A fen is one of the main types of wetlands, the others being grassy marshes, forested swamps, peaty bogs. Along with bogs, fens are a kind of mire. Fens are minerotrophic peatlands fed by mineral-rich surface water or groundwater, they are characterised by their distinct water chemistry, pH neutral or alkaline, with high dissolved mineral levels but few other plant nutrients. They are dominated by grasses and sedges, have brown mosses. Fens have a high diversity of other plant species including carnivorous plants such as Pinguicula, they may occur along large lakes and rivers where seasonal changes in water level maintain wet soils with few woody plants. The distribution of individual species of fen plants is closely connected to water regimes and nutrient concentrations. Fens have a characteristic set of plant species, which sometimes provide the best indicators of environmental conditions. For example, fen indicator species in New York State include Carex flava, Cladium mariscoides, Potentilla fruticosa, Pogonia ophioglossoides and Parnassia glauca.

Fens are distinguished from bogs, which are acidic, low in minerals, dominated by sedges and shrubs, along with abundant mosses in the genus Sphagnum. Bogs tend to exist on dome-shaped landmasses where they receive all of their usually-abundant moisture from rainfall, whereas fens appear on slopes, flats, or depressions and are fed by surface and underground water in addition to rain. Fens have been damaged in the past by land drainage, by peat cutting; some are now being restored with modern management methods. The principal challenges are to restore natural water flow regimes, to maintain the quality of water, to prevent invasion by woody plants. Carr is the northern European equivalent of the wooded swamp of the southeastern United States known in the United Kingdom as wet woodland, it is a fens overgrown with small trees of species such as willow or alder. In general, fens may change in composition as peat accumulates. A list of species found in a fen can therefore cover a range of species from those remaining from the earlier stage in the successional development to the pioneers of the succeeding stage.

Where streams of base-rich water run through bog, these are lined by strips of fen, separating "islands" of rain-fed bog. Temporary flooding by beavers can have negative effects on fens. Shakespeare used the term "fen-sucked" to describe the fog in King Lear, when Lear says "Infect her beauty, You fen-sucked fogs drawn by the powerful sun, To fall and blister." Media related to Fens at Wikimedia Commons

Zev Segal

Zev Segal was an Orthodox Jewish rabbi. Segal was born in Saratov and moved to Palestine as a toddler, he survived the 1929 Hebron massacre. He was the founding rabbi of the Young Israel of Newark, served there for thirty-three years, from 1945 to 1978. During this period, Segal served a three-year term as president of the Rabbinical Council of America, from 1968 to 1971. Segal was the father of radio broadcaster Nachum Segal, Rabbi Nate Segal of Staten Island. Segal was found dead in his car at the bottom of the Hackensack River on March 6, 2008 after being reported missing a day earlier, he was traveling from an appearance on his son's radio show to an appointment in Livingston, New Jersey. Segal was 91

Wilberton Township, Fayette County, Illinois

Wilberton Township is one of twenty townships in Fayette County, Illinois, USA. As of the 2010 census, its population was 505 and it contained 187 housing units, its name changed from Richland Township on September 24, 1860. According to the 2010 census, the township has a total area of 35.54 square miles, of which 35.52 square miles is land and 0.02 square miles is water. Augsburg Saint Paul Wilberton The township contains these seven cemeteries: Augsburg, Cheshier, Frogtown and Saint Paul Lutheran. Gatch Lake Brownstown Community Unit School District 201 Vandalia Community Unit School District 203 Illinois' 19th congressional district State House District 102 State Senate District 51 "Wilberton Township, Fayette County, Illinois". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 2010-01-16. United States Census Bureau 2007 TIGER/Line Shapefiles United States National Atlas Illinois State Archives