A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, Romania and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, in Jamaica. In most of the United States, counties are the political subdivisions of a state; the city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county. The county legislature, county courthouse, sheriff's department headquarters, hall of records and correctional facility are located in the county seat though some functions may be located or conducted in other parts of the county if it is geographically large. A county seat is but not always, an incorporated municipality; the exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia. Ellicott City, the county seat of Howard County, is the largest unincorporated county seat in the United States, followed by Towson, the county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland.
Some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, an incorporated municipality. In some of the colonial states, county seats include or included "Court House" as part of their name. In the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the term "shire town" is used in place of county seat. County seats in Taiwan are the administrative centers of the counties. There are 13 county seats in Taiwan, which are in the forms of county-administered city, urban township or rural township. Most counties have only one county seat. However, some counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont have two or more county seats located on opposite sides of the county. An example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats; the practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days.
There have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states: Coffee County, Alabama St. Clair County, Alabama Arkansas County, Arkansas Carroll County, Arkansas Clay County, Arkansas Craighead County, Arkansas Franklin County, Arkansas Logan County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas Prairie County, Arkansas Sebastian County, Arkansas Yell County, Arkansas Columbia County, Georgia Lee County, Iowa Campbell County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Plymouth County, Massachusetts Bolivar County, Mississippi Carroll County, Mississippi Chickasaw County, Mississippi Harrison County, Mississippi Hinds County, Mississippi Jasper County, Mississippi Jones County, Mississippi Panola County, Mississippi Tallahatchie County, Mississippi Yalobusha County, Mississippi Jackson County, Missouri Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Seneca County, New York Bennington County, Vermont In New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government.
Counties in this region have served as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of thus no county seats. In Vermont and Maine the county seats are designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the respective shire town. Bennington County has two shire towns. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town or city governments; as such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, the state government now operates the registries of deeds and sheriff's offices in those counties. In Virginia, a county seat may be an independent city surrounded by, but not part of, the county of which it is the administrative center. Two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county, their county-level services are provided by Fall River Tripp County, respectively.
In Louisiana, divided into parishes rather than counties, county seats are referred to as parish seats. Alaska is divided into boroughs rather than counties; the Unorganized Borough, which covers 49 % of Alaska's area, has equivalent. The state with the most counties is Texas, with 254, the state with the fewest counties is Delaware, with 3. County seat war Administrative center County town, administrative centres in Ireland and the UK Chef-lieu, administrative centres in Algeria, Luxembourg, France and Tunisia Municipality, equivalent to county in many c
Marriage called matrimony or wedlock, is a or ritually recognised union between spouses that establishes rights and obligations between those spouses, as well as between them and any resulting biological or adopted children and affinity. The definition of marriage varies around the world not only between cultures and between religions, but throughout the history of any given culture and religion, evolving to both expand and constrict in who and what is encompassed, but it is principally an institution in which interpersonal relationships sexual, are acknowledged or sanctioned. In some cultures, marriage is recommended or considered to be compulsory before pursuing any sexual activity; when defined broadly, marriage is considered a cultural universal. A marriage ceremony is known as a wedding. Individuals may marry for several reasons, including legal, libidinal, financial and religious purposes. Whom they marry may be influenced by gender determined rules of incest, prescriptive marriage rules, parental choice and individual desire.
In some areas of the world, arranged marriage, child marriage and sometimes forced marriage, may be practiced as a cultural tradition. Conversely, such practices may be outlawed and penalized in parts of the world out of concerns of the infringement of women's rights, or the infringement of children's rights, because of international law. Around the world in developed democracies, there has been a general trend towards ensuring equal rights within marriage for women and recognizing the marriages of interfaith and same-sex couples; these trends coincide with the broader human rights movement. Marriage can be recognized by a state, an organization, a religious authority, a tribal group, a local community, or peers, it is viewed as a contract. When a marriage is performed and carried out by a government institution in accordance with the marriage laws of the jurisdiction, without religious content, it is a civil marriage. Civil marriage recognizes and creates the rights and obligations intrinsic to matrimony before the state.
