Anticoli Corrado is a comune in the Metropolitan City of Rome in the Italian region Latium, located about 40 kilometres northeast of Rome. Anticoli Corrado borders the following municipalities: Mandela, Marano Equo, Rocca Canterano, Saracinesco. Anticoli became known in the 19th century because its young inhabitants used to pose as models for the community of artists living near Piazza di Spagna in Rome; some artists went to see the birthplace of their models and found Anticoli a picturesque site to the point of living there for some time. The town attracted artists until World War II. Stanley Kramer's The Secret of Santa Vittoria was entirely shot here. Church of St. Peter Palazzo Baronale Piazza delle Ville, with a fountain by Arturo Martini Civic Museum of Modern Art, housing works by artists connected to the town, such as Oscar Kokoschka, Felice Carena, Paolo Salvati, others. Arcos de la Frontera, Spain
San Felice da Cantalice a Centocelle
The Church of Saint Felix of Cantalice at Centocelle is a Roman Catholic titular church in Rome located in the Centocelle quarter, built as a parish church by decree of Cardinal Francesco Marchetti Selvaggiani, Vicar General of Rome. The church was given papal endorsement on 30 April 1969, when Pope Paul VI made it a titular church for cardinals, he blessed its fresco on the Feast of the Solemnity of the Mother of God and World Day of Peace, 1970. The church is referred to as a Centocelle because it located at the site of a former Roman imperial cavalry barracks, it has been the titular church of Cardinal Luis Antonio Tagle since 24 November 2012. It has been administered by the Order of Friars Minor Capuchin since 1928. On 10 March 2013, Cardinal Tagle celebrated Holy Mass with members of the Italian-Filipino communities before attending the 2013 papal conclave. On 14 November 1929, the Italian Marquis Achilles Muti-Bussi donated the land to the Roman Catholic Church as a gesture of goodwill for its impoverished peasants living nearby.
The Capuchin friars arrived on 16 December 1930 and on 20 September of the same year the cornerstone was laid for their new Capuchin monastery. On 30 May 1932, the church itself was canonically signed and erected but the actual construction of the church began in 1934; the original church itself was established on 29 March 1935 through the apostolic decree by Vicar General of Rome, Cardinal Francesco Marchetti Selvaggiani in his letter "Sollicitudo Omnium Ecclesiarum", which canonically entrusted the shrine to the Order of Friars Minor Capuchin who tended to the poor slums of the area. The church was formally recognized on 17 October 1935 by the Holy See in the Acta Apostolicae Sedis. Several religious sisters have joined in the church's charity program throughout the years, such as the Benedictine Nuns, the Daughters of Charity of Saint Vincent de Paul and the Franciscan nuns; the nuns assisted the Capuchin Friars in tending to the poor children and the unemployed. On 1 October 1934, Cardinal Vicar Ugo Poletti drew the exact land measurements and ownership of the parish, enacted into civil law on 17 October 1935.
The parish complex was designed by Italian architects Mario Ciulio Pediconi. On 2 October 1941, the church was consecrated by Monsignor Luigi Traglia, the titular archbishop of Caesarea in Palestine, the vice-regent of Rome; the land territory was taken from one of the sub-parishes of Saint Marcellino e Pietro ad Duas Lauros and Saint Mary of Good Counsel church. In July 1968, the Vicariate of Rome approved the fresco in the apse of the church featuring Saint Felix of Cantalice, its namesake patron saint made by Father Ugolino from Belluno. At the time, the fresco was criticized for its modern architecture, its polychrome colours, the poor natural lighting, the manner in which it was painted on the wall of 480 square meters. On 1 January 1970, on the occasion of the World Day of Peace, Pope Paul VI blessed the apse of the church in a ceremony televised live by RAI; the main façade has a polychromed modern painting. The church is decorated with works of the Franciscan Belluno Ugolino, which include the Madonna and Child with Saint Felix in the apse and the Appearance of angels and Jesus in a vision of St Francis in the transept.
