Foreign policy of the Ronald Reagan administration
The foreign policy of the Ronald Reagan administration was the foreign policy of the United States from 1981 to 1989. The main goal was winning the Cold War and the rollback of Communism—which was achieved in Eastern Europe in 1989 and in the end of the Soviet Union in 1991. It was characterized by a strategy of peace through strength and an escalation of Cold War tensions 1981-84, followed by a warming of relations with the Soviet Union, 1981-89. Reagan escalated the Cold War with the Soviet Union, marking a departure from the policy of détente by his predecessors Richard Nixon, Gerald Ford, negotiating position, and force the Soviets to devote more of their economic resources to defense. Most visible was the massive American military build-up, the administration revived the B-1 bomber program that had been canceled by the Carter administration and began production of the MX Peacekeeper missile. One of Reagans proposals was the Strategic Defense Initiative, Reagan believed this defense shield could make nuclear war impossible, but the unlikelihood that the technology could ever work led opponents to dub SDI Star Wars.
Supporters responded that SDI gave Reagan a stronger bargaining position, Soviet leaders became genuinely concerned. Reagan supported anti-communist groups around the world, in a policy which became known as the Reagan Doctrine, his administration funded freedom fighters such as the Contras in Nicaragua, the Mujahideen in Afghanistan, and UNITA in Angola. During the Soviet war in Afghanistan, Reagan deployed CIA Special Activities Division Paramilitary Officers to train and lead the Mujihadeen forces against the Soviet Army. Although the CIA in general and Charlie Wilson, a Texas Congressman, have received most of the attention, the key architect of this strategy was Michael G. Vickers, President Reagans Covert Action program has been given credit for assisting in ending the Soviet occupation of Afghanistan. When the Polish government suppressed the Solidarity movement in late 1981, Reagan argued that the American economy was on the move again while the Soviet economy had become stagnant. For a while the Soviet decline was masked by high prices for Soviet oil exports, in November 1985, the oil price was $30/barrel for crude, in March 1986 it had fallen to $12.
Reagans militant rhetoric inspired dissidents in the Soviet Empire, but startled allies, in a famous address to the National Association of Evangelicals on March 8,1983, he called the Soviet Union an evil empire that would be consigned to the ash heap of history. After Soviet fighters downed Korean Airlines Flight 007 on September 1,1983, Reagans description of the Soviet Union as an evil empire drew the wrath of some as provocative, but his description was staunchly defended by his conservative supporters. He elaborated on June 8 of 1982 to the British Parliament, Reagan argued that the Soviet Union was in deep economic crisis and stated that the Soviet Union runs against the tide of history by denying human freedom and human dignity to its citizens. This was before Gorbachev rose to power in 1985, Reagan wrote in his autobiography An American Life that he did not see the profound changes that would occur in the Soviet Union after Gorbachev rose to power. To confront the Soviet Unions serious economic problems, Gorbachev implemented bold new policies for freedom and openness called glasnost, Reagan relaxed his aggressive rhetoric toward the Soviet Union after Gorbachev became chairman of the Soviet Politburo in 1985, and took on a position of negotiating.
But the size of the Soviet armed forces was not necessarily the result of a simple action-reaction arms race with the United States, to restructure the Soviet economy before it collapsed, Gorbachev announced an agenda of rapid reform, based upon what he called perestroika and glasnost
Energy policy of the Barack Obama administration
The Energy Policy of the Obama administration, stated on U. S. President Barack Obamas website, lists the guiding principles of the administration regarding energy and the environment. They include creating new clean energy jobs and technologies, making America more energy independent, clean Edge lists other recent policies of the Obama Administration to support the clean energy sector in the U. S. In his 2011 State of the Union Address, President Obama called for a goal, in January 2017, President Obama published an article arguing that private-sector incentives will help drive decoupling of emissions and economic growth. He calls this the irreversible momentum of clean energy, which he says may occur independently of the policy choices of the Trump presidency. One of President Obamas suggestions for cleaner energy options was the use of power plants. But after the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami that hit Japan and its power plants, concerns have grown over the nuclear plants in California because, similar to Japan, they are located on fault lines.