When a marriage is performed with religious content under the auspices of a religious institution it is a religious marriage. Religious marriage recognizes and creates the rights and obligations intrinsic to matrimony before that religion. Religious marriage is known variously as sacramental marriage in Catholicism, nikah in Islam, nissuin in Judaism, various other names in other faith traditions, each with their own constraints as to what constitutes, who can enter into, a valid religious marriage; some countries do not recognize locally performed religious marriage on its own, require a separate civil marriage for official purposes. Conversely, civil marriage does not exist in some countries governed by a religious legal system, such as Saudi Arabia, where marriages contracted abroad might not be recognized if they were contracted contrary to Saudi interpretations of Islamic religious law. In countries governed by a mixed secular-religious legal system, such as in Lebanon and Israel, locally performed civil marriage does not exist within the country, preventing interfaith and various other marriages contradicting religious laws from being entered into in the country, civil marriages performed abroad are recognized by the state if they conflict with religious laws.
The act of marriage creates normative or legal obligations between the individuals involved, any offspring they may produce or adopt. In terms of legal recognition, most sovereign states and other jurisdictions limit marriage to opposite-sex couples and a diminishing number of these permit polygyny, child marriages, forced marriages. In modern times, a growing number of countries developed democracies, have lifted bans on and have established legal recognition for the marriages of interfaith and same-sex couples; some cultures allow the dissolution of marriage through annulment. In some areas, child marriages and polygamy may occur in spite of national laws against the practice. Since the late twentieth century, major social changes in Western countries have led to changes in the demographics of marriage, with the age of first marriage increasing, fewer people marrying, more couples choosing to cohabit rather than marry. For example, the number of marriages in Europe decreased by 30% from 1975 to 2005.
In most cultures, married women had few rights of their own, being considered, along with the family's children, the property of the husband. In Europe, the United States, other places in the developed world, beginning in the late 19th century and lasting through the 21st century, marriage has undergone gradual legal changes, aimed at improving the rights of the wife; these changes included giving wives legal identities of their own, abolishing the right of husbands to physically discipline their wives, giving wives property rights, liberalizing divorce laws, providing wives with reproductive rights of their own, requiring a wife's consent when sexual relations occur. These changes have occurred in Western countries. In the 21st century, there continue to be controversies regarding the legal status of married women, legal acceptance of or leniency towards violence within marriage, traditional marriage customs such as dowry and bride price, for
Lamar County, Alabama
Lamar County is a county of the U. S. state of Alabama. As of the 2010 census, the population was 14,564, its county seat is a prohibition or dry county. Its name is in honor of Lucius Quintus Cincinnatus Lamar, member of the United States Senate from Mississippi. Jones County, Alabama was established on February 4, 1867, with land taken from the southern part of Marion County and the western part of Fayette County, it was named for E. P. Jones of Fayette County, with its county seat at Vernon; this county was abolished on November 13, 1867. On October 8, 1868, the area was again organized into a county, but as Covington County had been renamed "Jones County" the same year, the new county was named Sanford, in honor of H. C. Sanford of Cherokee County. On February 8, 1877, the county was renamed Lamar in honor of Senator L. Q. C. Lamar of Mississippi. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 605 square miles, of which 605 square miles is land and 0.6 square miles is water.
Marion County Fayette County Pickens County Lowndes County, Mississippi Monroe County, Mississippi Blooming Grove Baptist Church Cemetery Christian Chapel Church of Christ Cemetery Fellowship Baptist Church Cemetery Furnace Hill Cemetery Kennedy Town Cemetery Liberty Baptist Church Cemetery Macedonia Baptist Church Cemetery Meadow Branch Baptist Church Cemetery Mount Olive Church of Christ Cemetery Mt. Pisgah Baptist Church Cemetery Old Mount Nebo Cemetery Shiloh United Methodist Church Cemetery Sulligent City Cemetery Vernon City Cemetery Providence United Methodist Cemetery Union Chapel Church Cemetery near Crossville Morton Chapel Methodist Church Cemetery near Vernon Fairview Church Cemetery Lebanon United Methodist Church Cemetery Shiloh Baptist Church Cemetery Old Liberty Church Cemetery South Carolina Church Cemetery near Hightogy Springhill Cemetery near Millport Walnut Grove Cemetery Wesley Chapel Cemetery As of the census of 2000, there were 15,904 people, 6,468 households, 4,715 families residing in the county.
