"Fat Man" was the codename for the nuclear bomb, detonated over the Japanese city of Nagasaki by the United States on 9 August 1945. It was the second of the only two nuclear weapons used in warfare, the first being Little Boy, its detonation marked the third nuclear explosion in history, it was built by scientists and engineers at Los Alamos Laboratory using plutonium from the Hanford Site, it was dropped from the Boeing B-29 Superfortress Bockscar piloted by Major Charles Sweeney. The name Fat Man refers to the early design of the bomb because it had a round shape. Fat Man was an implosion-type nuclear weapon with a solid plutonium core; the first of that type to be detonated was the Gadget in the Trinity nuclear test less than a month earlier on 16 July at the Alamogordo Bombing and Gunnery Range in New Mexico. Two more were detonated during the Operation Crossroads nuclear tests at Bikini Atoll in 1946, some 120 were produced between 1947 and 1949, when it was superseded by the Mark 4 nuclear bomb.
The Fat Man was retired in 1950. Robert Oppenheimer held conferences in Chicago in June 1942, prior to the Army taking over wartime atomic research, in Berkeley, California, in July, at which various engineers and physicists discussed nuclear bomb design issues, they chose a gun-type design in which two sub-critical masses would be brought together by firing a "bullet" into a "target". Richard C. Tolman suggested an implosion-type nuclear weapon; the feasibility of a plutonium bomb was questioned in 1942. Wallace Akers, the director of the British "Tube Alloys" project, told James Bryant Conant on 14 November that James Chadwick had "concluded that plutonium might not be a practical fissionable material for weapons because of impurities." Conant consulted Ernest Lawrence and Arthur Compton, who acknowledged that their scientists at Berkeley and Chicago knew about the problem, but they could offer no ready solution. Conant informed Manhattan Project director Brigadier General Leslie R. Groves Jr. who in turn assembled a special committee consisting of Lawrence, Oppenheimer, McMillan to examine the issue.
The committee concluded that any problems could be overcome by requiring higher purity. Oppenheimer reviewed his options in early 1943 and gave priority to the gun-type weapon, but he created the E-5 Group at the Los Alamos Laboratory under Seth Neddermeyer to investigate implosion as a hedge against the threat of pre-detonation. Implosion-type bombs were determined to be more efficient in terms of explosive yield per unit mass of fissile material in the bomb, because compressed fissile materials react more and therefore more completely. Nonetheless, it was decided that the plutonium gun would receive the bulk of the research effort, since it was the project with the least amount of uncertainty involved, it was assumed that the uranium gun-type bomb could be adapted from it. The gun-type and implosion-type designs were codenamed "Thin Man" and "Fat Man" respectively; these code names were created by Robert Serber, a former student of Oppenheimer's who worked on the Manhattan Project. He chose them based on their design shapes.
The Fat Man was round and fat and was named after Sydney Greenstreet's character in The Maltese Falcon. Little Boy came last as a variation of Thin Man. Neddermeyer discarded Serber and Tolman's initial concept of implosion as assembling a series of pieces in favor of one in which a hollow sphere was imploded by an explosive shell, he was assisted in this work by Hugh Bradner, Charles Critchfield, John Streib. L. T. E. Thompson was brought in as a consultant, discussed the problem with Neddermeyer in June 1943. Thompson was skeptical. Oppenheimer arranged for Neddermeyer and Edwin McMillan to visit the National Defense Research Committee's Explosives Research Laboratory near the laboratories of the Bureau of Mines in Bruceton, where they spoke to George Kistiakowsky and his team, but Neddermeyer's efforts in July and August at imploding tubes to produce cylinders tended to produce objects that resembled rocks. Neddermeyer was the only person who believed that implosion was practical, only his enthusiasm kept the project alive.
