The Order of Friars Minor Capuchin is a religious order of friars within the Catholic Church, among the chief offshoots of the Franciscans. The worldwide head of the Order, called the Minister General, is Friar Roberto Genuin; the Order arose in 1525 when Matteo da Bascio, an Observant Franciscan friar native to the Italian region of Marche, said he had been inspired by God with the idea that the manner of life led by the friars of his day was not the one which their founder, St. Francis of Assisi, had envisaged, he sought to return to the primitive way of life of solitude and penance, as practiced by the founder of their Order. His religious superiors tried to suppress these innovations, Friar Matteo and his first companions were forced into hiding from Church authorities, who sought to arrest them for having abandoned their religious duties, they were given refuge by the Camaldolese monks, in gratitude for which they adopted the hood worn by that Order—which was the mark of a hermit in that region of Italy—and the practice of wearing a beard.
The popular name of their Order originates from this feature of their religious habit. In 1528, Friar Matteo obtained the approval of Pope Clement VII and was given permission to live as a hermit and to go about everywhere preaching to the poor; these permissions were not only for himself, but for all such as might join him in the attempt to restore the most literal observance possible of the Rule of St. Francis. Matteo and the original band were soon joined by others. Matteo and his companions were formed into a separate province, called the Hermit Friars Minor, as a branch of the Conventual Franciscans, but with a Vicar Provincial of their own, subject to the jurisdiction of the Minister General of the Conventuals; the Observants, the other branch of the Franciscan Order at that time, continued to oppose the movement. In 1529, they had four houses and held their first General Chapter, at which their particular rules were drawn up; the eremitical idea was abandoned, but the life was to be one of extreme austerity and poverty—in all things as near an approach to St Francis' ideals as was practicable.
Neither the monasteries nor the Province should possess anything, nor were any loopholes left for evading this law. No large provision against temporal wants should be made, the supplies in the house should never exceed what was necessary for a few days. Everything was to be obtained by begging, the friars were not allowed to touch money; the communities were to be small, eight being fixed as twelve as the limit. In furniture and clothing extreme simplicity was enjoined and the friars were discalced, required to go bare-footed—without sandals. Like the Observants, the Capuchins wore a brown habit, their form, was to be of the most simple form, i.e. only of a tunic, with the distinctive large, pointed hood reaching to the waist attached to it, girdled by the traditional woolen cord with three knots. By visual analogy, the Capuchin monkey and the cappuccino style of coffee are both named after the shade of brown used for their habit. Besides the canonical choral celebration of the Divine Office, a portion of, recited at midnight, there were two hours of private prayer daily.
The fasts and disciplines were frequent. The great external work was preaching and spiritual ministrations among the poor. In theology the Capuchins abandoned the Franciscan School of Scotus, returned to the earlier school of St. Bonaventure. At the outset of its history, the Capuchins underwent a series of severe blows. Two of the founders left it: Matteo Serafini of Bascio returning to the Observants, while his first companion, on being replaced in the office of Vicar Provincial, became so insubordinate that he had to be expelled from the Order. More scandalously, the third Vicar General, Bernardino Ochino, left the Catholic faith in 1543 after fleeing to Switzerland, where he was welcomed by John Calvin, became a Calvinist pastor in Zürich and married. Years claims that he had written in favor of polygamy and Unitarianism caused him to be exiled from that city and he fled again, first to Poland and to Moravia, where he died; as a result, the whole province came under the suspicion of heretical tendencies and the Pope resolved to suppress it.
He was dissuaded with difficulty. Despite earlier setbacks, the authorities were satisfied as to the soundness of the general body of Capuchin friars and the permission to preach was restored; the movement at once began to multiply and by the end of the 16th century the Capuchins had spread all over the Catholic parts of Europe, so that in 1619 they were freed from their dependence on the Conventual Franciscans and became an independent Order. They are said to have had at that time 1500 houses divided into fifty provinces, they were one of the chief tools in the Catholic Counter-reformation, the aim of the order being to work among the poor, impressing the minds of the common people by the poverty and austerity of their life, sometimes with sensationalist preaching, such as their use of the possessed Marthe Brossier to arouse Paris against the Huguenots. The activities of the Capuchins were not confined to Europe. From an early date they undertook missions to non-Catholics in America and Africa, a College was founded in Rome for the purpose of preparing their members for foreign missions.
Due to this strong missionary thrust, a large number of Capuchins have suffered martyrdom over the centuries. Activity in Europe and elsewhere continued until the close of the 18th century, when the number of Capuchin friars was estima
Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 3 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MAP3K3 gene, located on the long arm of chromosome 17. This gene product is a 626-amino acid polypeptide, 96.5% identical to mouse MEKK3. Its catalytic domain is related to those of several other kinases, including mouse MEKK2, tobacco NPK, yeast STE11. Northern blot analysis revealed a 4.6-kb transcript. MAP3Ks are involved in regulating cell fate in response to external stimuli. MAP3K3 directly regulates the stress-activated protein kinase and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase pathways by activating SEK and MEK1/2 respectively. In cotransfection assays, it enhanced transcription from a nuclear factor kappa-B -dependent reporter gene, consistent with a role in the SAPK pathway. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been observed. MEKK3 regulates the p38, ERK1/2 pathways. MAP3K3 has been shown to interact with,: Two SNPs in the MAP3K3 gene were found as candidates for association with colon and rectal cancers.
