A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission or from a combination of fission and fusion reactions. Both bomb types release large quantities of energy from small amounts of matter; the first test of a fission bomb released an amount of energy equal to 20,000 tons of TNT. The first thermonuclear bomb test released energy equal to 10 million tons of TNT. A thermonuclear weapon weighing little more than 2,400 pounds can release energy equal to more than 1.2 million tons of TNT. A nuclear device no larger than traditional bombs can devastate an entire city by blast and radiation. Since they are weapons of mass destruction, the proliferation of nuclear weapons is a focus of international relations policy. Nuclear weapons have been used twice in war, both times by the United States against Japan near the end of World War II. On August 6, 1945, the U. S. Army Air Forces detonated a uranium gun-type fission bomb nicknamed "Little Boy" over the Japanese city of Hiroshima.
S. Army Air Forces detonated a plutonium implosion-type fission bomb nicknamed "Fat Man" over the Japanese city of Nagasaki; these bombings caused injuries that resulted in the deaths of 200,000 civilians and military personnel. The ethics of these bombings and their role in Japan's surrender are subjects of debate. Since the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, nuclear weapons have been detonated over two thousand times for testing and demonstration. Only a few nations are suspected of seeking them; the only countries known to have detonated nuclear weapons—and acknowledge possessing them—are the United States, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, China, India and North Korea. Israel is believed to possess nuclear weapons, though, in a policy of deliberate ambiguity, it does not acknowledge having them. Germany, Turkey and the Netherlands are nuclear weapons sharing states. South Africa is the only country to have independently developed and renounced and dismantled its nuclear weapons.
The Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons aims to reduce the spread of nuclear weapons, but its effectiveness has been questioned, political tensions remained high in the 1970s and 1980s. Modernisation of weapons continues to this day. There are two basic types of nuclear weapons: those that derive the majority of their energy from nuclear fission reactions alone, those that use fission reactions to begin nuclear fusion reactions that produce a large amount of the total energy output. All existing nuclear weapons derive some of their explosive energy from nuclear fission reactions. Weapons whose explosive output is from fission reactions are referred to as atomic bombs or atom bombs; this has long been noted as something of a misnomer, as their energy comes from the nucleus of the atom, just as it does with fusion weapons. In fission weapons, a mass of fissile material is forced into supercriticality—allowing an exponential growth of nuclear chain reactions—either by shooting one piece of sub-critical material into another or by compression of a sub-critical sphere or cylinder of fissile material using chemically-fueled explosive lenses.
The latter approach, the "implosion" method, is more sophisticated than the former. A major challenge in all nuclear weapon designs is to ensure that a significant fraction of the fuel is consumed before the weapon destroys itself; the amount of energy released by fission bombs can range from the equivalent of just under a ton to upwards of 500,000 tons of TNT. All fission reactions generate the remains of the split atomic nuclei. Many fission products are either radioactive or moderately radioactive, as such, they are a serious form of radioactive contamination. Fission products are the principal radioactive component of nuclear fallout. Another source of radioactivity is the burst of free neutrons produced by the weapon; when they collide with other nuclei in surrounding material, the neutrons transmute those nuclei into other isotopes, altering their stability and making them radioactive. The most used fissile materials for nuclear weapons applications have been uranium-235 and plutonium-239.
Less used has been uranium-233. Neptunium-237 and some isotopes of americium may be usable for nuclear explosives as well, but it is not clear that this has been implemented, their plausible use in nuclear weapons is a matter of dispute; the other basic type of nuclear weapon produces a large proportion of its energy in nuclear fusion reactions. Such fusion weapons are referred to as thermonuclear weapons or more colloquially as hydrogen bombs, as they rely on fusion reactions between isotopes of hydrogen. All such weapons derive a significant portion of their energy from fission reactions used to "trigger" fusion reactions, fusion reactions can themselves trigger additional fission reactions. Only six countries—United States, United Kingdom, China and India—have conducted thermonuclear weapon tests. North Korea claims to have tested a fusion weapon as of January 2016. Thermonuclear weapons are
In political and sociological theory, the elite are a small group of powerful people who hold a disproportionate amount of wealth, political power, or skill in a society. Defined by the Cambridge Dictionary, the "elite" are "those people or organizations that are considered the best or most powerful compared to others of a similar type."Mills states that the power elite members recognize other members' mutual exalted position in society. "As a rule,'they accept one another, understand one another, marry one another, tend to work, to think, if not together at least alike'." "It is a well-regulated existence. Youthful upper-class members attend prominent preparatory schools, which not only open doors to such elite universities as Harvard, Dartmouth College and Princeton, but to the universities' exclusive clubs; these memberships in turn pave the way to the prominent social clubs located in all major cities and serving as sites for important business contacts". According to Mills, men receive the education necessary for elitist privilege to obtain their background and contacts, allowing them to enter three branches of the power elite, which are.