In a speech on March 31,2010 at Andrews Air Force Base, the presidents plan includes initiatives such as raising fuel efficiency standards. The Center for a New American Security wrote recommendations on how to improve upon the security plan. Climate change policy of the Obama administration
Criticism of United States foreign policy
Criticism of United States foreign policy encompasses a wide range of opinions and views on failures and shortcoming of United States policies and actions. American exceptionalism has widespread implications and transcribes into disregard to the norms, rules. Critics of American exceptionalism drew parallels with such doctrines as civilizing mission. From its founding, many of the leaders of the young American government had hoped for a non-interventionist foreign policy that promoted commerce with all nations, alliance with none. However, this quickly became increasingly difficult to pursue, with growing implicit threats and non-military pressure faced from several powers. After the American Revolution, the United States immediately began juggling its foreign policy between many different views under the George Washington cabinet. However and the Federalists desired favorable terms with the Bank of England in the hopes of establishing enough credit with the Crown to establish an American national banking system.
Hamiltons camp would take the day and influenced Washington to remain neutral during the conflict, destroying relations with France. Under the presidency of John Adams an undeclared naval war broke out from 1798 until 1799 against France, often called the Quasi War, in addition, the United States would come under the influence of British banking power and regulations, heightening tensions between Democratic-Republicans and Federalists. While U. S. relations with the many Native American nations changed routinely throughout history, after a long period of respect for sovereignty, United States policy for Indian territories shifted significantly again after the Civil War. Previously, the pro-State Rights government believed in the legitimacy of Indian Nations sovereignty, after the conclusion of the Civil War, views on the sovereignty of Indian nations diminished, as the United States government vested greater powers within the federal government. Over time, the U. S. government found more and more justifications for revoking Indian lands and it has been criticized for the war with Mexico in the 1840s which some see as a theft of land.
Generally during the 19th century, and in parts of the 20th century. After World War I, Time Magazine writer John L. Steele thought the U. S. tried to return to an isolationist stance and he wrote, The anti-internationalist movement reached a peak of influence in the years just before World War II. But Steele questioned whether this policy was effective, isolationism ended quickly after the attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941. The U. S. waffled, there was no vision, public opinion in different regions of the world thinks that, to some extent, the 9/11 attacks were an outgrowth of substandard U. S. policy towards the region. The Vietnam War has been called a mistake by some. The U. S. supported the secession of Kosovo form FR Yugoslavia in 1999, such unilateral policies have broken European and international treaties but have been dismissed as unique by the US
Cocaine, known as coke, is a strong stimulant mostly used as a recreational drug. It is commonly snorted, inhaled, or injected into the veins, mental effects may include loss of contact with reality, an intense feeling of happiness, or agitation. Physical symptoms may include a fast heart rate, high doses can result in very high blood pressure or body temperature. Effects begin within seconds to minutes of use and last between five and ninety minutes, Cocaine has a small number of accepted medical uses such as numbing and decreasing bleeding during nasal surgery. Cocaine is addictive due to its effect on the pathway in the brain. After a short period of use, there is a risk that dependence will occur. Its use increases the risk of stroke, myocardial infarction, lung problems in those who smoke it, blood infections, Cocaine sold on the street is commonly mixed with local anesthetics, quinine, or sugar which can result in additional toxicity. Following repeated doses a person may have decreased ability to feel pleasure, Cocaine acts by inhibiting the reuptake of serotonin and dopamine.
