Synod of Elvira
The Synod of Elvira was an ecclesiastical synod held at Elvira in the Roman province of Hispania Baetica, now Granada in southern Spain. Its date has not been determined but is believed to be in the first quarter of the fourth century 305–6, it was one of three councils, together with the Synod of Arles and the Synod of Ancyra, that first approached the character of general councils and prepared the way for the first ecumenical council. It was attended by nineteen bishops and twenty-six presbyters resident in Baetica. Deacons and laymen were present. Eighty-one canons are recorded, although it is believed that many were added at dates. All concern order and conduct among the Christian community. Canon 36, forbidding the use of images in churches, became a bone of contention between Catholic and Protestant scholars after the Protestant Reformation, it is one of a number of pre-ecumenical ancient church synods. The 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia refers to this as a "council," conveying a wider scope than a synod.
The Vatican refers to it using both terms. The place of meeting, rendered as Elvira, was not far from the modern Granada, if not, as A. W. Dale and Edgar Hennecke think identical with it. There the nineteen bishops and twenty-four presbyters from Hispania Baetica and Carthago Nova, assembled at the instigation of Hosius of Córdoba, but under the presidency of Felix of Accitum in Baetica by virtue of his being the oldest bishop present, with a view to restoring order and discipline in the church; the canons which were adopted reflect with considerable fullness the internal life and external relations of the Spanish Church of the 4th century. The reputation of this council drew to its canons further canons that came to be associated with the Synod of Elvira. Victor De Clercq notes "that except for Hosius of Córdoba, we know nothing about these men, nor do we know with certainty when and why the council was held, that the church of Spain is one of the least known in pre-constantinian times". Maurice Meigne considers that only the first twenty-one canons in the list, transmitted were promulgated at Elvira.
The social environment of Christians in Hispania may be inferred from the canons prohibiting marriage and other intercourse with Jews and heretics, closing the offices of flamen and duumvir to Christians, forbidding all contact with idolatry and participation in pagan festivals and public games. The state of morals is mirrored in the canons denouncing prevalent vices; the canons respecting the clergy exhibit the clergy as a special class with particular privileges, as acting under a more exacting moral standard, with heavier penalties for delinquency. The bishop has acquired control of the sacraments and deacons acting only under his orders; the canons are entirely concerned with the conduct of various elements of the Christian community, have no theological content as such. Sanctions include long delays before baptism, exclusion from the Eucharist for periods of months or years, or indefinitely, sometimes with an exception for the death-bed, though this is specifically excluded in some cases.
Periods of penance for sexual offences, extend to 5 or 10 years: "Canon 5. If a woman beats her servant and causes death within three days, she shall undergo seven years' penance if the injury was inflicted on purpose and five years' if it was accidental, she shall not receive communion during this penance. If so, she may receive communion."All the canons which pertain to Jews served to maintain a separation between the two communities. Canon 15 prohibited marriage with pagans, while Canon 16 prohibited marriage of Christians with Jews. Canon 78 threatens Christians. Canon 49 forbade the blessing of Christian crops by Jews, Canon 50 forbade the sharing of meals by Christians and Jews. Among the early canons, Canon 1 forbade giving holy communion to lapsed Christians in articulo mortis, an unusually severe application of Novatianist principles, which had divided the church since the recovery from mid 3rd-century persecutions: compare the severity of Cyprian of Carthage; the subject of this leading canon is a major indication for a date following recent persecution.
Among the canons, of especial note are Canon 33, enjoining celibacy upon all clerics, married or not, all who minister at the altar. Relating to the subject of clerical celibacy is Canon 27, which calls for bishops and other clergy to refrain from living with women unless they are of relation; this canon is believed to be condemning the practice of Syneisaktism, or spiritual marriage, growing more and more popular among ascetic men and women. Canon 36 states, "It has seemed good that images should not be in churches so that what is venerated and worshiped not be painted on the walls." It forbids pictures in churches. Canon 36 was the first official statement on art by the Christian Church and so of special
Passion of Jesus
In Christianity, the Passion is the short final period in the life of Jesus beginning with his triumphal entry into Jerusalem and ending with his crucifixion and his death on Good Friday. It includes, among other events, the last supper, Jesus' agony in the garden, his arrest by the Sanhedrin priests, his trial before Pontius Pilate; those parts of the four Gospels that describe these events are known as the "Passion narratives". In some Christian communities, commemoration of the Passion includes remembrance of the sorrow of Mary, the mother of Jesus, on the Friday of Sorrows; the word passion has taken on a more general application and now may apply to accounts of the suffering and death of Christian martyrs, sometimes using the Latin form passio. The accounts of the Passion are found in the four canonical gospels, Mark and John. Three of these, Matthew and Luke, known as the Synoptic Gospels, give similar accounts; the Gospel of John account varies slightly. The events include: The conspiracy against Jesus by the Jewish Sanhedrin priests and the teachers of the law, now known as Council Friday.