The Military Circle: In Mills' time a heightened concern about warfare existed, making top military leaders and such issues as defense funding and personnel recruitment important. Most prominent corporate leaders and politicians were strong proponents of military spending; the Corporate Elite: According to Mills, in the 1950s when the military emphasis was pronounced, it was corporate leaders working with prominent military officers who dominated the development of policies. These two groups tended to be mutually supportive. According to Mills, the governing elite in the United States draws its members from political leaders, including the president, a handful of key cabinet members, as well as close advisers, major corporate owners and directors, high-ranking military officers; these groups overlap and elites tend to circulate from one sector to another, consolidating power in the process. Unlike the ruling class, a social formation based on heritage and social ties, the power elite is characterized by the organizational structures through which its wealth is acquired.
According to Mills, the power elite rose from "the managerial reorganization of the propertied classes into the more or less unified stratum of the corporate rich". Domhoff further clarified the differences in the two terms: "The upper class as a whole does not do the ruling. Instead, class rule is manifested through the activities of a wide variety of organizations and institutions... Leaders within the upper class join with high-level employees in the organizations they control to make up what will be called the power elite"; the Marxist theoretician Nikolai Bukharin anticipated the elite theory in his 1929 work and World Economy: "present-day state power is nothing but an entrepreneurs' company of tremendous power, headed by the same persons that occupy the leading positions in the banking and syndicate offices". The power elite is a term used by American sociologist C. Wright Mills to describe a small, loosely connected group of individuals who dominate American policymaking; this group includes bureaucratic, intellectual, military and government elites who control the principal institutions in the United States and whose opinions and actions influence the decisions of the policymakers.
The basis for membership of a power elite is institutional power, namely an influential position within a prominent private or public organization. A study of the French corporate elite has shown that social class continues to hold sway in determining who joins this elite group, with those from the upper-middle class tending to dominate. Another study of power elites in the United States under President George W. Bush identified 7,314 institutional positions of power encompassing 5,778 individuals. A study of U. S. society noted demographic characteristics of this elite group as follows: Age Corporate leaders aged about 60. Gender Men contribute 80% in the political realm whereas women contribute only 20% in the political realm. In the economic denomination, as of October 2017, only 32 of the Fortune 500 CEOs are women. Ethnicity White Anglo-Saxons dominate in the power elite, with Protestants representing about 80% of the top business leaders, about 73% of members of Congress; as of October 2017, only 4 of the Fortune 500 CEOs are African American.
In low proportions, as of October 2017, 10 of the Fortune 500 CEOs are Latino, 10 are Asian. Education Nearly all the leaders have a college education, with half graduating with advanced degrees. About 54% of the big-business leaders, 42% of the government elite graduated from just 12 prestigious universities with large endowments. Social clubs Most holders of top positions in the power elite possess exclusive membership to one or more social clubs. About a third belong to a small number of prestigious clubs in major cities like London, New York City, Chicago and Washington, D. C. In the 1970s an organized set of policies promoted reduced taxes for the wealthy, a steady erosion of the welfare safety net. Starting with legislation in the 1980s, the wealthy banking c
Rice Memorial High School is a coeducational Roman Catholic secondary and college preparatory school in South Burlington, Vermont. It is located in the Roman Catholic Diocese of Burlington; the student body is drawn from Northern and Central Vermont but includes other students including international students. The school and buildings were named for Bishop Joseph Rice who had established Cathedral High School in 1917. Base tuition per student, which excludes certain additional fees that apply such as $150 registration fee, $200 student activity fee, has been set at $10,865 for 2019-2020, it was opened on February 1959 by Bishop Robert Joyce. Previous to this the school was known as Cathedral High School, founded in 1917, was located in Burlington, Vermont. Rice Memorial High School was built to replace the decaying building of Cathedral High School. On the day it became Rice Memorial High School, 900 students marched from the old Cathedral High School to the new high school; the school recognizes the graduates of both schools, Cathedral/Rice, as a "joint" alumni.
Boys' basketball had a 54-6 record from the fall season of 2007 through January 2009. Its only losses were to Burlington High School. Burlington's only loss since the 2007 season had been to Rice, in the 2009 State Championship They played Burlington High School in consecutive seasons, 2007-09, for the Vermont State Division I championship's, winning in 2007-09. From 2007-14, the boys' basketball team played in 7 out of 8 finals. In 2009, a fire caused damage to the gymnasium; the school is accredited by the New England Association of Colleges. The student body has 400 students 2/3 of whom are Catholic. 21 courses are offered in the Advanced Placement programs. In 2006, 64% of students scored 3 or higher on Advanced Placement exams; the average SAT score is 1799. 96% of students are accepted into four-year colleges. The average faculty member has 17 years experience, 68% of the faculty have advanced degrees. Msgr. Wendell Searles Rev. Roland Rivard 1975-1982 Rev. Ronald Soutiere 1982 Mr. John Lemon 1982 Mr. Phillip Soltau 1982-1984 Bro.
