click links in text for more info


A fatwā is a nonbinding legal opinion on a point of Islamic law given by a qualified jurist in response to a question posed by a private individual, judge or government. A jurist issuing fatwas is called a mufti, the act of issuing fatwas is called iftāʾ. Fatwas have played an important role throughout Islamic history, taking on new forms in the modern era. Resembling jus respondendi in Roman law and rabbinic responsa issued fatwas served to inform Muslim populations about Islam, advise courts on difficult points of Islamic law, elaborate substantive law. In times and political fatwas were issued to take a stand on doctrinal controversies, legitimize government policies or articulate grievances of the population. During the era of European colonialism, fatwas played a part in mobilizing resistance to foreign domination. Muftis acted as independent scholars in the classical legal system. Over the centuries, Sunni muftis were incorporated into state bureaucracies, while Shia jurists in Iran progressively asserted an autonomous authority starting from the early modern era.

In the modern era, fatwas have reflected changing economic and political circumstances, addressed concerns arising in varied Muslim communities. The spread of codified state laws and Western-style legal education in the modern Muslim world has displaced muftis from their traditional role of clarifying and elaborating the laws applied in courts. Instead, modern fatwas have served to advise the general public on other aspects of sharia questions regarding religious rituals and everyday life. Modern public fatwas have addressed and sometimes sparked controversies in the Muslim world, some fatwas in recent decades have gained worldwide notoriety; the legal methodology of modern ifta diverges from pre-modern practice so in the West. Emergence of modern media and universal education has transformed the traditional institution of ifta in various ways. While the proliferation of contemporary fatwas attests to the importance of Islamic authenticity to many Muslims, little research has been done to determine how much these fatwas affect the beliefs or behavior of the Muslim public.

The word fatwa comes from the Arabic root f-t-y, whose meanings include'youth, clarification, explanation'. A number of terms related to fatwa derive from the same root. A jurist issuing fatwas is called a mufti; the person who asks for a fatwa is known as mustafti. The act of issuing fatwas is called iftāʾ; the term futyā refers to issuing fatwas. In older English language works the spelling fetva, from Turkish, is used, relating to the Ottoman Empire; the origins of the fatwa can be traced back to the Quran. On a number of occasions, the Quranic text instructs the Islamic prophet Muhammad how to respond to questions from his followers regarding religious and social practices. Several of these verses begin with the phrase "When they ask you concerning... say..." In two cases this is expressed with verbal forms of the root f-t-y, which signify asking for or giving an authoritative answer. In the hadith literature, this three-way relationship between God and believers, is replaced by a two-way consultation, in which Muhammad replies directly to queries from his Companions.

According to Islamic doctrine, with Muhammad's death in 632, God ceased to communicate with mankind through revelation and prophets. At that point, the expanding Muslim community turned to Muhammad's Companions, as the most authoritative voices among them, for religious guidance, some of them are reported to have issued pronouncements on a wide range of subjects; the generation of Companions was in turn replaced in that role by the generation of Successors. The concept of fatwa thus developed in Islamic communities under a question-and-answer format for communicating religious knowledge, took on its definitive form with development of the classical theory of Islamic law; the legal theory of the fatwa was formulated in the classical texts of usul al-fiqh, while more practical guidelines for muftis were found in manuals called adab al-mufti or adab al-fatwa. Fatwas are issued in response to a query, they can range from a simple yes/no answer to a book-length treatise. A short fatwa may state a well-known point of law in response to a question from a lay person, while a "major" fatwa may give a judgment on an unprecedented case, detailing the legal reasoning behind the decision.

Queries to muftis were supposed to address real and not hypothetical situations and be formulated in general terms, leaving out names of places and people. Since a mufti was not supposed to inquire into the situation beyond the information included in the query, queries regarding contentious matters were carefully constructed to elicit the desired response. A mufti's understanding of the query depended on their familiarity with local customs and colloquialisms. In theory, if the query was unclear or not sufficiently detailed for a ruling, the mufti was supposed to state these caveats in their response. Fatwas were solicited by women from all social classes. A mufti could be an obscure scholar, who replied to queries from people in his neighborhood, or, at the other extreme, a famous jurist or a powerful state official; the level of technical detail supplied in a fatwa, such as citations of sources or specification of legal methodologies employed, depended on the technical level of the petitioner.