The fresco in the apse features the Madonna as Virgin of the Flowers, wearing a robe of lilies while handing down the Child Jesus to Saint Felix and prostrate. Below are images of the Jewish children of Terezin who were exterminated by the Nazi authorities, while a newspaper image of Mario Dominici is featured, the boy found dead in the area during World War II as a result of Nazi Anti-Semitism, it features cherubic angels, zodiac sign constellations which tell the story of creation. Other scenes of the frescoes involve morality tales, anti-greed and anti-pornographic sentiments, as well as several miraculous scenes from the life of Saint Felix of Cantalice. Stephen Kim Sou-hwan of Korea — by Pope Paul VI — Luis Antonio Tagle of the Philippines — by Pope Benedict XVI — C. Rendina, Le Chiese di Roma, Newton & Compton Editori, Milano 2000 C. Cerchiai, Quartiere XIX. Prenestino-Centocelle, in AA. VV, I quartieri di Roma, Newton & Compton Editori, Roma 2006
Latium is the region of central western Italy in which the city of Rome was founded and grew to be the capital city of the Roman Empire. Latium was a small triangle of fertile, volcanic soil on which resided the tribe of the Latins or Latians, it was located on the left bank of the River Tiber, extending northward to the River Anio and southeastward to the Pomptina Palus as far south as the Circeian promontory. The right bank of the Tiber was occupied by the Etruscan city of Veii, the other borders were occupied by Italic tribes. Subsequently, Rome defeated Veii and its Italic neighbours, expanding Latium to the Apennine Mountains in the northeast and to the opposite end of the marsh in the southeast; the modern descendant, the Italian Regione of Lazio called Latium in Latin, in modern English, is somewhat larger still, but not as much as double the original Latium. The ancient language of the Latins, the tribespeople who occupied Latium, was to become the immediate predecessor of the Old Latin language, ancestor of Latin and the Romance languages.
Latium has played an important role in history owing to its status as the host of the capital city of Rome, at one time the cultural and political centre of the Roman Empire. Latium is home to celebrated works of art and architecture. Earliest known Latium was the country of the Latini, a tribe whose recognised centre was a large, extinct volcano, Mons Albanus, 20 kilometres to the southeast of Rome, 64 kilometres in circumference. In its center is a crater lake, Lacus Albanus, oval in shape, a few km long and wide. At the top of the second-highest peak was a temple to Jupiter Latiaris, where the Latini held state functions before their subjection to Rome, the Romans subsequently held religious and state ceremonies; the last pagan temple to be built stood until the Middle Ages when its stone and location were reused for various monasteries and a hotel. During World War II, the Wehrmacht turned it into a radio station, captured after an infantry battle by American troops in 1944, it is a controversial telecommunications station surrounded by antennae considered unsightly by the population within view.
The selection of Jupiter as a state god and the descent of the name Latini to the name of the Latin language are sufficient to identify the Latins as a tribe of Indo-European descent. Virgil, a major poet of the early Roman Empire, under Augustus, derived Latium from the word for "hidden" because in a myth Saturn, ruler of the golden age in Latium, hid from Jupiter there. A major modern etymology is that Lazio comes from the Latin word "latus", meaning "wide", expressing the idea of "flat land" meaning the Roman Campagna; the region that would become Latium had been home to settled agricultural populations since the early Bronze Age and was known to the Ancient Greeks and earlier to the Mycenaean Greeks. The name is most derived from the Latin word "latus", meaning "wide", expressing the idea of "flat land" but the name may originate from an earlier, non-Indo-European one; the Etruscans, from their home region of Etruria exerted a strong cultural and political influence on Latium from about the 8th century BC onward.
However, they were unable to assert political hegemony over the region, controlled by small, autonomous city-states in a manner analogous to the state of affairs that prevailed in Ancient Greece. Indeed, the region's cultural and geographic proximity to the cities of Magna Graecia had a strong impact upon its early history. By the 10th century BC, archaeology records a slow development in agriculture from the entire area of Latium with the establishment of numerous villages; the Latins cultivated grains, olives and fig trees. The various Latini populi lived in a society led by influential clans; these clans were a sign of their tribal origin, which continued in Rome as the thirty curiae which organized Roman society. However, as a social unit the gens was replaced by the family, headed by the paterfamilias - the oldest male who held supreme authority over the family. A fixed local center seemed necessary as the center of the region cannot have been one of the villages, but must have been a place of common assembly, containing the seat of justice and the common sanctuary of the district, where members of the clans met for purposes of administration and amusement, where they obtained a safer shelter for themselves in case of war: in ordinary circumstances such a place was not at all or but scantily inhabited.
