click links in text for more info

Federal Court of Justice

The Federal Court of Justice in Karlsruhe is the highest court in the system of ordinary jurisdiction in Germany. It is the supreme court in all matters of private law. A decision handed down by the BGH can be reversed only by the Federal Constitutional Court of Germany in the rare cases that the Constitutional Court rules on constitutionality. Before the Federal Court of Justice of Germany was created in its present form, Germany has had several prior highest courts: As early as 1495 there was the so-called Reichskammergericht, which existed until 1806; as from 1870, in the time of the North German Confederation, there was the Bundesoberhandelsgericht in Leipzig. In 1871, it was renamed to Reichsoberhandelsgericht and its area of responsibility was amplified as well; this court was unsoldered by the Reichsgericht at October 1, 1879, in Leipzig. On 1 October 1950, five years after the German Reich had collapsed, the Bundesgerichtshof —as it exists nowadays— was founded. Together with the Federal Administrative Court of Germany, the Federal Finance Court of Germany, the Federal Labor Court of Germany and the Federal Social Court of Germany, the Federal Court of Justice is one of the highest courts of Germany today, located in Karlsruhe and Leipzig.

The Federal Court of Justice of Germany is subdivided in twenty-five senates: Twelve are civil panels, five are the criminal panels and eight are special panels. The Federal Court of Justice is to develop the law, it just reconsiders the legal assessment of a case as a court of last resort. To that effect, it can be differentiated in the area of responsibility of the Federal Court of Justice: In civil law, it reconsiders decrees of the regional courts and of the regional appeal courts. In some special cases, it reconsiders first-instance decrees of the local courts and the regional courts, it can decide that an application for revision is improper the or that it is valid, when it decides the case. In criminal law, it has to decide about applications for revision against first-instance decrees of the regional courts the regional appeal courts, it has to decide. It can decide without a main trial. In any other case, it decides the legal remedy after a main trial, it decides the Vorlagesachen. If a regional appeal court plans to differ from a decision of another regional appeal court or a decision of the Federal Court of Justice, it has to inform the Federal Court of Justice, which decides the case and protects the unity of the jurisdiction.

Since 2000, its decisions have been published on its official website. Judges of the Federal Court of Justice are selected by an electoral committee, which consists of the Secretaries of Justice of the 16 German Bundesländer and of 16 representatives appointed by the German Federal Parliament. Once a judge has been chosen by this committee, he or she is appointed by the President of Germany. Only individuals who possess German citizenship within the meaning of Art. 116 of the Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany, who are formally qualified to serve as a judge in accordance with § 9 DRiG and are at minimum 35 years of age can be appointed as a Judge at the Federal Court of Justice. Horst Hagen Fritz Hauß Burkhard Jähnke Gerda Müller Joachim Wenzel In all civil cases heard by the Federal Court of Justice, the parties need to be represented by an attorney, admitted to the bar at the Federal Court of Justice; this admission is the only'special' admission within the German court system, in that an attorney at the Federal Court of Justice for civil cases cannot appear in any other court in the country.

Admission at the Bundesgerichtshof is selective. Candidates for admission are nominated by an electoral committee and are chosen and appointed by the Federal Ministry of Justice; the requirement for a representative admitted to the Federal Court of Justice does not apply in criminal cases. Here, representation by any lawyer admitted to the bar in Germany suffices. Brockhaus in drei Bänden. 2006. P. 839. ISBN 978-3-7653-1514-5. Meyers Großes Taschenlexikon in 24 Bänden. 2006. P. 1038. ISBN 978-3-411-10063-7. "The Federal Court of Justice". Karlsruhe, Leipzig: Federal Court of Justice of Germany. 2014. Official website


Guineesine is an alkaloid isolated from long pepper and black pepper. Guineensine inhibits the cellular reuptake of anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol in a mouse model; this causes an increase in the activity of the two neurotransmitters which are classified as endogenous cannabinoids. Guineesine can dose-dependently produce cannabimimetic effects in a mouse model which are indicated by potent catatonic, hypo-locomotive and hypo-thermic effects. In addition, the analgesic and catatonic effects were reversed by the cannabinoid receptor type 1 inverse agonist rimonabant. Guineesine is a monoamine oxidase inhibitor in vitro