This results in concentrations of these three neurotransmitters in the brain. It can easily cross the barrier and may lead to the breakdown of the barrier. Cocaine is made from the leaves of the plant which are mostly grown in South America. In 2013,419 kilograms were produced legally and it is estimated that the illegal market for cocaine is 100 to 500 billion USD each year. With further processing crack cocaine can be produced from cocaine, after cannabis, cocaine is the most frequently used illegal drug globally. Between 14 and 21 million people use the drug each year, use is highest in North America followed by Europe and South America. Between one and three percent of people in the world have used cocaine at some point in their life. In 2013 cocaine use resulted in 4,300 deaths. The leaves of the plant have been used by Peruvians since ancient times. Cocaine was first isolated from the leaves in 1860, since 1961 the international Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs has required countries to make recreational use of cocaine a crime
Drug policy of the Netherlands
The drug policy of the Netherlands officially has four major objectives, To prevent recreational drug use and to treat and rehabilitate recreational drug users. To diminish public nuisance by drug users, to combat the production and trafficking of recreational drugs. By contrast, most other countries take the point of view that drug use is detrimental to society. This has caused friction between the Netherlands and other countries about the policy for cannabis, most notably with France, as of 2004, Belgium seems to be moving toward the Dutch model and a few local German legislators are calling for experiments based on the Dutch model. A new law came into force in the Netherlands requiring people to have membership cards to gain entry to coffeeshops and these cards are only available to residents of the Netherlands who apply for the card, known as a weed pass. This requirement was adopted by several provinces, including the cities of Maastricht. Entry into coffeeshops and the sale of cannabis in Amsterdam therefore remains permissible to anyone over the age of 18, maastricht’s association of coffeeshop owners lost in June 2012 in a Dutch court a legal challenge of the new rules against the citys mayor.
Amsterdam has decided to not enforce the new law and will continue to sell to tourists, large-scale dealing, production and export are prosecuted to the fullest extent of the law, even if it does not supply end users or coffeeshops with more than the allowed amounts. Exactly how coffeeshops get their supplies is rarely investigated, the average concentration of THC in the cannabis sold in coffeeshops has increased from 9% in 1998 to 18% in 2005. This means that less plant material has to be consumed to achieve the same effect, one of the reasons is plant breeding and use of greenhouse technology for illegal growing of cannabis in Netherlands. The former minister of Justice Piet Hein Donner announced in June 2007 that cultivation of cannabis shall continue to be illegal, the drug policy of the Netherlands is marked by its distinguishing between so called soft and hard drugs. An often used argument is that alcohol, which is claimed by scientists as a hard drug, is legal. This may refer to the Prohibition in the 1920s, when the U. S. government decided to ban all alcohol.
Prohibition created an opportunity for organized crime syndicates to smuggle alcohol. Cannabis remains a controlled substance in the Netherlands and both possession and production for use are still misdemeanors, punishable by fines. Coffeeshops are illegal but are flourishing nonetheless. This is an official version of a common practice in other European countries wherein law enforcement sets priorities regarding offenses on which it is important enough to spend limited resources. According to current gedoogbeleid the possession of an amount of five grams cannabis for personal use is not prosecuted
Medical cannabis, or medical marijuana is cannabis and cannabinoids that are prescribed by doctors for their patients. The use of cannabis as a medicine has not been rigorously tested due to production restrictions, there is a limited amount of evidence that suggests cannabis can reduce nausea and vomiting during chemotherapy, improve appetite in people with HIV/AIDS, and reduce chronic pain and muscle spasms. Short-term use increases the risk of minor and major adverse effects. Common side effects include dizziness, feeling tired, long-term effects of cannabis are not clear. Concerns include memory and cognition problems, risk of addiction, schizophrenia in people. The Cannabis plant has a history of use dating back thousands of years across many cultures. The American Academy of Pediatrics states that while cannabinoids may have potential as therapy for a number of medical conditions and they, along with the American Medical Association and the Minnesota Medical Association, call for moving cannabis out of DEA Schedule I to facilitate this research.