In theory, a petitioner was supposed to verify the mufti's scholarly reputation, but mufti manuals recognized that it would be difficult for

İsmet Kür

İsmet Kür was a Turkish educator, journalist and writer of children's literature. İsmet Kür was born on 29 September 1916 in Göztepe, Kadıköy, in Constantinople, Ottoman Empire, in a mansion frequented by writers and poets. Her father Avnullah Kazim was a journalist and politician, her mother Ayşe Nazlı, an intellectual woman, her sister Halide Nusret Zorlutuna was a writer. After the Surname Law went into effect in 1934, she took the family name "Zorluhankızı", meaning the "daughter of Zorluhan" because her name "İsmet" is used for males, caused confusion, her father's ancestry of 6th to 7th generations was a Bey, a chieftain of Zorluhan in Erzurum Province, eastern Turkey. After graduation from the Girls' Teacher School in Edirne, she studied in the Literature Department of Gazi Institute for Education in Ankara obtaining a teacher's degree in 1938, she was married to a mathematician, who admired classical painting. By this marriage, she took the surname "Kür", she gave birth to two daughters and writer Pınar Kür and sculptor Işılar Kür.

She has a grandson Emrah Kolukısa, a program producer at the NTV television channel, the son of Pınar Kür and the father of her grand grandson Cem. Kür went with her two young daughters to London to learn the English language on a scholarship. In 1953, she attended the Kent School of Drama, she lived from 1956 to 1960 in New York City with her children. There, she attended in 1960 courses at New York University on children's and youth psychology, adult education, human relations, history of education and Russian literature of the 19th century. During her time in the U. S. she founded the "Women's Association" with the spouse of the Turkish Ambassador. She said in an interview that she owed her old age to her practicing tennis, volleyball and gymnastics, exercising every morning. In September 2012, she contracted cerebral infarction, became bedridden, she died at home on 21 January 2013 at the age of 96. She was interred at Ayazağa Cemetery following a religious funeral service held at Teşvikiye Mosque on 23 January.

Educator and diplomatKür served as a school teacher of Turkish Literature for 21 years. In the 1950s, she worked at the BBC World Service in London. In 1956, she was appointed Deputy Student inspector for the United States territory, was subsequently promoted to the post of Student Inspector in New York City, she served as the Turkish Attaché of Culture there until 1960. JournalistShe was a long-time journalist at Cumhuriyet, she worked as a columnist at the newspapers Yeni İstanbul. WriterKür was a friend of many authors Kemal Tahir, she was the author of 27 books in the genres of research, short story, novel. And memoir, she wrote sketches for radio and plays. She published her first poem in the periodical Çocuk Dünyası in 1927, her first short story Mutlu Tahayüller in the periodical Muhit in August 1931, she wrote more than 100 sketches for the "Çocuk Saati" program at Ankara Radio. She did children's programs for the radio stations TRT in Turkey and Bayrak in the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus.

She published her memoirs in Yıllara mı Çarptı Hızımız. Osmanlıca Çocuk Dergileri is a research work of hers on the children's magazines in Ottoman Turkish language, which made her well-known, she continued writing until her death. Kür was a member of the "People of the Letters Association" and the "Turkish Union of Writers". Children'sMutlu ve Zorlu Yıllar - Coşkun'un Serüvenleri. Can Yayınları. 2017. P. 144. ISBN 978-975-071-202-9. Bilinmeyene Yolculuk / Coşkun'un Serüvenleri -2. Can Yayınları. 2013. P. 168. ISBN 978-975-071-597-6. Kardan Çocuk ve Küçük Kara Köpek. Bu Yayınevi. 2011. P. 72. ISBN 978-605-356-007-4. Mavi'nin Serüvenleri 3/ Sokak Köpeği. Bu Yayınevi. P. 160. ISBN 978-605-549-632-6. Mavi'nin Serüvenleri 2 / Yeni Dostlar Arasında. Bu Yayınevi. 2011. P. 160. ISBN 978-605-549-631-9. Mavi'nin Serüvenleri 1/ Eski Ev. Bu Yayınevi. P. 160. ISBN 978-605-549-630-2. Ne Güzel Şey. Bu Yayınevi. 2006. P. 65. ISBN 978-994-437-643-3. NovelsOnuncu Sigara. Everest Yayınları. 2007. P. 203. ISBN 978-975-289-418-1. Karvera Nereye. Bu Yayınları.