Murat-beg Tardić

Murat-beg Tardić was an Ottoman general. Tardić was born to a Croatian family in Šibenik, where he had a brother called Juraj; as a young man he was enslaved as a prisoner of war and converted to Islam but under Gazi Husrev-beg he entered the Ottoman military, where he rose through the ranks. As a close associate of Gazi Husrev-beg, he led numerous military conquests against the Croatian army in northern Bosnia and Croatia. In 1528, Murat-beg led the conquest of Jajce. In 1536, Murad-beg Tardić was charged by Suleiman the Magnificent with 8,000 men to lay siege to the Klis Fortress under Petar Kružić, he was successful in the Siege of Klis, occupying it in 1537. For his military services he was put in charge of the Klis Sanjak with the title Beg; as the first Sanjak-Beg of Klis, he built a notable mosque in the town. He was made the beg of the Sanjak of Pojega in 1541 or in 1543, he is believed to have died in May 1545. He was buried in one of the two mausoleums next to the Gazi Husrev-beg Mosque in Sarajevo

Checkered garter snake

The checkered garter snake is a species of garter snake in the subfamily Natricinae of the family Colubridae. The species is endemic to the southwestern United States and Central America; the specific epithet, marcianus, is in honor of American Brigadier General Randolph B. Marcy, who led surveying expeditions to the frontier areas in the mid 19th century; the checkered garter snake is greenish in color, with a distinct, black checkerboard pattern down its back. It is capable of growing to a total length of 42 inches, but is 18 to 24 inches; the preferred habitats of T. marcianus are desert and grassland close to water. The diet of T. marcianus includes small frogs, small fish, earthworms. If kept as a pet, it can be trained on live or freeze-thawed mice, but so, it is fussy eater and can start to refuse mice at any point. T. marcianus will bite if provoked. It will release a foul-smelling liquid from its cloaca onto attackers. T. marcianus has been found to have mild venom. Two subspecies of T. marcianus are recognized as being valid, including the nominotypical subspecies.

T. m. marcianus T. m. praeocularis Nota bene: A trinomial authority in parentheses indicates that the subspecies was described in a genus other than Thamnophis. The checkered garter snake is the easiest garter snake to tame. A wild-caught one can become tame in a few days if handled carefully; the checkered garter snake is available in the exotic pet trade, makes a hardy captive animal. It can be trained to accept mice or fish fillets as food. Captive breeding, while not common, is done, albino variants are being produced. Species Thamnophis marcianus at The Reptile Database Http:// Baird SF, Girard CF. Catalogue of North American Reptiles in the Museum of the Smithsonian Institution. Part I.—Serpents. Washington, District of Columbia: Smithsonian Institution. Xvi + 172 pp.. Behler JL, King FW; the Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Reptiles and Amphibians. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, Inc. 743 pp. ISBN 0-394-50824-6.. Schmidt KP, Davis DD. Field Book of Snakes of the United States and Canada.

New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons. 365 pp.. Smith HM, Brodie ED Jr. Reptiles of North America: A Guide to Field Identification. New York: Golden Press. 240 pp. ISBN 0-307-13666-3.. Stebbins RC. A Field Guide to Western Reptiles and Amphibians, Third Edition; the Peterson Field Guide Series ®. Boston and New York: Houghton Mifflin Company. Xiii + 533 pp. ISBN 978-0-395-98272-3.. Stejneger L, Barbour T. A Check List of North American Amphibians and Reptiles. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. 125 pp.. Wright AH, Wright AA. Handbook of Snakes of the United States and Canada. Ithaca and London: Comstock Publishing Associates. 1,105 pp

Evangelical Church of the Augsburg Confession in Poland

The Evangelical Church of the Augsburg Confession in Poland is a Lutheran denomination and the largest Protestant body in Poland with about 61,000 members and 133 parishes. The Evangelical Church of the Augsburg Confession stems from the Reformation which began in October 1517; the first Lutheran sermons took place in 1518, in 1523 the first Lutheran dean, Johann Heß, was called to the city of Breslau, whence Lutheranism spread through the Polish lands. In interwar Poland the Evangelical-Augsburg church was the largest Protestant denomination, with about half a million followers, but unlike in post-WWII Poland it was not the only Lutheran church in the country, it competed for the hearts of Lutherans living in the territory of the revived Polish state with the Evangelical Union Church in Greater Poland, with the Augsburg and Helvetic Evangelical Church in the areas of the Austrian partition, with other churches. Its adherents dominated in the Protestant circles in central Poland, which had formed part of Russia prior to 1918, while the other churches were based in the south and west of the newly established country.