Triumphal entry into Jerusalem, his anger and outburst at the Cleansing of the Temple A meal a few days before Passover. A woman anoints Jesus, he says. In Jerusalem, the Last Supper shared by his disciples. Jesus gives final instructions, predicts his betrayal, tells them all to remember him. On the path to Gethsemane after the meal. Jesus tells them they will all fall away that night. Gethsemane that night, Jesus prays, the disciples rest. Judas Iscariot leads in either "a detachment of soldiers and some officials from the chief priests and Pharisees", or a "large crowd armed with swords and clubs, sent from the chief priests and elders of the people," which arrests Jesus. During the arrest in Gethsemane, someone takes a sword and cuts off the ear of the high priest's servant, Malchus; the high priest's palace that night. The arresting party brings Jesus to the Sanhedrin. According to Matthew's Gospel, the court "spat in his face and struck him with their fists." They send him to Pontius Pilate. According to the synoptic gospels, the high priest who examines Jesus is Caiaphas.
The courtyard outside the high priest's palace, the same time. Peter joined the mob awaiting Jesus' fate; the cock crows and Peter remembers what Jesus had said. The governor's palace, early morning. Pilate, the Roman governor, examines Jesus, decides. In response to the screaming mob Pilate sends Jesus out to be crucified. According to the Gospel of Matthew, the betrayer, is filled with remorse and tries to return the money he was paid for betraying Jesus; when the high priests say that, his affair, Judas throws the money into the temple, goes off, hangs himself. Golgotha, a hill outside Jerusalem morning through mid afternoon. Jesus dies; the Gospel of Luke states that Pilate sends Jesus to be judged by Herod Antipas because as a Galilean he is under his jurisdiction. Herod hopes Jesus will perform a miracle for him. Herod mocks him and sends him back to Pilate after giving him an "elegant" robe to wear. All the Gospels relate. Matthew and John have Pilate offer a choice between Jesus and Barabbas to the crowd.
In all the Gospels, Pilate asks Jesus if he is King of the Jews and Jesus replies "So you say". Once condemned by Pilate, he was flogged before execution; the Canonical Gospels, except Luke, record that Jesus is taken by the soldiers to the Praetorium where, according to Matthew and Mark, the whole contingent of soldiers has been called together. They place a purple robe on him, put a crown of thorns on his head, according to Matthew, put a rod in his hand, they mock him by hailing him as "King of the Jews", paying homage and hitting him on the head with the rod. According to the Gospel of John, Pilate has Jesus brought out a second time, wearing the purple robe and the crown of thorns, in order to appeal his innocence before the crowd, saying Ecce homo. But, John represents, the priests urge the crowd to demand Jesus' death. Pilate resigns himself to the decision, washing his hands before the people as a sign that Jesus' blood will not be upon him. According to the Gospel of Matthew they replied, "His blood be on us and on our children!"Mark and Matthew record that Jesus is returned his own clothes, prior to being led out for execution.
According to the Gospel accounts he is forced, like other victims of crucifixion, to drag his own cross to Golgotha, the location of the execution. The three Synoptic Gospels refer to a man cal
Western Christianity is the Latin Church, Protestantism, together with the offshoots of these such as independent Catholicism and Restorationist churches taken together. The large majority of the world's 2.4 billion Christians are Western Christians. The original and still major part, the Latin Church, developed under the bishop of Rome in the former Western Roman Empire in Antiquity. Out of the Latin Church emerged a wide variety of independent Protestant denominations, including Lutheranism and Anglicanism, starting from the Protestant Reformation in the 16th century, as did Independent Catholicism in the 19th century. Thus, the term "Western Christianity" does not describe a single communion or religious denomination, but is applied to distinguish all these denominations collectively from Eastern Christianity; the establishment of the distinct Latin Church, a particular church sui iuris of the Catholic Church coincided with the consolidation of the Holy See in Rome, where the bishop claimed a particular role since Antiquity.