Such a place was called in Italy "height", or "stronghold". The isolated Alban range, that natural stronghold of Latium, which offered to settlers a secure position, would doubtless be first occupied by the newcomers. Here, along the narrow plateau above Palazzuola between the Alban lake and the Alban mount, extended the town of Alba Longa, regarded as the primitive seat of the Latin stock, the mother city of Rome as well as of all the other Old Latin communities. Here too are found some primitive works of masonry, which mark the be
Pope Urban VIII
Pope Urban VIII reigned as Pope from 6 August 1623 to his death in 1644. He expanded the papal territory by force of arms and advantageous politicking, was a prominent patron of the arts and a reformer of Church missions. However, the massive debts incurred during his pontificate weakened his successors, who were unable to maintain the papacy's longstanding political and military influence in Europe, he was involved in a controversy with Galileo and his theory on heliocentrism. He was born Maffeo Barberini in April 1568 to Antonio Barberini, a Florentine nobleman, Camilla Barbadoro, his father died when he was only three years old and his mother took him to Rome, where he was put in the charge of his uncle, Francesco Barberini, an apostolic protonotary. At the age of 16 he became his uncle's heir, he was educated by the Society of Jesus, received a doctorate of law from the University of Pisa in 1589. In 1601, through the influence of his uncle, was able to secure from Pope Clement VIII appointment as a papal legate to the court of King Henry IV of France.
In 1604, the same pope appointed him as the Archbishop of Nazareth, an office joined with that of Bishop of the suppressed Dioceses of Canne and Monteverde, with his residence at Barletta. At the death of his uncle, he inherited his riches, with which he bought a palace in Rome which he made into a luxurious Renaissance residence. Pope Paul V later employed Barberini in a similar capacity, afterwards raising him, in 1606, to the order of the Cardinal-Priest, with the titular church of San Pietro in Montorio and appointing him as a papal legate of Bologna. Barberini was considered someone who could be elected as pope, though there were those such as Cardinal Ottavio Bandini who worked to prevent Barberini from being elected as pope. Despite this, throughout 29-30 July, the cardinals began an intense series of negotiations to test the numbers as to who could emerge from the conclave as pope, with Cardinal Ludovico Ludovisi dismissing Barberini's chances as long as Barberini remained a close ally of Cardinal Scipione Borghese, whose faction Barberini supported.
Ludovisi had discussions with Cardinals Farnese and Aldobrandini on 30 July about seeing to Barberini's election. The three supported his candidature and went about securing the support of others, which lead to Barberini's election just over a week later. On 6 August 1623, at the papal conclave following the death of Pope Gregory XV, Barberini was chosen as Gregory XV's successor and took the name Urban VIII. Upon Pope Urban VIII's election, the Venetian envoy, wrote the following description of him: The new Pontiff is 56 years old, his Holiness is tall, with regular features and black hair turning grey. He is exceptionally elegant and refined in all details of his dress, he is an excellent speaker and debater, writes verses and patronises poets and men of letters. Urban VIII's papacy covered 21 years of the Thirty Years' War, was an eventful one by the standards of the day, he canonized Elizabeth of Portugal, Andrew Corsini and Conrad of Piacenza, issued the papal bulls of canonization for Ignatius of Loyola and Francis Xavier, canonized by his predecessor, Pope Gregory XV.