Oppenheimer brought John von Neumann to Los Alamos in September 1943 to take a fresh look at implosion. After reviewing Neddermeyer's studies, discussing the matter with Edward Teller, von Neumann suggested the use of high explosives in shaped charges to implode a sphere, which he showed could not only result in a faster assembly of fissile material than was possible with the gun method, but which could reduce the amount of material required, because of the resulting higher density; the idea that, under such pressures, the plutonium metal itself would be compressed came from Teller, whose knowledge of how dense metals behaved under heavy pressure was influenced by his pre-war theoretical studies of the Earth's core with George Gamow. The prospect of more-efficient nuclear weapons impressed Oppenheimer and Hans Bethe, but they decided that an expert on explosives would be required. Kistiakowsky's name was suggested, Kistiakowsky was brought into the project as a consultant in October 1943; the implosion project remained a backup until April 1944, when experiments by Emilio G. Segrè and his P-5 Group at Los Alamos on the newly reactor-produced plutonium from the X-10 Graphite Reactor at Oak Ridge and the B Reactor at the Hanford site showed that it contained impurities in the form of the isotope plutonium-240
Jessica McCaskill is an American professional boxer. She is a current unified world champion, having held the WBC female super lightweight title since 2018, the WBA super lightweight title since May 2019, she challenged for the WBA lightweight title in 2017. As of November 2019, McCaskill is ranked as the world's second best active super lightweight, sixth best pound for pound female fighter by BoxRec. Native to St. Louis, McCaskill and her brother were raised by her grandmother; when she divorced, McCaskill had to look for shelter in the back of a local church. In 2012 McCaskill moved to Chicago and started working as an investment banker moonlighting as a boxer. McCaskill started boxing in 2008, just for fitness, had her first amateur bout in April 2009. After climbing the ranks, she won the 2010 Golden Gloves award. With a 17–1 amateur record, McCaskill won the Golden Glove Championship belts in 2014 and 2015. McCaskill made her professional debut on August 22, 2015 with a technical knockout victory against Tyrea Nichole Duncan at the Horseshoe Casino in Hammond, Indiana.
In November 2016, McCaskill was signed by Warriors Boxing. After fighting local boxers, McCaskill challenged Irish Olympic gold-medal boxer Katie Taylor for the WBA female lightweight title, she was defeated by Taylor via unanimous decision, in a fight held at the York Hall in London on December 13, 2017. On October 6, 2018, McCaskill defeated two-weight world champion Érica Farías for the WBC female super lightweight title at the Wintrust Arena in Chicago, winning her first world title by unanimous decision, with the judges' scorecards reading 98–92, 97–93 and 96–94. McCaskill retained her WBC title and won the WBA female super lightweight title against Anahí Esther Sánchez via unanimous decision in a bout held at the MGM National Harbor in Oxon Hill, Maryland on May 25, 2019. On October 12, 2019, McCaskill defended her unified titles in a rematch against Érica Farías at the Wintrust Arena in Chicago, she retained her titles with a Majority decision win, with two judges scoring the bout 97–91 and 96–92 in favour of McCaskill, the third scoring it a draw at 94–94.
McCaskill is managed by Warriors Boxing. Professional boxing record for Jessica McCaskill from BoxRec
The herons are long-legged freshwater and coastal birds in the family Ardeidae, with 64 recognised species, some of which are referred to as egrets or bitterns rather than herons. Members of the genera Botaurus and Ixobrychus are referred to as bitterns, together with the zigzag heron, or zigzag bittern, in the monotypic genus Zebrilus, form a monophyletic group within the Ardeidae. Egrets are not a biologically distinct group from the herons, tend to be named differently because they are white or have decorative plumes in breeding plumage. Herons, by evolutionary adaptation, have long beaks; the classification of the individual heron/egret species is fraught with difficulty, no clear consensus exists about the correct placement of many species into either of the two major genera and Egretta. The relationships of the genera in the family are not resolved. However, one species considered to constitute a separate monotypic family, the Cochlearidae or the boat-billed heron, is now regarded as a member of the Ardeidae.
Although herons resemble birds in some other families, such as the storks, ibises and cranes, they differ from these in flying with their necks retracted, not outstretched. They are one of the bird groups that have powder down; some members of this group nest colonially in trees, while others, notably the bitterns, use reed beds. The herons are medium - to large-sized birds with long necks, they exhibit little sexual dimorphism in size. The smallest species is considered the dwarf bittern, which measures 25–30 cm in length, although all the species in the genus Ixobrychus are small and many broadly overlap in size; the largest species of heron is the goliath heron. The necks are able to kink in an S-shape, due to the modified shape of the cervical vertebrae, of which they have 20–21; the neck is able to retract and extend and is retracted during flight, unlike most other long-necked birds. The neck is longer in the day herons than the night bitterns; the legs are long and strong and in every species are unfeathered from the lower part of the tibia.