2001. P. 304. ISBN 978-975-602-264-1. Karvera. Bu Yayınları. P. 248. ISBN 978-975-565-245-0. MemoirsYarısı Roman. Everest Yayınları. 2011. P. 433. ISBN 978-975-289-320-7. Anılarla Mustafa Kemal Atatürk. Alfa Yayınları. 2010. P. 136. ISBN 978-975-297-924-6. Yıllara mı Çarptı Hızımız. Everest Yayınları. 2008. P. 305. ISBN 978-975-289-558-4. Short storyKocaman Bir Örümcektir Zaman. Gerçek Sanat Yayınları. 2001. P. 94. ISBN 978-975-360-174-0. Non-fictionAlmanya'daki Çocuklarımızın Başarısızlık Nedenleri Türkiye'de Süreli Çocuk Yayınları. Atatürk Kültür Merkezi Yayınları. 1991. P. 601. ISBN 978-975-160-346-3. Çiçekler Sevgiyle Bütür. Akbank Yayınları. 1989. Anneler Sizin İçin Poems99. Kat Şiirleri. Everest Yayınları. 2005. P. 80. ISBN 978-975-289-266-8. Yaşamak Her autobiography on the TRT archive video

Älvsbyn Municipality

Älvsbyn Municipality is a municipality in Norrbotten County in northern Sweden. Its seat is located in Älvsbyn; the present municipality has the same size as the original one, created at the time the municipalities of Sweden were formed in 1863. 1948-1968 a part of it constituted a market town and a municipality of its own, but the entities were reunited in 1969. The municipality stretches along the Pite River for about 60 kilometres in a naturesque surrounding. There are four localities in Älvsbyn Municipality: The municipal seat in bold Two main industries in the town of Älvsbyn are AB Älvsbyhus, which builds houses, Polarbageriet AB, nationally famous for their breads. Polarbageriet has a production of about 1.5 million breads a day. They do not make loaves, but rather flat slices of a whitish bread, their main distribution is within Sweden, but a small export goes to Finland, the United Kingdom and France, where it is popular to use for homemade pizza. Älvsbyhus has its base in Älvsbyn, one of its factories there too.

It is Scandinavia's biggest producer of prefabricated homes in wood. Their average production is around two houses a day, although much of the production is located at other factories closer to the market. RFN is not just for domestic use, it is one of few places where live missiles can be tested over land, attracts military testers from other countries as well. There is some tourism, with a popular place to visit in the nature reserve Storforsen, just west of Vidsel. Älvsbyn Municipality has three sister cities: Fauske, Norway Haapavesi, Finland Monchegorsk, Russia Älvsbyn Municipality - Official site Älvsbyn Tourism

Clockwork Knight 2

Clockwork Knight 2, known in Japan as Clockwork Knight: Pepperouchau's Adventure - Last Volume, is a side-scrolling platform video game developed and published by Sega for the Sega Saturn. It is the sequel to Clockwork Knight, a title released for the Sega Saturn. A second sequel, the working titles for which included Clockwork Knight 3: Pengin War and Clockwork Knight Puzzle, used gameplay similar to the Bomberman series, but never made it past the beta stage. Another sequel, titled Knight N' Knight, was scheduled to appear on the GameCube, but never released. Clockwork Knight 2 picks up on the cliffhanger left by Clockwork Knight. Chelsea will not wake up; as the toys not under the spell ponder just what to do, Chelsea is kidnapped again. Thus, Pepper again sets out to rescue her... Clockwork Knight 2 uses identical gameplay to that of its predecessor, right down to using all the same items and having four rooms with two levels each, plus a final boss. However, there are some minor additions: Four playing cards are scattered around each level.