In 1918 the Lutheran parishes of Cieszyn Silesia were incorporated into the structures of the Evangelical-Augsburg church, raising the overall number of its followers by about 100,000, although about half of these parishes left the church in 1920 when a significant section of the area became part of Czechoslovakia following the Polish-Czechoslovak War of January 1919. They were reincorporated in 1938 when Poland gained control over Zaolzie after a military intervention; the greatest challenge for the church before the outbreak of World War II in 1939 was the problem of nationalism, as about three quarters of all adherents in 1939 were German, the remaining quarter Polish. In the diocese of Łódź, largest in terms of the Lutheran population, more than 98% Lutherans were German, while in Silesia, comparable in terms of the number of adherents, more than 80% were Polish. German believers accused bishop Juliusz Bursche of Polonizing the church, which faced the danger of a split along national lines.

An important moment for the Evangelical-Augsburg church was the issuing of a presidential decree in 1936 which established the nature of the relationship between the church and the state and the former’s internal structure. The decree affirmed the territorial division of the church into ten dioceses with a total of 117 parishes; the church in Poland suffered during and after World War II. The ranks of pastors and other church leadership diminished due to persecution and death; the majority of ethnic Germans moved west from 1944 onwards. During the early postwar years, a number of church properties were taken over for other purposes, the connections of Protestant Lutheranism to the German cultural sphere made authorities and Polish locals inimical towards the remaining Lutherans; the Evangelical Church of Augsburg Confession in Poland has reshaped itself into an active body. On 12 October 2008, Polish president Lech Kaczyński—himself of the Catholic faith—visited the Lutheran Protestant Jesus Church in Cieszyn, becoming the first President of Poland to visit a Protestant place of worship.

The church's six dioceses form a wide swath from north to south down the middle of Poland—from Warmia-Masuria and Gdańsk in the north, near the Baltic, to the region west and southwest of Kraków in the south, toward the Czech Republic border. Direct descendants of Reformation forebears live around Upper Silesia; that is where most Polish Lutherans can be found, with c. 47,000 of the church's followers living in Silesian Voivodeship. The 2011 census data points to a uneven distribution of the Polish Lutheran population across the country scarce in the eastern provinces; the church has 133 parishes, 186 churches and 151 chapels, is served by 153 pastors and other church workers. Many pastors serve multiple preaching points and are challenged by diverse demands as well as the need for innovation in a changing society; the congregations are self-governing, each has its own parish council. As of 2018, there were 61,217 adherent faithful in the church. Though numbers of church members are lower than they were in the past, the Evangelical Church of the Augsburg Confession still remains the largest Protestant body in Poland.

As a Lutheran church in a country, nearly 90 percent Roman Catholic, the church faces challenges in upholding a Protestant education at various levels, whether in Sunday schools, catechetical instruction, or in connection with the public schools, where Catholic religious education is part of the curriculum. The main priorities of the church are in deaconic work among single and disabled persons; the senior ordained member of the denomination is called the Bishop of the Church. The office is filled by election, the Bishop of the Church serves for ten years, he is based at the Church headquarters in Warsaw. The Church's official website describes the role of the Bishop of the Church as: "His service is to minister the Word of God and the Sacraments, he guards the whole Church, so that God’s Word is proclaimed faithfully and clearly. The Bishop of the Church is the “Pastor of the pastors”." The office is held by Bishop Jerzy Samiec. Under the Bishop of the Church there are four authoritative bodies.

The House of Bishops consists of the Bishop of the Church (Prim

Mohamed Alabbar

Mohamed Alabbar, is an Emirati businessman and global entrepreneur. He is best known as the founder and chairman of Emaar Properties, the developer of assets such as the Burj Khalifa and the Dubai Mall, as well as the chairman of Eagle Hills, the Abu Dhabi based private investment and real estate development company, he is the founder and director of, an e-commerce ecosystem for the Arab world and largest GCC e-commerce company and the chairman of Americana Group, in food industries. Emaar Properties is one of the largest real estate development companies in the world with annual revenue of US$6.99 billion in 2018 and a market cap of over US$9.7 billion, known for developing the world's tallest building Burj Khalifa, the world's largest and most visited mall The Dubai Mall, which are part of Emaar's 500-acre flagship mega-development Downtown Dubai, as well as Dubai Creek Tower at the heart of the Dubai Creek Harbour masterplan, the 2,000-seat Dubai Opera, Dubai Marina, Emirates Hills, regarded as "the Beverly Hills of Dubai" and King Abdullah Economic City, established with King Abdullah of Saudi Arabia as one of the largest private developments in the region spanning 64 square miles.

