction the Ancient Greeks had with any outsider was with the Persians, the term persisted long after the Greco-Persian Wars. In 1935, Reza Shah requested the international community to refer to the country by its native name, effective March 22 that year; as The New York Times explained at the time, "At the suggestion of the Persian Legation in Berlin, the Tehran government, on the Persian New Year, March 21, 1935, substituted Iran for Persia as the official name of the country." Opposition to the name change led to the reversal of the decision, Professor Ehsan Yarshater, editor of Encyclopædia Iranica, propagated a move to use Persia and Iran interchangeably. Today, both Iran and Persia are used in cultural contexts, while Iran remains irreplaceab
Gepard-class fast attack craft
The Type 143A Gepard class was a class of missile bearing fast attack craft and the last one in service with the German Navy before the remaining four operational ships were decommissioned on 16 November 2016. It is an evolution of the Albatros class, the main difference being the replacement of the second 76 mm gun by the RAM system, it is planned that Gepard-class vessels will be supplemented by Braunschweig-class corvettes and to be replaced by a new class of corvettes in the 2020s. The ships in class are named after small to medium-sized predatory animals; the "S" and the number are part of the ship's full name. When the ships were first commissioned, their designation included only the number. Since 1 July 2006, all ships had formed part of the 7. Schnellbootgeschwader, whereas for the eight years prior the flotilla was split into 2. Schnellbootgeschwader, 7. Schnellbootgeschwader; the squadron was stationed in Warnemünde. "Schnellboot GEPARD-Klasse". German Navy. Retrieved 10 July 2013
The P-15 Termit is an anti-ship missile developed by the Soviet Union's Raduga design bureau in the 1950s. Its GRAU designation was 4K40, its NATO reporting name was Styx or SS-N-2. China acquired the design in 1958 and created at least four versions: the CSS-N-1 Scrubbrush and CSS-N-2 versions were developed for ship-launched operation, while the CSS-C-2 Silkworm and CSS-C-3 Seersucker were used for coastal defence. Other names for this basic type of missile include: HY-1, SY-1, FL-1 Flying Dragon. North Korean local produced KN-1 or KN-01, derived from both Silkworm variants and Russian & URSS P-15, Rubezh, P-20 P-22. Despite its massive size, thousands of P-15s were built and installed on many classes of ships from MTBs to destroyers, as well as coastal batteries and bombers; the P-15 was quite successful in the conflicts. The P-15 was not the first anti-ship missile in Soviet service; the SS-N-1 was a powerful but rather raw system, it was superseded by the SS-N-3 Shaddock. This weapon was fitted to 4,000-ton Kynda class cruisers and replaced an initial plan for 30,000-ton battlecruisers armed with 305mm and 45mm guns.
Rather than rely on a few heavy and costly ships, a new weapons system was designed to fit smaller, more numerous vessels, while maintaining sufficient striking power. The P-15 was developed by the Soviet designer Beresyniak, who helped in the development of the BI rocket interceptor; the first variant was the P-15, with fixed wings. The basic design of the missile, retained for all subsequent versions, featured a cylindrical body, a rounded nose, two delta wings in the center and three control surfaces in the tail, it was fitted with a solid-fuelled booster under the belly. This design was based on the Yak-1000 experimental fighter built in 1951; the weapon was meant to be cheap, but at the same time capable of giving an ordinary missile boat the same'punch' as a battleship's salvo. The onboard electronics were based on a simple analog design, with a homing conical scanning radar sensor, it used a more reliable rocket engine with acid fuel in preference to a turbojet. Some shortcomings were never solved, due to the liquid propellant of the rocket engine: the acid fuel corroded the missile fuselage.
Launches were not possible outside a temperature range of -15/+38C°. The missile weighed around 2,340 kg, had a range of 40 km; the explosive warhead was behind the fuel tank, as the missile retained a large amount of unburned fuel at the time of impact at maximum range, it acted as an incendiary device. The warhead itself was a 500 kg hollow charge, larger than the semi-armour piercing warhead typical of anti-ship missiles; the launch was made with the help of electronic support measures gear and Garpun radar at a range of between 5.5 and 27 km due to the limitations of the targeting system. The Garpun's range against a destroyer was about 20 km; the onboard sensor was activated at 11 km from impact, the missile would begin to descend at 1-2° to the target, because the flight pattern was about 120–250m above sea level. In minimum range engagements there was the possibility of using active sensors at shorter distances, as little as 2.75 km. The P-15U was introduced in 1965, with improved avionics and folding wings, enabling the use of smaller containers.
It was replaced by the P-15M in 1972, a further development of the P-15U, with enhanced capabilities. RussiaIn total, the P-15 family had the following models: P-15: A basic with I-band, a conical search sensor and 40 km range. P-15M:, heavier and longer than the P-15, it had a range of several minor improvements. P-15MC: Essentially a P-15M, coupled with a Bulgarian-made electronic countermeasure package for that country's navy. P-20: A P-15 updated with the new guidance system but with the original shorter range, they were known as SS-N2 B and used by Komar and Osa class boats. P-20K: A P-15M with a new guidance system. P-20M: A surface version of the P-20L with folding wings; this was the definitive version of the P-15M with radar guidance. P-22 other development of or along P-20, it had a fuselage of 75 -- a mass of over 2 tonnes. This is comparable to the 600 -- 35 -- 40 cm of Western missiles. With improved electronics, the warhead reduced to 250 kg and the original rocket engine replaced with a turbojet, this weapon was much improved with a range of over 100 km.
Chinese Silkworm missiles were shore batteries. The Chinese Navy built more than two hundred modified versions of the 183R, the Hegu-class, the Osa-class. Frigates and destroyers were equipped with the missile; some were exported and they were used in shore batteries built for North Korea and Iran. The Soviet Union developed the P-120 Malakhit. SY-1: The original Chinese copy of P-15 as ship-to-ship missile, called as Project 544, designed and assembled by Nanchang Aerocraft Factory from 1960