Synthetic cannabinoids are available as prescription drugs in some countries, examples include, australia is currently in the process of passing a law which would allow the use of marijuana for medical and scientific purposes. Many different cannabis strains are called medical cannabis. Since many varieties of the plant and plant derivatives all share the same name. A Cannabis plant includes more than 400 different chemicals, of which about 70 are cannabinoids, in comparison, typical government-approved medications contain only 1 or 2 chemicals. The number of chemicals in cannabis is one reason why treatment with cannabis is difficult to classify. A2014 review stated that the variations in ratio of CBD-to-THC in botanical and pharmaceutical preparations determines the therapeutic vs psychoactive effects of cannabis products, Medical cannabis has several potential beneficial effects. Evidence is moderate that it helps in chronic pain and muscle spasms, low quality evidence suggests its use for reducing nausea during chemotherapy, improving appetite in HIV/AIDS, improving sleep, and improving tics in Tourette syndrome.
When usual treatments are ineffective, cannabinoids have recommended for anorexia, migraine. The FDA finds that cannabis does not meet the criteria for accepted medical use due to lack of evidence regarding safety and it is recommended that cannabis use be stopped in pregnancy. Medical cannabis is somewhat effective in chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting and may be an option in those who do not improve following preferential treatment. Long-term cannabis use may cause nausea and vomiting, a known as cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome
YouTube is an American video-sharing website headquartered in San Bruno, California. The service was created by three former PayPal employees—Chad Hurley, Steve Chen, and Jawed Karim—in February 2005, Google bought the site in November 2006 for US$1.65 billion, YouTube now operates as one of Googles subsidiaries. Unregistered users can watch videos on the site, while registered users are permitted to upload an unlimited number of videos. Videos deemed potentially offensive are available only to registered users affirming themselves to be at least 18 years old, YouTube earns advertising revenue from Google AdSense, a program which targets ads according to site content and audience. YouTube was founded by Chad Hurley, Steve Chen, and Jawed Karim, Hurley had studied design at Indiana University of Pennsylvania, and Chen and Karim studied computer science together at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Karim could not easily find video clips of either event online and Chen said that the original idea for YouTube was a video version of an online dating service, and had been influenced by the website Hot or Not.
YouTube began as a venture capital-funded technology startup, primarily from an $11.5 million investment by Sequoia Capital between November 2005 and April 2006, YouTubes early headquarters were situated above a pizzeria and Japanese restaurant in San Mateo, California. The domain name www. youtube. com was activated on February 14,2005, the first YouTube video, titled Me at the zoo, shows co-founder Jawed Karim at the San Diego Zoo. The video was uploaded on April 23,2005, and can still be viewed on the site, YouTube offered the public a beta test of the site in May 2005. The first video to reach one million views was a Nike advertisement featuring Ronaldinho in November 2005. Following a $3.5 million investment from Sequoia Capital in November, the site grew rapidly, and in July 2006 the company announced that more than 65,000 new videos were being uploaded every day, and that the site was receiving 100 million video views per day. The site has 800 million unique users a month and it is estimated that in 2007 YouTube consumed as much bandwidth as the entire Internet in 2000.
The choice of the name www. youtube. com led to problems for a similarly named website, the sites owner, Universal Tube & Rollform Equipment, filed a lawsuit against YouTube in November 2006 after being regularly overloaded by people looking for YouTube. Universal Tube has since changed the name of its website to www. utubeonline. com, in October 2006, Google Inc. announced that it had acquired YouTube for $1.65 billion in Google stock, and the deal was finalized on November 13,2006. In March 2010, YouTube began free streaming of certain content, according to YouTube, this was the first worldwide free online broadcast of a major sporting event. On March 31,2010, the YouTube website launched a new design, with the aim of simplifying the interface, Google product manager Shiva Rajaraman commented, We really felt like we needed to step back and remove the clutter. In May 2010, YouTube videos were watched more than two times per day. This increased to three billion in May 2011, and four billion in January 2012, in February 2017, one billion hours of YouTube was watched every day
Arctic policy of the United States
The Arctic policy of the United States refers to the foreign policy of the United States in regard to the Arctic region. In addition, the United States domestic policy toward Alaska is part of its Arctic policy, since March 30,1867, the United States of America has been one of the eight Arctic nations and one of the five Arctic Ocean littoral countries. The United States has been a member of the Arctic Council since its inception in 1996,4 of the Arctic Councils 6 Permanent Participant indigenous organizations have representatives in Alaska. The United States is an observer of the Conference of Parliamentarians of the Arctic Region, Canada is the United States closest partner in Arctic affairs, due to geographic proximity and similar Arctic policy directives. The countries work together on research, including mapping the Arctic sea floor. Two significant disagreements are the border dispute in the Beaufort Sea, the current Arctic policy of the United States has its beginnings in the Nixon Administration.