The population density was 26 people per square mile. There were 7,517 housing units at an average density of 12 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 86.87% White, 11.98% Black or African American, 0.11% Native American, 0.06% Asian, 0.46% from other races, 0.51% from two or more races. 1.30% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 6,468 households out of which 31.40% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.60% were married couples living together, 10.90% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.10% were non-families. 25.40% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.10% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.43 and the average family size was 2.89. In the county, the population was spread out with 23.60% under the age of 18, 8.70% from 18 to 24, 27.70% from 25 to 44, 24.10% from 45 to 64, 15.90% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females there were 93.40 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.90 males. The median income for a household in the county was $28,059, the median income for a family was $33,050. Males had a median income of $30,453 versus $18,947 for females; the per capita income for the county was $14,435. About 13.30% of families and 16.10% of the population were below the poverty line, including 19.10% of those under age 18 and 18.60% of those age 65 or over. As of the census of 2010, there were 14,564 people, 6,103 households, 4,207 families residing in the county; the population density was 24 people per square mile. There were 7,354 housing units at an average density of 12 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 86.7% White, 11.3% Black or African American, 0.2% Native American, 0.0% Asian, 0.6% from other races, 1.3% from two or more races. 1.2% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 6,103 households out of which 26.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.2% were married couples living together, 11.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.1% were non-families.
28.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.35 and the average family size was 2.8. In the county, the population was spread out with 22.2% under the age of 18, 7.2% from 18 to 24, 22.5% from 25 to 44, 29.3% from 45 to 64, 18.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 43.5 years. For every 100 females there were 95.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 99.4 males. The median income for a household in the county was $33,887, the median income for a family was $42,492. Males had a median income of $36,833 versus $25,125 for females; the per capita income for the county was $19,789. About 13.2% of families and 18.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 25.2% of those under age 18 and 14.6% of those age 65 or over. The Vernon Pioneer - The first newspaper published in Lamar County was The Vernon Pioneer; the Editors and Proprietors included William R. Smith, William R. Smith Jr. Smith, McCullough & Co, Sid B.
Smith, Don R. Aldridge; the Vernon Clipper - - Alexander Cobb as Editor and Proprietor and Alex A. Wall as Proprietor; the Lamar News - - E. J. McNatt as Editor and Proprietor The Sulligent Lightning The Vernon Courier - - Alex A. Wall as Editor and Publisher Courier Publishing Co. (R. J. Young as Editor-in-Chief and Mollie C. Young as p
A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. The term is used in connection with national population and housing censuses; the United Nations defines the essential features of population and housing censuses as "individual enumeration, universality within a defined territory and defined periodicity", recommends that population censuses be taken at least every 10 years. United Nations recommendations cover census topics to be collected, official definitions and other useful information to co-ordinate international practice; the word is of Latin origin: during the Roman Republic, the census was a list that kept track of all adult males fit for military service. The modern census is essential to international comparisons of any kind of statistics, censuses collect data on many attributes of a population, not just how many people there are. Censuses began as the only method of collecting national demographic data, are now part of a larger system of different surveys.
Although population estimates remain an important function of a census, including the geographic distribution of the population, statistics can be produced about combinations of attributes e.g. education by age and sex in different regions. Current administrative data systems allow for other approaches to enumeration with the same level of detail but raise concerns about privacy and the possibility of biasing estimates. A census can be contrasted with sampling in which information is obtained only from a subset of a population. Modern census data are used for research, business marketing, planning, as a baseline for designing sample surveys by providing a sampling frame such as an address register. Census counts are necessary to adjust samples to be representative of a population by weighting them as is common in opinion polling. Stratification requires knowledge of the relative sizes of different population strata which can be derived from census enumerations. In some countries, the census provides the official counts used to apportion the number of elected representatives to regions.
In many cases, a chosen random sample can provide more accurate information than attempts to get a population census. A census is construed as the opposite of a sample as its intent is to count everyone in a population rather than a fraction. However, population censuses rely on a sampling frame to count the population; this is the only way to be sure that everyone has been included as otherwise those not responding would not be followed up on and individuals could be missed. The fundamental premise of a census is that the population is not known and a new estimate is to be made by the analysis of primary data; the use of a sampling frame is counterintuitive as it suggests that the population size is known. However, a census is used to collect attribute data on the individuals in the nation; this process of sampling marks the difference between historical census, a house to house process or the product of an imperial decree, the modern statistical project. The sampling frame used by census is always an address register.
