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Fatalism

Fatalism is a philosophical doctrine that stresses the subjugation of all events or actions to destiny. Fatalism refers to any of the following ideas: The view that we are powerless to do anything other than what we do. Included in this is that humans have no power to influence the future or indeed their own actions; this belief is similar to predeterminism. An attitude of resignation in the face of some future event or events that are thought to be inevitable. Friedrich Nietzsche named this idea "Turkish fatalism" in his book His Shadow; the view that the appropriate reaction to inevitability is acceptance, rather than resistance. This belief is similar to defeatism; some take it to mean determinism. While the terms are used interchangeably, fatalism and predeterminism are discrete in stressing different aspects of the futility of human will or the foreordination of destiny. However, all these doctrines share common ground. Determinists agree that human actions affect the future but that human action is itself determined by a causal chain of prior events.

Their view does not accentuate a "submission" to fate or destiny, whereas fatalists stress an acceptance of future events as inevitable. Determinists believe the future is fixed due to causality. Fatalism is a looser term than determinism; the presence of historical "indeterminisms" or chances, i.e. events that could not be predicted by sole knowledge of other events, is an idea still compatible with fatalism. Necessity will happen just as as a chance—both can be imagined as sovereign; this idea has roots in Aristotle's work, "De interpretatione"Theological fatalism is the thesis that infallible foreknowledge of a human act makes the act necessary and hence unfree. If there is a being who knows the entire future infallibly no human act is free; the philosopher Al Farabi makes the case that if God does in fact know all human actions and choices Aristotle's original solution to this dilemma stands. One famous ancient argument regarding fatalism was the so-called Idle Argument, it argues that if something is fated it would be pointless or futile to make any effort to bring it about.

The Idle Argument was described by Origen and Cicero and it went like this: If it is fated for you to recover from this illness you will recover whether you call a doctor or not. If you are fated not to recover, you will not do so whether you call a doctor or not, but either it is fated that you will recover from this illness, or it is fated that you will not recover. Therefore, it is futile to consult a doctor; the Idle Argument was anticipated by Aristotle in his De Interpretatione chapter 9. The Stoics considered it to be a sophism and the Stoic Chrysippus attempted to refute it by pointing out that consulting the doctor would be as much fated as recovering, he seems to have introduced the idea that in cases like that at issue two events can be co-fated, so that one cannot occur without the other. Which is always the case and the core Idea of Fatalism. No event is a standalone event without a cause; the main argument for logical fatalism goes back to antiquity. This is an argument that depends not on causation or physical circumstances but rather is based on presumed logical truths.

There are numerous versions including those by Aristotle and Richard Taylor. These arguments have been elaborated on with some effect; the key idea of logical fatalism is that there is a body of true propositions about what is going to happen, these are true regardless of when they are made. So, for example, if it is true today that tomorrow there will be a sea battle there cannot fail to be a sea battle tomorrow, since otherwise it would not be true today that such a battle will take place tomorrow; the argument relies on the principle of bivalence: the idea that any proposition is either true or false. As a result of this principle, if it is not false that there will be a sea battle it is true. However, rejecting the principle of bivalence—perhaps by saying that the truth of a proposition regarding the future is indeterminate—is a controversial view since the principle is an accepted part of classical logic. One criticism comes from the novelist David Foster Wallace, who in a 1985 paper "Richard Taylor's Fatalism and the Semantics of Physical Modality" suggests that Taylor reached his conclusion of fatalism only because his argument involved two different and inconsistent notions of impossibility.

Wallace did not reject fatalism per se, as he wrote in his closing passage, "if Taylor and the fatalists want to force upon us a metaphysical conclusion, they must do metaphysics, not semantics. And this seems appropriate." Willem deVries and Jay Garfield, both of whom were advisers on Wallace's thesis, expressed regret that Wallace never published his argument. In 2010, the thesis was, published posthumously as Time and Language: An Essay on Free Will. Hugh Rice. "Fatalism". In Zalta, Edward N.. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Fatalism vs. Free Will from Project Worldview

Underwood's septa

In anatomy, Underwood's septa are fin-shaped projections of bone that may exist in the maxillary sinus, first described in 1910 by Arthur S. Underwood, an anatomist at King's College in London; the presence of septa at or near the floor of the sinus are of interest to the dental clinician when proposing or performing sinus floor elevation procedures because of an increased likelihood of surgical complications, such as tearing of the Schneiderian membrane. The prevalence of Underwood's septa in relation to the floor of the maxillary sinus has been reported at nearly 32%. Underwood divided the maxillary sinus into three regions relating to zones of distinct tooth eruption activity: anterior and posterior. Thus, he asserted, these septa always arise never opposite the middle of a tooth. Different studies reveal a different predisposition for the presence of septa based on sinus region: Anterior: Ulm, et al. Krennmair et al. Middle: Velásquez-Plata et al. Kim et al. and González-Santana et al. Posterior: Underwood Recent studies have classified two types of maxillary sinus septa: primary and secondary.

Primary septa are those described by Underwood and that form as a result of the floor of the sinus sinking along with the roots of erupting teeth. Conversely, secondary septa form as a result of irregular pneumatization of the sinus following loss of maxillary posterior teeth. Sinus pneumatization is a poorly understood phenomenon that results in an increased volume of the maxillary sinus following maxillary posterior tooth loss, at the expense of the bone which used to house the roots of the maxillary posterior teeth

Blade Dancer: Lineage of Light

Blade Dancer: Lineage of Light, released in Japan as Blade Dancer: Thousand-Year Promise, is a video game made for the PlayStation Portable. It is a turn-based role-playing video game in which players take on the role of the boy Lance who must save the world with the help of his friends. Unique fighting system - rounds do not begin until a monster is struck New crafting system lets you combine items together and create new weapons and items Develop skills called Lunabilities to use powerful new attacks against stronger monsters The game received "mixed" reviews according to the review aggregation website Metacritic. In Japan, Famitsu gave it a score of two sevens and two sixes for a total of 26 out of 40. Blade Dancer: Lineage of Light at MobyGames