In December 1971, President Nixon produced National Security Decision Memorandum 144 to address the United States stance toward the Arctic, the Arctic Environmental Protection Strategy was absorbed into the Arctic Council following the Yalta Declaration in 1997. In May 2008, five of the Arctic nations adopted the Illulissat Declaration which incorporates the law of the sea, the US has not ratified UNCLOS and is the only Arctic nation yet to join, even though the Clinton and Obama administrations have all favored ratifiction. The Arctic Council was the face of United States Arctic Policy until the latest National Security Presidential Directive was signed by President Bush on January 9,2009 and this impetus is unique to the United States during this time because of climate change in the region. US Arctic Region Policy Presidential Directive, a collaborative effort replacing the Clinton-era Arctic policy directive, NSPD-66 is the official, active Arctic policy being pursued by the Obama Administration and its departments.
The policy argues against the need for a treaty among Arctic nations similar to the Antarctic Treaty restricting commercial and military activities. At the March 29,2010, Arctic Five meeting in Ottawa, United States Secretary of State, Hillary Clinton, canadian Foreign Affairs Minister, Lawrence Cannon, said the meeting was not intended to, replace or undermine the Arctic Council. The diminishment of Arctic sea ice has provided the strongest impetus for a more assertive United States policy in the Arctic region, the United States focuses on numerous facets of the Arctic region in promoting and explaining their reasoning for a stronger policy position in the region. As an Arctic country with territory at stake, the United States is continuously pushing for an influence in the region to pursue industry. In addition, new passageways in commercial shipping may become available due to the breaking of ice, the population influx in the Arctic region is predicted to coincide with more commercial shipping, marine tourism, and the transportation of large passenger vessels.
This poses coverage gaps to the US Navy and US Coast Guard search, due to the non-military nature of the Arctic Council, the United States will need to pursue separate military agreements with other Arctic countries to ensure a protected and secure region. The APG is chaired by the Department of State and meets monthly to develop and implement US programs and policies in the Arctic, President Obama has called on the Task Force to develop federal recommendations for adapting to climate change impacts both domestically and internationally. The EOP is headed by the White House Chief of Staff, the CEQs Interagency Ocean Policy Task Force released its Final Recommendations July 19,2010
A drug policy is the policy, usually of a government, regarding the control and regulation of drugs considered dangerous, particularly those which are addictive. Governments try to combat drug addiction with policies which address both the demand and supply of drugs, as well as policies which can mitigate the harms of drug abuse, and for medical treatment. Supply side reduction involves measures such as enacting foreign policy aimed at eradicating the international cultivation of plants used to make drugs, Policies which may help mitigate the effects of drug abuse include needle exchange and drug substitution programs, as well as free facilities for testing a drugs purity. Drugs subject to control vary from jurisdiction to jurisdiction, for example, heroin is regulated almost everywhere, substances such as qat, codeine are regulated in some places, but not others. The International Opium Convention, signed in 1912 during the First International Opium Conference, was the first international drug control treaty and it went into force globally in 1919 when it was incorporated into the Treaty of Versailles in 1919.