Despite an early friendship and encouragement for his teachings, Urban VIII was responsible for summoning the scientist and astronomer Galileo to Rome in 1633 to recant his work. Urban VIII practiced nepotism on a grand scale, he elevated his brother Antonio Marcello Barberini and his nephews Francesco Barberini and Antonio Barberini to Cardinal. He bestowed upon their brother, Taddeo Barberini, the titles Prince of Palestrina, Gonfalonier of the Church, Prefect of Rome and Commander of Sant'Angelo. Historian Leopold von Ranke estimated that during his reign, Urban VIII's immediate family amassed 105 million scudi in personal wealth. Urban VIII was a skilled writer of Latin verse, a collection of Scriptural paraphrases as well as original hymns of his composition have been reprinted; the 1638 papal bull Commissum Nobis protected the existence of Jesuit missions in South America by forbidding the enslavement of natives who were at the Jesuit Reductions. At the same time, Urban VIII repealed the Jesuit monopoly on missionary work in China and Japan, opening these countries to missionaries of other orders and missionary societies.
Urban VIII issued a 1624 papal bull that made the use of tobacco in holy places punishable by excommunication. Urban VIII canonized five saints during his pontificate: Stephen Harding, Elizabeth of Portugal and Conrad of Piacenza, Peter Nolasco, Andrea Corsini; the pope beatified 68 individuals including the Martyrs of Nagasaki. The pope created 74 cardinals in eight consistories throughout his pontificate, this included his nephews Francesco and Antonio, cousin Lorenzo Magalotti, the pope's own brother Antonio Marcello, he created Giovanni Battista Pamphili as a cardinal, with Pamphili becoming his immediate successor Pope Innocent X. The pope created eight of those cardinals whom he had reserved in pectore. Urban VIII's military involvement was aimed less at the restoration of Catholicism in Europe than at adjusting the balance of power to favour his own independence in Italy. In 1626, the duchy of Urbino was incorporated into the papal dominions, and, in 1627
Pope Clement XI
Pope Clement XI, born Giovanni Francesco Albani, was Pope from 23 November 1700 to his death in 1721. Clement XI was a patron of the arts and of science, he was a great benefactor of the Vatican Library, his interest in archaeology is credited with saving much of Rome’s antiquity. He authorized expeditions which succeeded in rediscovering various ancient Christian writings and authorized excavations of the Roman catacombs. Giovanni Francesco Albani was born in 1649 in Urbino to a distinguished family of Italian and Albanian origin, his mother Elena Mosca was a high-standing Italian of bergamasque origin, descended from the noble Mosca family of Pesaro. His father Carlo Albani was a patrician descended in part from the Staccoli family, who were patricians of Urbino, in part from the Giordani, who were nobles of Pesaro, in part from the noble Albani family which had established itself in Urbino from northern Albania in the 15th century. Albani was educated at the Collegio Romano in Rome from 1660 onwards.
He became a proficient Latinist and gained a doctorate in both canon and civil law. He was one of those, he would serve as a papal prelate under Pope Alexander VIII and was appointed by Pope Innocent XII as the Referendary of the Apostolic Signatura. Throughout this time, he served as the governor of Rieti and Orvieto. Pope Alexander VIII elevated him to the cardinalate in 1690 despite his protests and made him the Cardinal-Deacon of Santa Maria in Aquiro but he opted for the Diaconia of San Adriano al Forno and as the Cardinal-Priest, for the titulus of San Silvestro in Capite, he was ordained to the priesthood in September 1700 and celebrated his first Mass in Rome on 6 October 1700. After the death of Pope Innocent XII in 1700, a conclave was convoked to elect a successor. Albani was regarded as a fine diplomat known for his skills as a peacemaker and so was unanimously elected pope on 23 November 1700, he agreed to the election after three days of consultation. Unusually, from the viewpoint of current practice, his election came within three months after his ordination as a priest and within two months after he celebrated his first Mass, though he had been a cardinal for ten years previously.
Having accepted election after some hesitation, he was ordained a bishop on 30 November 1700 and assumed the pontifical name of "Clement XI". Cardinal protodeacon Benedetto Pamphili crowned him on 8 December 1700 and he took possession of the Basilica of Saint John Lateran on 10 April 1701. Soon after his accession to the pontificate, the War of the Spanish Succession broke out. In 1703 Pope Clement XI ordered a synod of Catholic bishops in northern Albania that discussed promotion of the Council of Trent decrees within Albanian dioceses, stemming conversions among locals to Islam and securing agreement to deny communion to crypto-Catholics who outwardly professed the Muslim faith. Despite holding an ambiguous neutrality in world affairs, Clement XI was forced to name Charles, Archduke of Austria, as the King of Spain, since the imperial army had conquered much of northern Italy and was threatening Rome itself in January 1709. By the Treaty of Utrecht that put an end to the war, the Papal States lost their suzerainty over the Farnese Duchy of Parma and Piacenza in favour of Austria, lost Comacchio as well, a blow to the prestige of the Papal States.