Alabbar, who acts as a top adviser to the Ruler of Dubai and Vice President and Prime Minister of the United Arab Emirates, Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum served as the founding director general of the Dubai Department of Economic is a joint venture between the Public Investment Fund of Saudi Arabia and Mohamed Alabbar. Noon’s consumer platform first went live in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia on 12 December 2017 and has operations in KSA, the United Arab Emirates and Egypt. A digital e-commerce platform. Mohamed Alabbar is the eldest of 12 children. Alabbar's father was the captain of a traditional trading vessel known as a dhow and raised his children in the Rashidiya area of Dubai. In the 1970s, Alabbar received a government scholarship to study finance and business administration from The Albers School of Business and Economics at Seattle University. Alabbar graduated from Seattle University in 1981 with a degree in Business Administration, he received an honorary doctoral degree in humanities from his alma mater in 2007 and served on its Board of Trustees until 2016.

After college, Alabbar started off his career with the Central Bank of the United Arab Emirates as a banking manager. Alabbar relocated to Singapore and began working for the Dubai government as the director of Al Khaleej Investments, a government-owned company in Dubai with significant real estate interests in Singapore. In 1992, Alabbar returned to Dubai and began working for the government as the founding director general of the Department of Economic Development. Alabbar's career led him to establish a close relationship with Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum, the Ruler of Dubai, where he became one of Sheikh Mohammed's chief economic advisers. Alabbar worked with Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum to drive the development and growth of both Dubai's tourism industry and global reputation. In 1996, Alabbar initiated and organized the Dubai Shopping Festival which attracted over two million visitors for an entertainment and shopping event highlighted by street bazaars, fashion shows, food festivals and more.

That same year, Alabbar was selected by Advertising Age as one of their International Marketing Superstars of the year. Alabbar founded, an e-commerce marketplace in the Middle East, now the largest GCC e-commerce company, operational in the United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia and Egypt, operating through three fulfillment centers and 30 distribution centers. Alabbar has raised $1 billion from investors, half of, committed by the Public Investment Fund of Saudi Arabia, to spearhead what will be a string of major digital and e-commerce launches in the UAE, he met with Jeff Bezos, the founder and CEO of, in Dubai in November 2016. In March 2017, it was announced that would acquire Dubai-based e-commerce company, following which Alabbar submitted a competing $800 million bid via his Emaar Malls subsidiary. However culminated a deal with due to an exclusivity agreement signed prior to Alabbar's bid. Alabbar is Chairman of Abu Dhabi-based Eagle Hills Properties a private investment and real estate development company, responsible for projects including the Belgrade Waterfront, the St. Regis and W hotels in Amman and the Fairmont La Marina Rabat-Sale in Morocco.

In July 2016, he led two investor groups in buying a combined 16.45% stake in Dubai-based courier Aramex for $250 million. Alabbar was a lead investor in Boson Ventures Corporation, which purchased the entire 9.9 percent share that Aramex founder Fadi Ghandour held in the company. He was a lead investor in Jaona Investment, which acquired a 6.55 percent stake in Aramex. The stake was worth around AED523 million as per closing price, on July 25, 2016. Analysts said access to the package distribution company could help Alabbar build an online business. Alabbar, through Alabbar Enterprises, holds 4 per cent stake in online fashion retailer Yoox Net-a-Porter Group; this followed his equity investment of US$113 million in the Milan-listed company in April 2016. Under the deal, Alabbar holds 3,571,428 ordinary shares, has committed to an 18-month lock-up period on the subscribed shares. Yoox Net-A-Porter said Alabbar ‘would be key in developing its Middle Eastern e-commerce business.’ Alabbar formed a joint venture with Yoox Net-a-Porter Group in November 2016, via his Symphony Investments vehicle, that will operate in the Gulf Cooperation Council countries with the possibil