A revised Convention was registered in League of Nations Treaty Series in 1928 and it imposed some restrictions—not total prohibition—on the export of Indian hemp. In 1961 it was superseded by the international Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs to control global drug trading, the Convention banned countries from treating addicts by prescribing illegal substances, allowing only scientific and medical uses of drugs. It did not detail precise drug laws and was not itself binding on countries, the federal jurisdiction has enforcement powers over national borders. In October 2016, Australia legislated for some medicinal use cannabis, compared with other EU countries the drug policy of Germany is considered to be rather progressive but still stricter than, for example, in the Netherlands. In 1994 the Federal Constitutional Court ruled that drug addiction was not a crime, in 2000 the German narcotic law was changed to allow for supervised drug injection rooms. In 2002, a study was started in seven German cities to evaluate the effects of heroin-assisted treatment on addicts.
The positive results of the led to the inclusion of heroin-assisted treatment into the services of the mandatory health insurance in 2009. Liberia prohibits drugs such as cocaine and marijuana and its drug laws are enforced by the Drug Enforcement Agency. Drug policy in the Netherlands is based on two principles, that use is a health issue, not a criminal issue. The Netherlands is currently the country to have implemented a wide scale. It was one of the first countries to introduce heroin-assisted treatment, from 2008, a number of town councils have closed many so called coffee shops that sold cannabis or implemented other new restrictions for sale of cannabis, e. g. for foreigners. Importing and exporting of any classified drug is a serious offence, the penalty can run up to 12 to 16 years if it is for hard drugs, or a maximum of 4 years for importing or exporting large quantities of cannabis. Investment in treatment and prevention of addiction is high when compared to the rest of the world
War on drugs
However, two years prior to this, Nixon had formally declared a war on drugs that would be directed toward eradication and incarceration. Today, the Drug Policy Alliance, which advocates for an end to the War on Drugs, oNDCPs view is that drug addiction is a disease that can be successfully prevented and treated. Making drugs more available will make it harder to keep our communities healthy, one of the alternatives that Kerlikowske has showcased is the drug policy of Sweden, which seeks to balance public health concerns with opposition to drug legalization. The prevalence rates for use in Sweden are barely one-fifth of those in Spain. The report was criticized by organizations that oppose a general legalization of drugs, the first U. S. law that restricted the distribution and use of certain drugs was the Harrison Narcotics Tax Act of 1914. The first local laws came as early as 1860, in 1919, the United States passed the 18th Amendment, prohibiting the sale and transportation of alcohol, with exceptions for religious and medical use.
In 1920, the United States passed the National Prohibition Act, the Federal Bureau of Narcotics was established in the United States Department of the Treasury by an act of June 14,1930. In 1933, the prohibition for alcohol was repealed by passage of the 21st Amendment. In 1935, President Franklin D. Roosevelt publicly supported the adoption of the Uniform State Narcotic Drug Act, the New York Times used the headline Roosevelt Asks Narcotic War Aid. In 1937, the Marihuana Tax Act of 1937 was passed, several scholars have claimed that the goal was to destroy the hemp industry, largely as an effort of businessmen Andrew Mellon, Randolph Hearst, and the Du Pont family. These scholars argue that with the invention of the decorticator, hemp became a cheap substitute for the paper pulp that was used in the newspaper industry. These scholars believe that Hearst felt that this was a threat to his extensive timber holdings, there were circumstances that contradict these claims. One reason for doubts about those claims is that the new decorticators did not perform satisfactorily in commercial production.
To produce fiber from hemp was a process if you include harvest, transport. Technological developments decreased the labor with hemp but not sufficient to eliminate this disadvantage, the Nixon campaign in 1968, and the Nixon White House after that, had two enemies, the antiwar left and black people. We could arrest their leaders, raid their homes, break up their meetings, did we know we were lying about the drugs. - John Ehrlichman, to Dan Baum for Harpers Magazine in 1994, about President Richard Nixons war on drugs, in 1973, the Drug Enforcement Administration was created to replace the Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs. The Nixon Administration repealed the federal 2–10-year mandatory minimum sentences for possession of marijuana and started federal demand reduction programs and drug-treatment programs