In-flight, the legs and feet are held backwards. The feet of herons have long, thin toes, with three forward-pointing ones and one pointing backwards; the bill is long and harpoon-like. It can vary from fine, as in the agami heron, to thick as in the grey heron; the most atypical bill is owned by the boat-billed heron, which has a thick bill. The bill, as well as other bare parts of the body, is yellow, black, or brown in colour, although this can vary during the breeding season; the wings are broad and long, exhibiting 10 or 11 primary feathers, 15–20 secondaries. and 12 rectrices. The feathers of the herons are soft and the plumage is blue, brown, grey, or white, can be strikingly complex. Amongst the day herons, little sexual dimorphism in plumage is seen. Many species have different colour morphs. In the Pacific reef heron, both dark and light colour morphs exist, the percentage of each morph varies geographically. White morphs only occur in areas with coral beaches; the herons are a widespread family with a cosmopolitan distribution.
They exist on all continents except Antarctica, are present in most habitats except the coldest extremes of the Arctic high mountains, the driest deserts. All species are associated with water, they are predominantly found in lowland areas, although some species live in alpine areas, the majority of species occurs in the tropics. The herons are a mobile family, with most species being at least migratory; some species are migratory, for example, the grey heron, sedentary in Britain, but migratory in Scandinavia. Birds are inclined to disperse after breeding, but before the annual migration, where the species is colonial, searching out new feeding areas and reducing the pressures on feeding grounds near the colony; the migration occurs at night as individuals or in small groups. The herons and bitterns are carnivorous; the members of this family are associated with wetlands and water, feed on a variety of live aquatic prey. Their diet includes a wide variety of aquatic animals, including fish, amphibians, crustaceans and aquatic insects.
Individual species may be generalists or specialise in certain prey types, such as the yellow-crowned night heron, which specialises in crustaceans crabs. Many species opportunistically take larger prey, including birds and bird eggs and more carrion. More herons eating acorns and grains have been reported, but most vegetable matter consumed is accidental; the most common hunting technique is for the bird to sit motionless on the edge of or standing in shallow water and to wait until prey comes within range. Birds may either do this from an upright posture, giving them a wider field of view for seeing prey, or from a crouched position, more cryptic and means the bill is closer to the prey when it is located. Having seen prey, the head is moved from side to side, so that the heron can calculate the position of the prey in the water and compensate for refraction, the bill is used to spear the prey. In addition to sitting and waiting, herons may feed more actively, they may walk around or
Arthur Hermann Florstedt, member of the NSDAP, was a German SS commander, war criminal and convicted war profiteer. He became the third commander of Majdanek concentration camp in October 1942. Florstedt was convicted of corruption and executed by the regime in April 1945. Florstedt joined the SS in 1933 achieving the rank of Standartenführer in 1938, he served at the Sachsenhausen concentration camp from 1940 till 1942. He was appointed the third chief of Majdanek extermination camp in October 1942 to replace SS-Sturmbannführer Max Koegel. Florstedt was investigated by SS Judge Georg Konrad Morgen and charged by the Schutzstaffel with embezzlement and arbitrary killing of prisoner witnesses. Florstedt was one of two Majdanek commandants put on trial by the SS in the course of the camp operation, he was charged with corruption. These valuables were processed at Majdanek, he was replaced by the interim commander Martin Gottfried Weiss. Florstedt was executed by the SS on 15 April 1945
Emily Charlotte Meynell Ingram was a British artist and the last resident of Temple Newsam House, Leeds. She was the daughter of 1st Viscount Halifax. Born Emily Charlotte Wood, she was the second eldest of six children born to Sir Charles Woods and Lady Mary Woods; the Woods family were an old gentry family. They reached this level of respectability through the discovery of coal on their ancestral estate. In addition to this Sir Charles Woods had a successful political career, owning many seats in Garrowby and Pocklington near York, she spent her childhood between Hickleton and London, in her diaries she described herself as a "joyous and head strong spirit". In according to J. G Lockhart her brothers colleague and biographer described her as being clever, capable but spoilt by her father making it hard for to interact with strangers as she could be difficult and dictatorial She was involved in her fathers political career As a child she would visit Buckingham palace, she was friends with princess Victoria and Louise visiting for them to play together.