In 1713 Clement XI issued the bull Unigenitus in response to the spread of the Jansenist heresy. There followed great upheaval in France, where apart from theological issues, a strong Gallican tendency persisted; the bull, produced with the contribution of Gregorio Selleri, a lector at the College of Saint Thomas, the future Pontifical University of Saint Thomas Aquinas, condemned Jansenism by extracting and anathematizing as heretical 101 propositions from the works of Quesnel declaring them to be identical in substance with propositions condemned in the writings of Jansenius. The resistance of many French ecclesiastics and the refusal of the French parlements to register the bull led to controversies extending through the greater part of the 18th century; because the local governments did not receive the bull, it was not, technically, in force in those areas – an example of the interference of states in religious affairs common before the 20th century. During his reign as a pope the famous Illyricum Sacrum was commissioned, today it is one of the main sources of the field of Albanology, with over 5,000 pages divided in several volumes written by the Jesuit Daniele Farlati and Dom Jacopo Coleti.
Clement XI made a concerted effort to acquire Christian manuscripts in Syriac from Egypt and other places in the Middle East expanding the Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana's collection of Syriac works. Clement XI was key in the decision to allow cats back into Christian homes after they were seen as overtly Pagan symbols. Clement XI extended the feast of Our Lady of the Rosary to the Universal Church of the Roman Rite in 1716. Clement XI confirmed the cultus of Ceslas Odrowaz, Jakov Varingez, John of Perugia, Peregrine Laziosi, Peter of Sassoferrato, Buonfiglio Monaldi, Pope Gregory X and Humbeline of Jully, he formally beatified a number of individuals: Alexis Falconieri, Bartholomew degli Amidei and Benedict Dellantella, John Francis Régis. He canonized Andrew Avellino, Catherine of Bologna, Felix of Cantalice and Pope Pius V on 22 May 1712, Humility on 27 January 1720, Sancha of Portugal on 10 May 1705, Theresa of Portugal on 20 May 1705, Ste
The Christ Child known as Divine Infant, Baby Jesus, Infant Jesus, Child Jesus, the Holy Child, Santo Niño, refers to Jesus Christ from his nativity to age 12. The four Canonical Gospels accepted by most Christians today lack any narration of the years between Jesus' infancy and the Finding in the Temple when he was 12. Liturgical feasts relating to Christ's infancy and the Christ Child include: The Feast of the Nativity of Jesus Christ; these are nativity scenes showing the birth of Jesus, with his mother Mary, her husband Joseph. Depictions as a baby with the Virgin Mary, known as Madonna and Child, are iconographical types in Eastern and Western traditions. Other scenes from his time as a baby, of his circumcision, presentation at the temple, the adoration of the Magi, the flight into Egypt, are common. Scenes showing his developing years are not unknown. Saint Joseph, Anthony of Padua, Saint Christopher are depicted holding the Christ Child; the Christian mystics Saint Teresa of Avila, Saint Therese of Lisieux, along with the devotees of Divino Niño such as Mother Angelica and Father Giovanni Rizzo claim to have had apparitions of Jesus as a toddler.
The Christ Child was a popular subject in European wood sculpture beginning in the 1300s. The popularity of the Christ child was well known in Spain under the title Montanesino after the santero sculptor Juan Martínez Montañés who began the trend; these icons of the Christ Child was posed in the contrapposto style in which the positioning of the knees reflected in the opposite direction, similar to ancient depictions of the Roman Emperor. The images were quite popular among nobility, while some images were used to colonize kingdoms such of Spain and Portugal. Colonial images of the Christ child began to wear vestments, a pious practice developed by the santero culture in colonial years, carrying the depiction of holding the globus cruciger, a bird symbolizing a soul or the Holy Spirit or various paraphernalia related to its locality or region; the symbolism of the Child Jesus in art reached its apex during the Renaissance: the Holy Family was a central theme in the works of Leonardo da Vinci and many other masters.