John Collignon 1984-1994 Bro. Roger Lemoyne 1994-1998 Mr. John McCarthy 1998-2003 Dr. Alan Crowley 2003-2006 Msgr. Bernie Bourgeois 2006-2016 Sister Laura Della Santa 2016-2017 Lisa Lorenz 2017-present About 80% of the students participate in interscholastic athletics. There are 32 athletic teams that compete in 17 different sports; the school's prime rival is cross-town Burlington High School. Rice Memorial's mascot is the Green Knight. State Championships: Division II Boys' Golf Division I Boys' Ice Hockey Division I Girls' Soccer Division I Boys' Baseball 1964, 2014, 2015) Division I Boys' Basketball Division I Girls' Basketball Division I Boys' Tennis Division I Girls' Tennis Division II Boys' Soccer Division II Girls' Track & Field Division II Girls' Soccer Division II Boys' Track Division II Football Division III Football Division II Boys' Lacrosse Division III Boys' Swimming Division I Scholar's Bowl Division II Field Hockey Division III Field Hockey Division II Girls' Lacrosse Division II Girls' Indoor Track Division II Boys' Indoor Track Dan Chiasson and poet Keith Cieplicki and coach Johannah Leddy Donovan, member of the Vermont House of Representatives Michael Hastings and author James P. Leddy, Vermont state senator, 1997-2007 Christina E. Nolan, United States Attorney for Vermont William Sorrell, Vermont Attorney General, 1997-2017 Elizabeth M. Ready, Vermont Auditor of Accounts, 2001-2005
Amalia Fuentes was a Filipino actress who reigned as a "Movie Queen" in the 1960s and 1970s. She was once dubbed as the "Elizabeth Taylor of the Philippines", she was the mother of actress Liezl Martinez. She was the first Filipino Lux Soap model, she starred in her own films in the 1960s to the end of the 1970s. Her movies were big moneymakers making her the highest paid movie actress of her generation and a certified Movie and Box Office Queen, she starred in productions by Viva Films, together with Sharon Cuneta, Gabby Concepcion and Jackie Lou Blanco. She starred in Regal Films such as Asawa Ko Huwag Mong Agawin, starring Vilma Santos, Eddie Guttierrez and Gabby Concepcion. In 1956, Fuentes and fellow actor Juancho Gutierrez won Sampaguita Pictures' Mr. & Ms. Number One contest. Sampaguita Pictures launched Juancho into full stardom in the 1956 film Movie Fan, they were paired as a "love team" – popular in Philippine cinema – by Sampaguita Pictures, both starred in Rodora, Pakiusap, Ang Senyorito at Ang Atsay among others.
She was paired as love team with Romeo Vasquez in Pretty Boy, Ako Ang May Sala and Bilanggong Birhen among others. She starred in such notable films as, Estela Mondragon starring Carmen Rosales, Susie, Tessie with Susan Roces, Tessie Agana, Eddie, Lito starring Jose Mari Gonzales, Eddie Gutierrez, Lito Legaspi, Dayukdok with Carmen Rosales, Luis Gonzales, Barbara Perez and Amaliang Mali-Mali with Luis Gonzales. Fuentes wrote the screenplay for the films Tatlong Kasaysayan Ng Pag-ibig, Ito Ang Aming Kasunduan, she directed Mga Reynang Walang Trono. Fuentes has AM Productions, she produced several movies, most notable of which are: Whisper to the Wind, Baril at Rosaryo, Pwede Ako Pwede Ka Pa Ba?. The Philippine Movie Queen's last acting appearance was the ABS CBN hit teleserye Huwag Ka Lang Mawawala with Judy Ann Santos, she won Best Actress Awards from Famas in 1966 for Ibulong Mo Sa Hangin and in the 1973 Manila Film Festival for the movie Pagibig Mo Buhay Ko! Fuentes was a member of Classification Board.