The terms "Western" and "Eastern" in this regard originated with geographical divisions mirroring the cultural divide between the Hellenistic east and Latin West, the political divide between the Western and Eastern Roman empires. During the Middle Ages adherents of the Latin Church, irrespective of ethnicity referred to themselves as "Latins" to distinguish themselves from Eastern Christians. With the expansion of European colonialism from the Early Modern era, the Latin Church, in time along with its Protestant secessions, spread throughout the Americas, much of the Philippines, Southern Africa, pockets of West Africa, throughout Australia, New Zealand. Thus, when used for historical periods after the 16th century, the term "Western Christianity" does not refer to a particular geographical area, but is rather used as a collective term for the Latin Church, the Protestant denominations, Independent Catholicism that trace their lineage to the original Latin Church in Western Europe. Today, the geographical distinction between Western and Eastern Christianity is not nearly as absolute as in Antiquity or the Middle Ages, due to the spread of Christian missionaries and globalisation.
The adjectives "Western Christianity" and "Eastern Christianity" are used to refer to historical origins and differences in theology and liturgy, rather than present geographical locations. While the Latin Church maintain the Latin liturgical rites, Protestant denominations and Independent Catholicism retain a wide variety of liturgical practices. For most of its history the church in Europe has been culturally divided between the Latin-speaking west, whose centre was Rome, the Greek-speaking east, whose centre was Constantinople. Cultural differences and political rivalry created tensions between the two churches, leading to disagreement over doctrine and ecclesiology and to schism. Like Eastern Christianity, Western Christianity traces its roots directly to the apostles and other early preachers of the religion. In Western Christianity's original area Latin was the principal language. Christian writers in Latin had more influence there than those who wrote in Greek, Syriac, or other Eastern languages.
Though the first Christians in the West used Greek, by the fourth century Latin had superseded it in the cosmopolitan city of Rome, while there is evidence of a Latin translation of the Bible in the 2nd century in southern Gaul and the Roman province of Africa. With the decline of the Roman Empire, distinctions appeared in organization, since the bishops in the West were not dependent on the Emperor in Constantinople and did not come under the influence of the Caesaropapism in the Eastern Church. While the see of Constantinople became dominant throughout the Emperor's lands, the West looked to the see of Rome, which in the East was seen as that of one of the five patriarchs of the Pentarchy, "the proposed government of universal Christendom by five patriarchal sees under the auspices of a single universal empire. Formulated in the legislation of the emperor Justinian I in his Novella 131, the theory received formal ecclesiastical sanction at the Council in Trullo, which ranked the five sees as Rome, Alexandria and Jerusalem."Over the centuries, disagreements separated Western Christianity from the various forms of Eastern Christianity: first from East Syriac Christianity after the Council of Ephesus from that of Oriental Orthodoxy after the Council of Chalcedon, from Eastern Orthodoxy with the East-West Schism of 1054.
With the last-named form of Eastern Christianity, reunion agreements were signed at the Second Council of Lyon and the Council of Florence, but these proved ineffective. The rise of Protestantism led to major divisions within Western Christianity, which still persist, wars—for example, the Anglo-Spanish War of 1585–1604 had religious as well as economic causes. In and after the Age of Discovery, Europeans spread Western Christianity to the New World and elsewhere. Roman Catholicism came to the Americas, Asia and the Pacific. Protestantism, including Anglicanism, came to North America, Australia-Pacific and some African locales. Today, the geographical distinction between Western and Eastern Christianity is now much less absolute, due to the great migrations of Europeans across the globe, as well as the work of missionaries worldwide over the past five centuries. Although "original sin" can be taken to mea
Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Boston
The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Boston is an ecclesiastical territory or Archdiocese of the Roman Catholic Church in the New England region of the United States. It comprises several counties of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, it is led by a prelate archbishop who serves as pastor of the mother church, Cathedral of the Holy Cross in the South End of Boston. As of 2017, there are 288 parishes in the archdiocese. In 2007, the archdiocese estimated that more than 1.8 million Catholics were in the territory, of whom about 315,000 attended Mass. The original Diocese of Boston was canonically erected on April 8, 1808 by Pope Pius VII, it took its territories from the larger historic Diocese of Baltimore and consisted of the states of Connecticut, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island and Vermont. In the nineteenth century, as Catholicism grew exponentially in New England, the Diocese of Boston was carved into smaller new dioceses: on November 28, 1843, Pope Gregory XVI erected the Diocese of Hartford.