Thus it is not known how many people there are in each household. Depending on the mode of enumeration, a form is sent to the householder, an enumerator calls, or administrative records for the dwelling are accessed; as a preliminary to the dispatch of forms, census workers will check any address problems on the ground. While it may seem straightforward to use the postal service file for this purpose, this can be out of date and some dwellings may contain a number of independent households. A particular problem is what are termed'communal establishments' which category includes student residences, religious orders, homes for the elderly, people in prisons etc; as these are not enumerated by a single householder, they are treated differently and visited by special teams of census workers to ensure they are classified appropriately. Individuals are counted within households and information is collected about the household structure and the housing. For this reason international documents refer to censuses of housing.
The census response is made by a household, indicating details of individuals resident there. An important aspect of census enumerations is determining which individuals can be counted from which cannot be counted. Broadly, three definitions can be used: de facto residence; this is important to consider individuals who have temporary addresses. Every person should be identified uniquely as resident in one place but where they happen to be on Census Day, their de facto residence, may not be the best place to count them. Where an individual uses services may be more useful and this is at their usual, or de jure, residence. An individual may be represented at a permanent address a family home for students or long term migrants, it is necessary to have a precise definition of residence to decide whether visitors to a country should be included in the population count. This is becoming more important as students travel abroad for education for a period of several years. Other groups causing problems of enumeration are new born babies, people away on holiday, people moving home around census day, people without a fixed address.
People having second homes because of working in another part of the country or retaining a holiday cottage are dif
Pickens County, Alabama
Pickens County is a county located on the west central border of the U. S. state of Alabama. As of the 2010 census, the population was 19,746, its county seat is Carrollton, located in the center of the county. It is a prohibition, or dry county, although the communities of Carrollton and Aliceville voted to become wet in 2011 and 2012, respectively. Pickens County is included in the Tuscaloosa, AL Metropolitan Statistical Area Like the rest of Alabama, this had long been occupied by Native Americans. Pickens County was established on the western border of Alabama on December 20, 1820, named for revolutionary war hero General Andrew Pickens of South Carolina; the county seat was relocated from Pickensville to Carrollton in 1830. Less than one-third of the county was developed for cotton plantations, which were worked by enslaved African Americans brought south by northern businessmen interested in cheap cotton; these plantations were developed in the southernmost reaches of the county, in the lowlands along the banks of the Tombigbee River and stretching over a small prairie-like area.
The rest of the county was settled by yeomen farmers. During the American Civil War, the first courthouse in Carrollton was burned on April 5, 1865, by troops of Union General John T. Croxton. Recovering from that and other damage was part of the postwar work for the county. A second courthouse was built in Carrollton, it was destroyed by fire on November 1876, during the last months of the Reconstruction era. Though arson was suspected, no arrest was made until January 1878, after white Democrats had regained control of the state legislature and the county sheriff's office. White racial hostility toward African Americans in the county, their efforts to retain dominance, resulted in numerous lynchings. According to the third edition of Lynching in America, a study of lynchings of African Americans in the United States, the county had 15 documented lynchings of African Americans in Pickens County from 1877 to 1917; this was disenfranchisement of blacks throughout Alabama and the South. Henry Wells, an African American, was arrested in January 1878 as a suspect in the courthouse arson and a burglary.
He was captured in an arrest for the burglary, in which he was wounded. Confessing to the courthouse arson, he died five days of his wounds. A myth associated his death with another lynching of an African-American man in this period, an image, purportedly of Wells' face in a courthouse window, but while numerous African Americans were lynched in the courthouse square, the windows in the courthouse were not installed until February and March 1878. In the late 19th century, there was strong hostility in Pickens County among yeomen whites against freedmen, they committed numerous lynchings into the early 20th century; the county was a populist stronghold in the 1890s and many voters had joined the Farmers Alliance. Agricultural commissioner and populist choice Reuben F. Kolb was defeated in 1890 for the Democratic nomination for governor by Thomas G. Jones, chosen by delegates who joined to defeat Kolb. In 1892 both ran again, Kolb representing Jeffersonian Democrats, Kolb the main Democratic Party.
Kolb won in Pickens County by "a vast majority". Governor Jones was re-elected, in part because of his reliance on a platform of white supremacy, to appeal to whites alarmed by Kolb's promising to protect African-American rights, but Jones supported reform, opposing the convict lease system that trapped so many African Americans in near-slavery conditions. Electoral unrest and populist furor in the county may have contributed to six lynchings in Carrollton in the fall of 1893. On September 14, 1893, African-American suspects Paul Archer, Will Archer, Emma Fair, Ed Guyton, Paul Hill, were each shot to death in a mass lynching by a white mob at the courthouse jail, they had been arrested when accused of burning a cotton gin owned by a white man. Their lynchings followed that of another African-American worker, two weeks before. On August 28, 1907, African-American John Gibson was lynched in Carrollton, hanged to death in the courthouse square. John Lipsep was shot in early September 1907, a suspect in an attack on a white woman.