MEKK3 is expressed in 4 ovarian cancer cell lines. This expression level is higher in those cancer cells when compared to normal cells. MEKK3 expression levels are comparable to IKK kinase activities, which relate to activation of NFκB. High expression of MEKK3 in most of these ovarian cancer cells activate IKK kinase activity, which lead to increased levels of active NFκB. MEKK3 interacts with AKT to activate NFκB. Genes related to cell survival and anti-apoptosis have increased expression in most cancer cells with high levels of MEKK3; this is due to constitutive activation of NFκB, which will regulate those genes. In this sense, knockdown of MEKK3 caused ovarian cancer cells to be more sensitive to drugs. MEKK3 interacts with BRCA1. Knocking down BRCA1 resulted in inhibited MEKK3 kinase activity; the drug paclitaxel induces MEKK3 activity and it requires functional BRCA1 to do it. It was observed that in a breast cancer cell line BRCA1-deficient, paclitaxel was unable to activate MEKK3. Paclitaxel may be inducing stress-response through the MEKK3/JNK/p38/MAPK pathway, but not in mutated BRCA1 cells
Wilfrid Eggleston OBE was an Anglo-Canadian journalist and civil servant. Born in Lincoln to middle-class English parents, he relocated to Netherfield, Nottinghamshire where his father was convinced to move the family to a ranch in Orion, Alberta. Suffering from boredom in his teenage years, Eggleston advanced his basic English education through a fast-track course at Regina College, which qualified his entrance to Queen's University in 1926. Graduating in 1928, he found journalistic work at the Lethbridge Herald before occupying his role as Ottawa correspondent for the Toronto Star by the following year, becoming parliamentary correspondent before his resignation in 1936. Joining the civil service through his productive membership of the secretariat in the Rowell-Sirois Commission of 1937, the Canadian government entrusted him with the position of Chief Censor of the nation in 1942 to combat negative coverage of Canada's role in the Second World War at home and overseas. Resigning in 1944, much to the regret of the authorities, Eggleston found work as an academic at Carleton University in 1947, establishing the Carleton School of Journalism upon accepting his lectureship.
Eggleston died in Ottawa on 13 June 1986 at the age of 85. Wilfrid Eggleston was born on 25 March 1901 in Lincoln to English parents who had moved from Spalding two years earlier, where his older sister Margaret had been born, his father was his mother, a shop assistant and dressmaking apprentice. Eggleston's father, one of nine children from a Nottinghamshire farm, relocated the family through his successful work at an insurance firm, his mother privileged, is said to have received an education from a "Victorian private school for young ladies". The family purchased a grocer's shop in Netherfield, Nottinghamshire resettling there until 1909. During this short period, Wilfrid was educated at the newly established Chandos Street School, which amalgamated in 1973 to form Carlton le Willows School. Following this, Wilfrid moved to a ranch in the emerging settlement of Orion, Alberta with his family on the advice of a neighbor. However, following a major crop failure in 1917, he became the town's bank clerk after employment in a convenience store, but left for Kronau, Saskatchewan due to a combination of poor business and boredom.
After skipping several years of high school education through a fast-track course at Regina College, Eggleston enrolled for a Bachelor of Arts program at Queen's University in 1926. After graduating from Queen's in 1928, Wilfrid Eggleston began writing for the locally printed Lethbridge Herald, he wrote under Canadian Senator William Ashbury Buchanan, whom had acquired ownership of the newspaper in 1905. Eggleston held his politics in high regard during his short stay at the publication. After just one year writing in Lethbridge, he became Ottawa correspondent for the Toronto Star in 1929, witnessed significant political events in this position, including the passing of the Statute of Westminster in 1931 and the British Empire Economic Conference of 1932, he began writing through the media agency Reuters in the late 1920s by means of a syndicated weekly newspaper column, with a selection of his political pieces featuring in Time Magazine and a plethora of other noted publications. By the time Eggleston had resigned from the Toronto Star in 1936, he had risen to become the newspaper's parliamentary correspondent.
Whilst maintaining his journalistic status as a freelance reporter, he began governmental service in 1937. He was a member of the secretariat in the Rowell–Sirois Commission, which sought to ease the encumbrance of the Great Depression by analyzing perceived flaws in the Canadian constitution; the outcome of the commission, supported by Eggleston, allowed for greater involvement in regard to unemployment insurance and pensions from the federal government. During this time he liaised with notable figures including Newton Rowell, James McGregor Stewart and Henry Angus. After gaining the trust of the Canadian government, he became Chief Censor for war-time Canada from 1942 until 1944. Among the high-profile censorship requests that Eggleston didn't oblige to include the Battle of the St. Lawrence, after he discovered that it was an attempt to, as he put it, "give the Minister of Naval Affairs a scoop when he announced it to the House", the Conscription Crisis of 1944, to which he was objected, despite pressure from Prime Minister, Mackenzie King.
Upon being discharged from the post, General Léo Richer Laflèche commented in the Ottawa Citizen that he was "largely responsible for the efficient functioning of censorship in Canada". He was succeeded in the role by fellow journalist Fulgence Charpentier. In life, Wilfrid was involved in more academic pursuits, he had received a basic teacher-training education from the Calgary Normal School, taught for some years in the Golden Prairie School District before lecturing at Carleton University in 1947. In the same year, he became founder and director of the Carleton School of Journalism, a post he held until 1966; the Canadian Encyclopedia claims that Eggleston "was considered the father of journalism education in Canada, emphasizing its roots in the liberal arts and social sciences". He was made an Of