On February 12, 1875, Pope Pius IX elevated the diocese to the rank of an archdiocese. In the 1920s, Cardinal William O'Connell moved the chancery from offices near Holy Cross Cathedral in the South End to 127 Lake Street in Brighton. "Lake Street" became the office of the Archdiocese. At the beginning of the 21st century the archdiocese was shaken by accusations of sexual abuse by clergy that culminated in the resignation of its archbishop, Cardinal Bernard Francis Law, on December 13, 2002. In September 2003, the archdiocese settled over 500 abuse-related claims for $85 million. Victims received an average of $92,000 each and the perpetrators included 140 priests and two others. In June 2004, the archbishop's residence and the chancery in Brighton and surrounding lands were sold to Boston College, in part to defray costs associated with abuse cases; the offices of the Archdiocese were moved to Massachusetts. The diocesan seminary, Saint John's Seminary, remains on the property in Brighton; the diocesan newspaper The Pilot has been published in Boston since 1829.
The Archdiocese's Catholic Television Center, founded in 1955, produces programs and operates the cable television network CatholicTV. From 1964 to 1966, it owned and operated a broadcast television station under the call letters WIHS-TV; the Archdiocese of Boston is metropolitan see for the Ecclesiastical province of Boston. This means; the suffragan dioceses in the province are the Diocese of Burlington, Diocese of Fall River, Diocese of Manchester, Diocese of Portland, Diocese of Springfield in Massachusetts, the Diocese of Worcester. The Archdiocese of Boston is divided into five pastoral regions, each headed by an episcopal vicar; the following are lists of the Bishops and Archbishops of Boston, Auxiliaries of Boston, their years of service. Included are other priests of this diocese who served elsewhere as bishop. Jean-Louis Lefebvre de Cheverus appointed Bishop of Montauban and Archbishop of Bordeaux Benedict Joseph Fenwick, S. J. John Bernard Fitzpatrick John Joseph Williams. F. M. Cap. John Brady Joseph Gaudentius Anderson John Bertram Peterson, appointed Bishop of Manchester Francis Spellman, appointed Archbishop of New York Richard J. Cushing, appointed Archbishop of Boston Louis Francis Kelleher John Wright, appointed Bishop of Pittsburgh and Prefect of the Congregation for the Clergy Thomas Francis Markham Eric Francis MacKenzie Jeremiah Francis Minihan Thomas Joseph Riley Daniel A. Cronin, appointed Bishop of Fall River and Archbishop of Hartford Lawrence Joseph Riley Joseph Francis Maguire, appointed Coadjutor Bishop and Bishop of Springfield in Massachusetts Joseph John Ruocco John Joseph Mulcahy Thomas Vose Daily, appointed Bishop of Palm Beach and Bishop of Brooklyn John Michael D'Arcy, appointed Bishop of Fort Wayne-South Bend Daniel Anthony Hart, appointed Bishop of Norwich Alfred C.
Hughes, appointed Bishop of Baton Rouge and Archbishop of New Orleans Robert J. Banks, appointed Bishop of Green Bay Roberto Octavio González Nieves, O. F. M. Appointed Coadjutor Bishop and Bishop of Corpus Christi and Archbishop of San Juan in Puerto Rico John R. McNamara John P. Boles John Brendan McCormack, appointed Bishop of Manchester William F. Murphy, appointed Bishop of Rockville Centre Emilio S. Allué, S. D. B. Francis Xavier Irwin Richard Joseph Malone, appointed Bishop of Portland and Bishop of Buffalo Richard Lennon, appointed Bishop of Cleveland Walter James Edyvean Robert Francis Hennessey John Anthony Dooher Peter John Uglietto Arthur L. Kennedy Robert P. Deeley, appointed Bishop of Portland Mark William O'Connell R
The Apostolic Fathers were Christian theologians who lived in the 1st and 2nd centuries AD, who are believed to have known some of the Twelve Apostles, or to have been influenced by them. Their writings, though popular in Early Christianity, were not included in the canon of the New Testament. Many of the writings derive from the same time period and geographical location as other works of early Christian literature which came to be part of the New Testament; some of the writings found among the Apostolic Fathers appear to have been regarded as some of the writings which became the New Testament. The label Apostolic Fathers has been applied to these writers only since the 17th century, to indicate that they were thought of as representing the generation that had personal contact with the Twelve Apostles; the earliest known use of the term "Apostolic Fathers" was by William Wake in 1693, when he was chaplain in ordinary to King William and Queen Mary of England. According to the Catholic Encyclopedia, the use of the term Apostolic Fathers can be traced to the title of a 1672 work by Jean-Baptiste Cotelier, SS.