Spinning all four cards gives players a Gold Key. There are some forced scrolling levels. Attacking is done not by firing Barobaro's head at enemies. Once in each room, in a hidden location, there is the "Le Bon race", a race against Le Bon, in which Pepper is rewarded with a gold key after a win. On the last room, instead of the Le Bon race, there is a pursuit to Prunchau in stage 2, in which Pepper is rewarded, if he didn't lose him of sight, with a giant key that gives him the maximum number of gears, remains with it after losing lives. An additional game mode called "Bosses Galore" lets the player control either Pepper or Ginger in fighting all the bosses of both Clockwork Knight games one after the other. Doing well in this mode is said to unlock a mini-game. Clockwork Knight 2 was well received by reviewers. Maximum assessed that the game is just as short as the original Clockwork Knight, but has much greater replay value the hidden playing cards, they hailed the graphics as "far in advance of any other comparable next generation product".

Next Generation's brief review noted that Clockwork Knight 2 made little change to the formula of the original game, concluded by stating, "If you like CK you are sure to like CK2." The four reviewers of Electronic Gaming Monthly described it as a must-have game for the Saturn. They praised the innovative use of both foreground and background playing areas, the impressive graphics, the numerous secrets; the Axe Grinder of GamePro praised the game for having "some of the best visuals on the Saturn yet" and "excellent jazzy tunes that complement the action", but felt these did not make up for the routine and overly easy gameplay, saying it "takes the life out of the game." Tom Guise of Sega Saturn Magazine, while criticizing the game's short length, praised the pacing of the gameplay, the impressiveness of the 3D graphics, the large number of hidden areas and secrets, summarized that "Clockwork Knight 2 manages to succeed, in every respect, where the original game failed." Clockwork Knight 2 at GameFAQs

1936 United States presidential election in South Dakota

The 1936 United States presidential election in South Dakota took place on November 3, 1936, as part of the 1936 United States presidential election. Voters chose four representatives, or electors to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president. South Dakota voted for the Democratic candidate Franklin D. Roosevelt over Republican candidate Alf Landon. Roosevelt won the state by a margin of 11.53%. As of the 2016 presidential election, this is the last occasion when the following counties have voted for a Democratic Presidential candidate: Douglas, Fall River, Harding and Perkins. Incumbent President Franklin D. Roosevelt ran unopposed in the Democratic primary, held on May 5, 1936. U. S. Senator William Borah from Idaho and former South Dakota Governor Warren E. Green faced off in the Republican primary, held on May 5, 1936; the general election was held on November 3, 1936. Armstrong County did not participate

Daelim Motor Company

Daelim Motor Company, a.k.a. DMC, a subsidiary of the Daelim Group, is a South Korean motorcycle, motorscooter and ATV manufacturer. Based in Gyeongsangnam-do, with production facilities in Changwon, it produces over 300,000 vehicles a year since production started in 1963. Daelim's products are popular in Germany, United Kingdom, France, Israel and Sudan; the company manufactures engine and transmission parts for the automotive industry. Founded in 1962 as a division of the Daelim Group of industries, Daelim began producing Japanese Honda motorcycle designs under license for the South Korean market in Seoul, South Korea in 1963. In 1976, they established their own research and development center in Hamamatsu and the next year, they began mass production of their own designs. Motorcycles VJF125 Roadsport R 125 VJF250 Roadsport VJ 125 Roadwin E 2004-2007/Roadwin FI 2008 124cc- still trading VL 125 Daystar 125 VC 125 Advance VS VTScooters S3 125 FI/250 Advance S2 125/250 S1 125 Besbi 125 Delfino 125 B-Bone 125 S-Five 50 E-Five 50 A-Four 50 Cordi 50 NS 125 Business Citi Ace 110 ATV ET 250/300

Daelim Roadwin 125cc Motorcycle Private webpage with information and links about the Roadwin 125cc motorcycle. Scooter Wiki: Daelim Gas Moped Motor Scooters Directory of models and dealers, information using wiki, forum for discussion. Official Homepage - Parent company Daelim Group homepage Daelim Motor Australian Homepage Daelim Motor Korean Homepage Daelim Motor English Homepage Model lineup DAELIM models & history