She appeared in more than 130 films. Fuentes was born Amalia Amador Muhlach in Bicol, she was educated in Catholic schools. After retiring from films in 2013, she suffered a stroke while on vacation in South Korea, her father died during the war and as the eldest child, she became the family breadwinner. Her two younger brothers and Alvaro, are actors. Amalia married fellow actor Romeo Vasquez in 1965 in Hong Kong but they separated in 1969, they had Liezl Sumilang. After her divorce from Vasquez, Amalia married Joey Stevens, an American businessman with whom she adopted a son, Geric Stevens, she divorced Stevens after 28 years of marriage. Stevens died in 2012. Fuentes died on October 2019 due to cardiac arrest and multiple organ failures. Prince Charming Movie Fan Rodora Hahabul-Habol Madaling Araw Ipinagbili Ko Ang Aking Anak Kahapon Lamang Isinakdal Ko Ang Aking Ama Joey, Lito Pitong Puso Esperanza at Caridad Mga Daliring Ginto Dream Girl Tatlong Kasaysayan Ng Pag-ibig Baril at Rosaryo Sa Manlulupig Di Ka Pasisiil Gaano Kita Kamahal Kapatid Ko Ang Aking Ina Adriana Mga Batong Buhay Europe Here We Come!
Huwag Mong Angkinin Ang Asawa Ko! Sa Aming Muling Pagkikita Durugin Ang Mga Diyablo Sa Punta Fuego May Lalaki Sa Ilalim Ng Kama Ko Lulubog Lilitaw Sa Ilalim Ng Tulay Isinumpa Ang Boyfriend Kong Baduy Babaing Hiwalay Sa Asawa Huwag Pipitas Ng Bubot Na Bunga Buhay: Ako Sa Itaas, Ikaw Sa Ibaba Pagmamahal Mo Buhay Ko Aguila Dirty Games My Only Love Indecent Exposure Paano Ba Ang Magmahal? Asawa Ko Huwag Mong Agawin Higit Na Matimbang Ang Dugo Reputasyon Kahit Isang Saglit Huwag Ka Lang Mawawala Amalia Fuentes on IMDb
Ally Burnett is an American singer and songwriter best known for song placements on MTV shows such as Jersey Shore, her theme song for the Seinfeld episode "The Seven", her lawsuit against Carly Rae Jepsen and Owl City for their song "Good Time". Before 2010, the solo artist went under the stage name Ally Cupcake. Before breaking off as a solo artist in 2009, Burnett fronted power-pop groups such as Atlanta based band The Soundtrack, her first solo release was her 2009 EP titled Talk of the Town, produced by former A Day to Remember band member Tom Denney. In 2010, Burnett began working with producer Rob Freeman. Together, they created The Takeover EP, released on April 6, 2010. After going under the name Ally Cupcake for several years, she dropped the "Cupcake" and started using her real surname. In December 2010 and January 2011, Burnett released three new singles known as The Heartbreaker Sampler: "Heartbreaker", "It's Not Me" and "If We're Being Honest". In 2012, Burnett released the five-song EP, So Close.
So Far. produced by Rob Freeman. The EP features the anti-bullying song "We're All the Same". In November 2013, Burnett released yet another five-song EP, 27. On November 1, 2012, it was reported that Burnett had begun legal action against singers Carly Rae Jepsen and Adam Young of Owl City, writers Matt Thiessen and Brian Lee, Universal Music Group Inc. Songs Music Publishing LLC, Schoolboy Records Inc. Burnett's lawsuit cited copyright infringement of her song "Ah, It's a Love Song", released on September 7, 2010 as the third track on The Takeover EP; the suit claimed emotional and psychological damage related to "'uninformed fans' asking her why she copied the Carly Rae Jepsen/Owl City song." Jepsen settled but Owl City did not. Burnett's first placement came in 2009, when her song "Trouble Never Looked So Good" was featured on MTV's Paris Hilton: My New Bff. In 2010, Burnett performed the theme song for MTV's The Seven, her songs "Creation of a Monster" and "The Boyfriend Song" were featured on MTV's Jersey Shore season 2, episode 5, "The Letter".
In February 2011, her song, "We Would've Broken Up Once You Heard This Song Anyway", was featured on season three of Jersey Shore episode 7, "Cabs Are Here". Her music has been featured on The Hills and Friendzone; the Seven
The electoral district of Algester is an electoral district of the Legislative Assembly of Queensland in south-west Brisbane. It includes the suburbs of Algester, Hillcrest, Boronia Heights, Larapinta, Forest Lake and Pallara, as well as the Greenbank Military Range, it borders the electoral districts of Sunnybank, Logan, Lockyer and Inala. The Algester electoral district was created at the 1999 redistribution from the former electoral district of Archerfield, was contested for the first time at the 2001 election, it had been a safe seat for the Labor Party since its inception, as had Archerfield, but it was won by Anthony Shorten of the Liberal National Party at the 2012 election. Leeanne Enoch won the seat back for Labor at the 2015 election. Enoch is the first Indigenous Australian woman elected to the Queensland parliament