Patrum qui temporibus apostolicis floruerunt opera, abbreviated to Bibliotheca Patrum Apostolicorum by L. J. Ittig in his 1699 edition of the same; the history of the title for these writers was explained by Joseph Lightfoot, in his 1890 translation of the Apostolic Fathers' works:...he expression itself does not occur, so far as I have observed, until comparatively recent times. Its origin, or at least its general currency, should be traced to the idea of gathering together the literary remains of those who flourished in the age succeeding the Apostles, who therefore were their direct personal disciples; this idea first took shape in the edition of Cotelier during the last half of the seventeenth century. Indeed such a collection would have been an impossibility a few years earlier; the first half of that century saw in print for the first time the Epistles of Clement, of Barnabas, to say nothing of the original Greek of Polycarp's Epistle and the Ignatian Letters in their genuine form. The materials therefore would have been too scanty for such a project at any previous epoch.
In his title page however Cotelier does not use the actual expression, though he approximates to it, SS. Patrum qui temporibus Apostolicis floruerunt opera; the following writings are grouped together as having been written by the Apostolic Fathers: All or most of these works were written in Greek. Older English translations of these works can be found online in the Ante-Nicene Fathers series on the Christian Classics Ethereal Library website. Published English translations have been made by various scholars of early Christianity, such as Joseph Lightfoot, Kirsopp Lake, Bart D. Ehrman and Michael W. Holmes; the first English translation of the Apostolic Fathers' works was published in 1693, by William Wake rector of Westminster St James Archbishop of Canterbury. It was the only English translation available until the mid-19th century. Since its publication many better manuscripts of the Apostolic Fathers' works have been discovered. There are several Greek text editions: The Apostolic Fathers.
Vol. 1. I Clement. II Clement. Ignatius. Polycarp. Didache. Barnabas. Loeb Classical Library. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1912 Kirsopp Lake The Apostolic Fathers. Vol. 2. Shepherd of Hermas. Martyrdom of Polycarp. Epistle to Diognetus. Loeb Classical Library. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1913 Kirsopp Lake The Apostolic Fathers. Vol. 1. I Clement. II Clement. Ignatius. Polycarp. Didache. Loeb Classical Library. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2003 Bart Ehrman The Apostolic Fathers. Vol. 2. Epistle of Barnabas. Papias and Quadratus. Epistle to Diognetus; the Shepherd of Hermas. Loeb Classical Library. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2005 Bart Ehrman The Apostolic Fathers: Greek Texts and English Translations. 3rd Edition. Grand Rapids: Baker, 2007 Michael Holmes Die Apostolischen Väter. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 1992 Andreas Lindemann and Henning Paulsen The First Epistle of Clement was copied and read and is considered to be the oldest Christian epistle in existence outside of the New Testament.
The letter is lengthy, twice as long as the Epistle to the Hebrews, it demonstrates the author's familiarity with many books of both the Old Testament and New Testament. The epistle refers to the Old Testament as scripture and includes numerous references to the Book of Judith, thereby establishing usage or at least familiarity with Judith in his time. Within the letter, Clement calls on the Christians of Corinth to maintain order. Tradition identifies the author as Clement, bishop of Rome, scholarly consensus is overwhelmingly in favor of the letter's authenticity. Early church lists place him as the second or third bishop of Rome, although "there is no evidence for monarchical episcopacy in Rome at so early a date"; the Second Epistle of Clement was traditionally ascribed to Clement, but it is now considered to have been written c. AD 140–160, therefore could not be the work of Clement, who died in AD 99. Whereas 1 Clement was an epistle, 2 Clement appears to be a transcript of an oral homily or sermon, making it the oldest surviving Christian sermon outside of the New Testament.