From 1940 to 1970, many African Americans left Pickens County to escape racial violence and oppression in the Great Migration to urban areas, as did other rural residents, because of lack of economic opportunity. On April 8, 1998, a supercell thunderstorm produced an F3 tornado in Pickens County; this windstorm damaged five homes including mobile homes. It rotated seventeen miles from Holman to north of Northport. Twenty-four homes and thirteen mobile homes were in the path of destruction. Moments that same supercell thunderstorm produced an F5 tornado that struck northeastern Tuscaloosa near the Black Warrior River before entering western Jefferson County where it destroyed Oak Grove High School and killed thirty-two people in its path. From 2000 to 2013 the rural county was again losing population. From July 2013 to July 2014, the population grew by 5.1%, making it the fourth-fastest growing county with at least 10,000 inhabitants. In 2014 it became the fastest-growing county in Alabama, but part of the growth was the result of the construction here of the Federal Correctional Institution, Aliceville federal women's prison.
Prisoners are included in local census numbers, as are prison employees, some of whom came from other counties. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 890 squar
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, defined by the federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most identify, indicate whether or not they are of Hispanic or Latino origin. The racial categories represent a social-political construct for the race or races that respondents consider themselves to be and, "generally reflect a social definition of race recognized in this country." OMB defines the concept of race as outlined for the US Census as not "scientific or anthropological" and takes into account "social and cultural characteristics as well as ancestry", using "appropriate scientific methodologies" that are not "primarily biological or genetic in reference." The race categories include both national-origin groups. Race and ethnicity are considered separate and distinct identities, with Hispanic or Latino origin asked as a separate question. Thus, in addition to their race or races, all respondents are categorized by membership in one of two ethnic categories, which are "Hispanic or Latino" and "Not Hispanic or Latino".
However, the practice of separating "race" and "ethnicity" as different categories has been criticized both by the American Anthropological Association and members of US Commission on Civil Rights. In 1997, OMB issued a Federal Register notice regarding revisions to the standards for the classification of federal data on race and ethnicity. OMB developed race and ethnic standards in order to provide "consistent data on race and ethnicity throughout the Federal Government; the development of the data standards stem in large measure from new responsibilities to enforce civil rights laws." Among the changes, OMB issued the instruction to "mark one or more races" after noting evidence of increasing numbers of interracial children and wanting to capture the diversity in a measurable way and having received requests by people who wanted to be able to acknowledge their or their children's full ancestry rather than identifying with only one group. Prior to this decision, the Census and other government data collections asked people to report only one race.
The OMB states, "many federal programs are put into effect based on the race data obtained from the decennial census. Race data are critical for the basic research behind many policy decisions. States require these data to meet legislative redistricting requirements; the data are needed to monitor compliance with the Voting Rights Act by local jurisdictions". "Data on ethnic groups are important for putting into effect a number of federal statutes. Data on Ethnic Groups are needed by local governments to run programs and meet legislative requirements." The 1790 United States Census was the first census in the history of the United States. The population of the United States was recorded as 3,929,214 as of Census Day, August 2, 1790, as mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution and applicable laws."The law required that every household be visited, that completed census schedules be posted in'two of the most public places within, there to remain for the inspection of all concerned...' and that'the aggregate amount of each description of persons' for every district be transmitted to the president."
This law along with U. S. marshals were responsible for governing the census. One third of the original census data has been lost or destroyed since documentation; the data was lost in 1790–1830 time period and included data from: Connecticut, Maryland, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Delaware, New Jersey, Virginia. Census data included the name of the head of the family and categorized inhabitants as follows: free white males at least 16 years of age, free white males under 16 years of age, free white females, all other free persons, slaves. Thomas Jefferson the Secretary of State, directed marshals to collect data from all thirteen states, from the Southwest Territory; the census was not conducted in Vermont until 1791, after that state's admission to the Union as the 14th state on March 4 of that year. There was some doubt surrounding the numbers, President George Washington and Thomas Jefferson maintained the population was undercounted; the potential reasons Washington and Jefferson may have thought this could be refusal to participate, poor public transportation and roads, spread out population, restraints of current technology.