Tàladh Chrìosda is a Scottish carol from Scotland. The Catholic priest Father Ranald Rankin, wrote the lyrics for Midnight Mass around the year 1855, he wrote 29 verses in Scottish Gaelic, but the popular English translation is limited to five. The melody, Cumha Mhic Arois, is from the Hebrides and was a sung as a protective charm for the fisherman away at sea; the rhythm mirrors the rhythm of the surf. It is sung in the Hebrides at Midnight Mass on Christmas Eve. In some apocryphal texts, the Infancy Gospels grew up with legendary accounts of the intervening period, these are sometimes depicted; these stories were intended to show Jesus as having extraordinary gifts of power and knowledge from the youngest age. One common pious tale has the young Jesus animating sparrows out of clay belonging to his playmates; when admonished for doing so on the Sabbath, he causes the birds to fly away. Several significant images of Jesus Christ as a child have received Canonical Coronations from the Pope, namely the Infant Jesus of Prague, the Santo Niño de Cebú in the Philippines, the Santo Bambino of Aracoeli in Rome.
In the seventeenth century veneration of the Christ Child under the title the "Little King of Beaune" was promoted by French Carmelites. In the late nineteenth century devotion to the Holy Child of Remedy developed in Madrid; the Christ Child Society was founded in 1885 in Washington, D. C. by Mary Virginia Merrick, as a small relief organization to aid local underprivileged children. Additional chapters were started in other cities. Taladh Criosta
Christianity has used symbolism from its beginnings. Each saint has a reason why they led an exemplary life. Symbols have been used to tell these stories throughout the history of the Church. A number of Christian saints are traditionally represented by a symbol or iconic motif associated with their life, termed an attribute or emblem, in order to identify them; the study of these forms part of iconography in art history. They were used so that the illiterate could recognize a scene, to give each of the Saints something of a personality in art, they are carried in the hand by the Saint. Attributes vary with either time or geography between Eastern Christianity and the West. Orthodox images more contained inscriptions with the names of saints, so the Eastern repertoire of attributes is smaller than the Western. Many of the most prominent saints, like Saint Peter and Saint John the Evangelist can be recognised by a distinctive facial type – as can Christ. In the case of saints their actual historical appearance can be used.
Some attributes are general, such as the palm frond carried by martyrs. The use of a symbol in a work of art depicting a Saint reminds people, being shown and of their story; the following is a list of some of these attributes. Mary is portrayed wearing blue, her attributes include a blue mantle, crown of 12 stars, pregnant woman, woman with child, woman trampling serpent, crescent moon, woman clothed with the sun, heart pierced by sword, Madonna lily and rosary beads. Delaney, John P.. Dictionary of Saints. Garden City, NY: Doubleday. ISBN 0-385-13594-7. Lanzi, Fernando. Saints and their Symbols: Recognizing Saints in Art and in Popular Images. Translated by O'Connell, Matthew J. ISBN 9780814629703. Post, W. Ellwood. Saints and Symbols. SPCK Publishing. ISBN 9780281028948. Walsh, Michael. A New Dictionary of Saints: East and West. Liturgical Press. ISBN 978-0-8146-3186-7. Whittemore, Carroll E.. Symbols of the Church. Abingdon Press. ISBN 0687183014. Calendar of saints Christian symbolism Christianization of saints and feasts Doctor of the Church Iconography List of canonizations, for a list of Catholic canonizations by date Martyrology Patron saint Weather saints "Christian Iconography".
Augusta State University. Archived from the original on 2014-03-18. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown "Hagiographies and icons for many Orthodox saints". Orthodox Church in America. "Catholic Forum Patron Saints Index". Archived from the original on 2005-05-31. "Saints' Badges or Shields". "On the Canonizations of John Paul II". Archived from the original on 2007-09-28