Ignatius of Antioch (also known a
Rogation days are days of prayer and fasting in Western Christianity. They are observed with the Litany of the Saints; the so-called major rogation is held on 25 April. The word rogation comes from the Latin verb rogare, meaning "to ask", which reflects the beseeching of God for the appeasement of his anger and for protection from calamities; the Christian major rogation replaced a pagan Roman procession known as Robigalia, at which a dog was sacrificed to propitiate Robigus, the deity of agricultural disease. The practitioners observing Robigalia asked Robigus for protection of their crops from wheat rust; the minor rogation days were introduced around AD 470 by Mamertus, bishop of Vienne, adopted elsewhere. Their observance was ordered by the Council of Orleans in 511, though the practice was spreading in Gaul during the 7th century, it was not adopted into the Roman rite until the reign of Pope Leo III; the faithful observed the rogation days by fasting and abstinence in preparation to celebrate the Ascension, farmers had their crops blessed by a priest at this time.
Violet vestments are worn at the rogation litany and its associated Mass, regardless of what colour is worn at the ordinary liturgies of the day. A common feature of Rogation days in former times was the ceremony of beating the bounds, in which a procession of parishioners, led by the minister and choirboys, would proceed around the boundary of their parish and pray for its protection in the forthcoming year; this was known as'Gang-day', after the old English name for going or walking. This was a feature of the original Roman festival, when revellers would walk to a grove five miles from the city to perform their rites. In traditional Methodist usage, The Book of Worship for Church and Home provides the following as one of the prayers for rogation days: O God, who hast placed us as thy children in a world thou hast created for us: Give us thankful hearts as we work and as we pray. We praise thee for the day of light and life, for the night which brings rest and sleep, for the ordered course of nature and harvest, which thou hast given us.
We bless thee that thou hast given us the joy of the wisdom of old men. We thank thee for all holy and humble men of heart, for the love of God and man which shines forth in commonplace lives, above all for the vision of thyself, in loneliness and in fellowship, in Sacrament and in prayer. Amen; the reform of the Liturgical Calendar for Latin Roman Catholics in 1969 delegated the establishment of Rogation Days, along with Ember Days, to the episcopal conferences. Their observance in the Latin Church subsequently declined, but the observance has revived somewhat since 1988 and since 2007 when the use of older rites was encouraged. In Montier-en-Der, Rogation Day processions were said to be events. Miracle books reported a blind woman being healed and the lame being able to walk. In Germany it was traditional for the local schoolmaster, rather than priest, to lead the procession; the Rogation Day ceremonies are thought to have arrived in the British Isles in the 7th century. The oldest known Sarum text regarding Rogation Days is dated from around 1173 to 1220.
In it, celebrations in the south of England are described, in which processions were led by members of the congregation carrying banners which represented various biblical characters. At the head of the procession was the dragon, representing Pontius Pilate, which would be followed by a lion, representing Christ. After this there would be images of saints carried by the rest of the congregation. Many torches were present at each procession, weighing between 42 lb and 27 lbs, which were bought by the church and parishioners jointly. Sarum texts from the 13th and 15th centuries show that the dragon was moved to the rear of the procession on the vigil of the Ascension, with the lion taking the place at the front. Illustrations of the procession from the early 16th century show that the arrangements had been changed yet again, this time showing bearers of reliquaries and incense. During the reign of King Henry VIII, Rogation processions were used as a way to assist crop yields, with a notable number of the celebrations taking place in 1543 when there were prolonged rains.
Before religious sensibilities turned towards the puritanical, there were concerns about the lack of piety at such events. Robert Herrick, penned a piece to capture the mood of the celebrations before their repression: Dearest, bury meUnder that Holy-oak, or Gospel Tree Where thou may'st think upon Me, when you yearly go'st Procession During the reign of King Edward VI, the Crown having taken much of the Church's holdings within the country, liturgical ceremonies were not condoned or recognised as an official part of worship. However, in the reign of Queen Elizabeth I the celebrations were explicitly mentioned in the royal reformation, allowing them to resume as public processions. Rogation processions continued in the post-Reformation Church of England much as they had before, Anglican priests were encouraged to bring their congregations together for inter-parish processions. At specific intervals, clerics were to remind their congregations to be thankful for their harvests. Psalms 103 and 104 were sung, people were reminded of the curses the Bible ascribed to those who violated agricultural boundaries.
The processions were not mandat