No microdata from the 1790 population census is available, but aggregate data for small areas and their compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. In 1800 and 1810, the age question regarding free white males was more detailed; the 1820
English Americans are Americans whose ancestry originates wholly or in England. In the 2017 American Community Survey, English Americans are of the total population; the term is distinct from British Americans, which includes not only English Americans but Scottish Americans, Scotch-Irish Americans, Welsh Americans, Cornish Americans and Manx Americans from the whole of the United Kingdom. However, demographers regard this as a serious under count, as the index of inconsistency is high and many if not most Americans from English stock have a tendency to identify as "Americans" or if of mixed European ancestry, identify with a more recent and differentiated ethnic group. In the 1980 Census, over 49 million Americans claimed English ancestry, at the time around 26.34% of the total population and largest reported group which today, would make them the largest ethnic group in the United States. Scotch-Irish Americans are for the most part descendants of Lowland Scots and Northern English settlers who colonized Ireland during the Plantation of Ulster in the 17th century.
In 1982, an opinion poll showed respondents a card listing a number of ethnic groups and asked, "Thinking both of what they have contributed to this country and have gotten from this country, for each one tell me whether you think, on balance, they've been a good or a bad thing for this country." The English were the top ethnic group, with 66% saying they were a good thing for the United States, followed by the Irish at 62%. Ben J. Wattenberg argues that this poll demonstrates a general American bias against Hispanics and other recent immigrant populations; the majority—57%--of the Founding Fathers of the United States were of English extraction. English immigrants in the 19th century, as with other groups, sought economic prosperity, they began migrating in large numbers without 1840s to 1890s. Americans of English heritage are seen, identify, as "American" due to the many historic cultural ties between England and the U. S. and their influence on the country's population. Relative to ethnic groups of other European origins, this may be due to the early establishment of English settlements.
Since 1776, English-Americans have been less to proclaim their heritage in the face of the upsurge of cultural and ethnic pride by African Americans, Irish Americans, Scottish Americans, Italian Americans or other ethnic groups. A leading specialist, Charlotte Erickson, found them to be ethnically "invisible," dismissing the occasional St. George Societies as ephemeral elite clubs that were not in touch with the larger ethnic community. In Canada, by contrast, the English organized far more ethnic activism, as the English competed with the well-organized French and Irish elements. In the United States the Scottish immigrants were much better organized than the English in the 19th century, as are their descendants in the late 20th century; the original 17th century settlers were overwhelmingly English. From the time of the first permanent English presence in the New World until 1900, these immigrants and their descendants outnumbered all others establishing the English cultural pattern as predominant for the American version.
According to the United States Historical Census, the ethnic populations in the British American Colonies of 1700, 1755 and 1775 were: The category'Irish' represents immigrants from Ireland outside the Province of Ulster, the overwhelming majority of whom were Protestant and not ethnically Irish, though from Ireland. The distinction between Scots-Irish and Irish came about in the mid-19th century: prior to this time all Irish persons whatever religion were identified as'Irish.' In 1790 the U. S. conducted its first national population census. The ancestries of the population in 1790 has been estimated by various sources, first in 1932 again in 1980 and 1984 by sampling distinctive surnames in the census and assigning them a country of origin. There is debate over the accuracy between the studies with individual scholars and the Federal Government using different techniques and conclusion for the ethnic composition. A study published in 1909 titled A Century of Population Growth by the Government Census Bureau estimated the English were 83.5% of the white population.
The states with the highest percentage by the same Census Bureau data in 1909 of English ancestry were Connecticut 96.2%, Rhode Island 96.0%, Vermont 95.4%, Massachusetts 95.0%, New Hampshire 94.1%, Maine 93.1%, Virginia 85.0%, Maryland 84.0%, North Carolina 83.1%, South Carolina 82.4%, New York 78.2%, Pennsylvania 59.0%. Another source by Thomas L. Purvis in 1984 estimated that people of English ancestry made up about 47.5% of the total population or 60.9% of the white or European American population. Some 80.7% of the total United States population was of European origin. Around 757,208 were of African descent with 697,624 being slaves. In 1980, 23,748,772 Americans claimed only English ancestry and another 25,849,263 claimed English along with another ethnic ancestry, it must be noted that 13.3 million or 5.9% of the total U. S. population chose to identify as "American" as seen in censuses that followed. Below shows the persons. At a national level the ancestry response rate was high with 90.4% of the total United States population choosing at least