She was close to her older brother Charles, whom she would rely on after the passing of her husband in 1871. In 1864 she married Hugo Meynell-Ingram, the last surviving descendant of Sir Arthur Ingram, he was eighteen years older than her and they met at through a mutual friend whilst Emily was visiting Chiswick. They came from two politically different houses the Woods, Emily's side of the family were Whig's. Whereas Hugo Meynell-Ingrams family were Tory. Once Emily and Hugo were married they spent most of their married lives at Hoar Cross in Staffordshire, using Temple Newsam as a place to stay when they went hunting. Hoar Cross was built for the married couple by Henry Clutton in 1862; when her husband died in 1871 from a hunting accident, she became a widow and childless at the age of 31 after 8 years of marriage. She was devastated by her husbands death, to commemorate his memory she built a church near Hoar Cross Hall. Known as Hoar Cross Holy Angels Church, she inherited all of wealth. After losing her husband she came to rely on her family, with her younger brother and his wife who moved into Temple Newsam with her.
In addition to this, she found great comfort in her Anglo-Catholic faith, spending time and money building new churches in memory of her husband and investing in charitable institutions. During this period of mourning Emily Ingram devoted her time to renovating and improving Temple Newsam, she spent time to Improving the Jacobean features of the house, between 1877-1900 the Library became a Chapel, she Jacobean-ised the Great Hall adding a grand oak staircase. Emily was an ardent lover of a practising artist. In her prime she was an accomplished sketcher and water colourist, with most of her work being passed down through the Meynell-Ingram descendants, she had acquired a large collection from the 17th century. Coincidentally, prior to owning the collection, in a letter to her brother on 5th of June 1860 she wrote about her love of 17th Century art and how she hoped to own some paintings of her own from the period. Due to the values of the time and her religious beliefs any pieces in her collection which were thought to be distasteful or erotic were either disposed of or cleaned up concealing any offensive elements.
In addition to all the estates and wealth Emily inherited from her marriage, she became the proud owner of the a 360-ton schooner with a full-time crew of over thirty people. She would take the yacht sailing for a few weeks every year travelling through Europe and Mediterranean, she would bringing back artefacts from her travels for her homes or churches. Through her inheritance, charity work and renovations, Emily Ingram became one of the richest and most independent women in the country. Throwing lavish dinners and shooting parties. One highlight of her social career was hosting King George V and Queen Mary in 1894 on their official visit to Leeds. Emily Charlotte Meynell-Ingram died in 1904 at Temple Newsam House, her funeral was held at Hoar Cross Hall and was buried next to her husband at Hoar Cross Holy Angels Church. Since ahe and Hugo did not have any children, the Meynell-Ingram estates and wealth were passed down to her nephew. Today Temple Newsam House is maintained by Leeds City Council under Leeds Galleries.
Hoar Cross Hall is now a spa resort with parts of the grounds being used a car park. Emily Ingram was a well known and prominent Anglo-catholic, her family were involved in the Anglo-catholic religion and church, her Brother Charles Lindley Wood was the president of the English Church Union from 1868 to 1919. Between 1972-1876, Emily Ingram had the Hoar Cross church of Holy angels built in remembrance of her husband. Within the church there is a chapel containing two marble effigies, she hired the architect George Fredrick Bodley to build the church and was in charge of the furnishing within it. The church is decorated with marble flooring, screens and a front cover. Emily added several souvenirs from her travels, she commissioned the buildings of the churches St Edwards in Holbeck and Altofts using her own expenses. Additionally, she was involved in the restoration of churches in Laughton. Being a devoted Anglo Catholic she wo
Bohumil Mořkovský was a Czech gymnast who competed for Czechoslovakia in the 1924 Summer Olympics. He was died in Valašské Meziříčí, Moravia, he died less than a month. In 1924 he won a bronze medal in the vault competition. At the 1924 Summer Olympics he participated in the following events: Rings - sixth place Individual all-around - 13th place Parallel bars - 13th place Rope climbing - 18th place Sidehorse vault - 23rd place Pommel horse - 31st place Horizontal bar - 41st place Team all-around - did not finish In 2019, the Czech Postal System issued a postcard commemorating Mořkovský. Although a kind gesture, it raises questions, considering that Mořkovský's only Olympic medal was only a bronze in an individual apparatus final. Many other more accomplished Czech gymnasts have not received such commemoration. Additionally, the commemoration raises interest because a likeness of two-time Olympic Gymnastics Rings Champion Albert Azaryan was erroneously used to depict Mořkovský. Profile