The Jazz Bass is the second model of electric bass created by Leo Fender. It is distinct from the Precision Bass in that its tone is brighter and richer in the midrange and treble with less emphasis on the fundamental frequency; the body shape is different from the Precision Bass, in that the Precision Bass has a symmetrical lower bout on the body, designed after the Telecaster and Stratocaster lines of guitars, while the Jazz Bass has an offset lower bout, mimicking the design aesthetic of the Jaguar and Jazzmaster guitars. First introduced in 1960 as the Deluxe Model, it was marketed as a stablemate to the Jazzmaster guitar, marketed as a Deluxe Model in its own right, it was renamed the Jazz Bass as Fender felt that its redesigned neck—narrower and more rounded than that of the Precision Bass—would appeal more to jazz musicians. The Jazz Bass has two single coil pickups with two pole pieces per string; as well as having a different, less symmetrical and more contoured body shape, the Jazz Bass neck is noticeably narrower at the nut than that of the Fender Precision Bass.
While the Precision Bass was styled to the Telecaster guitar, the Jazz Bass' styling was inspired by the Jazzmaster guitar, with which the Jazz shared its offset body and sculpted edges that differentiate it from other slab-style bass bodies. The original intention of the instrument was to appeal to upright bass players; the original Jazz Bass had two stacked knob pots with tone control for each pickup. Original instruments with this stacked configuration are valued in the vintage guitar market. In late 1961 it received three control knobs: two controlling the volume of each pickup and one the overall tone. Despite this new feature, many stacked knob models were made until about 1962. Another feature the initial models had were the "Spring Felt Mutes", which were present on basses from 1960 until 1962; the purpose of those mutes was to dampen the overtones and the sustain, were screwed in place between the bridge and aft pickup. Those felt mutes were not a tremendous success, were replaced by a cheaper, more simple foam mute glued underneath the bridge cover as was used by the Precision Bass from 1963 onwards.
Over the following years as the use of mutes declined both the Precision and Jazz Bass models began to be produced without bridge/tailpiece covers. A number of cosmetic changes were made to the instrument when CBS purchased the Fender companies in 1965. During 1965/66 the Jazz Bass received bound rosewood fingerboards with pearloid dot position inlays and oval-shaped tuning machines. Block-shaped fingerboard inlays and an optional maple fingerboard were introduced after 1966/67. At first necks with rosewood fretboards received pearloid blocks/binding and maple fretboard necks received black. Fender switched to pearloid blocks/binding on all necks in mid-to-late 1973. Fender switched to the three-bolt neck "micro-tilt adjustable" neck and the "bullet" truss rod in mid-to-late 1974 before reverting to the more standard four-bolt neck fixing and dot-shaped fretboard markers in 1983. White pickup covers and a pickguard/control plate were introduced the same year. In 1986 Fender introduced the Japanese-made Fender Performer Bass with micro-tilt neck, designed by John Page and intended to be an Elite version of the Jazz Bass.
American Standard Jazz Basses produced between 1989 and 19941⁄2 featured a larger body shape, a'curved' neck plate set into a chambered pocket for greater sustain and a 22-fret neck, similar to that of a Precision Bass Plus, with a standard vintage-style top-load bridge, two separate volumes and a master TBX tone circuit. Known as "Boner" Jazz Basses, these early American Standard models were discontinued in 1994 and shouldn't be confused with the Fender Jazz Bass Plus, which has the same 22-fret neck design, but utilizes a different body styling, Lace Sensor pickups, Schaller "Elite" fine-tuner bridge on the four-string model or Gotoh Hardware high-mass bridge on the 5-string model, Phil Kubicki-designed active electronics. Unlike the Fender Precision Bass Plus, which had an optional maple neck, the Boner Jazz Bass was offered only with a rosewood fingerboard; the Jazz Plus Bass was available with an alder body and the option of a natural-finish ash body on the four-string model for a $100 upcharge, either a maple or rosewood fretboard on the four-string and pau ferro on the five-string.
The Jazz Plus debuted in 1989, discontinued in 1994 and replaced by the USA Deluxe Series Jazz Bass the following year. A fourth push button control is available on American-made Jazz Basses produced between mid-2003 until 2008. Known as the "S-1 Switch", this feature allows the pickups to operate in standard, parallel wiring, or alternatively in series wiring when the switch is depressed. While in series, both pickups function as a single unit with one volume control, giving the Jazz Bass a sound more similar to the Precision Bass; the two pickups are built to be opposite from each other in both magnetic polarity and electrical phase, so that when heard together, hum is cancelled—the humbucking effect. The Highway One Jazz Bass is a moderately priced American-made bass introduced in 2003, featuring a Leo Quan BadAss II bridge with grooved saddles, Posiflex graphite neck support rods, 1970s styling and a Greasebucket tone circuit since 2006. In 2008, the Americ
The Burns Archive is the world’s largest private collection of early medical photography and historic photographs, housing over one million photographs. While it contains images related to medical practises, it is famous for photographs depicting'the darker side of life'. Other themes prevalent throughout the collection involve death, crime and war. Known as one of the world’s most important repositories of early medical history, images of “the darker side of life” make up the collection: anatomical and medical oddities and post-mortem photography, original historic photographs depicting death, disaster, racism, revolution and war; the collection traces the history of photography, from its beginnings in 1839 to the 1950s, includes hundreds of thousands of Daguerreotypes, tintypes, carte de visites, hand-colored photographs. The Burns Archive acquires, researches, exhibits and shares its rare and unusual photographs and expertise worldwide; the Archive’s medical collection houses photographs in the categories of pioneers and innovators, operative scenes and treatments, disease and pathology, medical specialties, interesting cases and medical curiosities and wards, alternative practitioners and education, laboratories and doctors’ offices and war, more.
Many of these collected pictures allowed the medical community of the era to share knowledge and define pathology. The Archive's historical collection ranges from categories of death and memorial and conflict, crime and punishment, to occupations and industry and cultural history, photographic history, Egyptology, ethnology and African American history; the collection has been featured in over 100 exhibitions at museums and galleries worldwide, including New York’s Metropolitan Museum of Art and Paris' Musée d'Orsay, has donated thousands of images to institutions, including The Smithsonian Institution, the Museum of Modern Art, the J. Paul Getty Museum. Having written over 1,100 articles and over 40 books, the Burns Archive has published photographic historic texts ranging from Victorian era funeral portraits to early oncology. Dr. Burns authored Sleeping Beauty: Memorial Photography In America, Forgotten Marriage: The Painted Tintype & The Decorative Frame, 1860-1910, A Lost Chapter in American Portraiture, which both received the American Photographic Historical Society's award for the best publication of their kind, an honor never before bestowed on one author.
Sleeping Beauty was praised by Pulitzer Prize winning author, John Updike, in the American Heritage article he wrote on the book. Burns Archive Creative Director, Elizabeth A. Burns, co-authored various books with Dr. Burns, including Sleeping Beauty II: Grief, Bereavement & the Family and European Traditions, as well as Geisha: A Photographic History, 1872-1912, the upcoming Stiffs and Skeletons, which will be released in 2014 from Schiffer Publishing. Images from the Burns Archive have been a major source for various documentaries, television series, feature films, has inspired artists from Joel Peter Witkin to makeup artists for Jacob's Ladder. Stanley B. Burns MD, Elizabeth A. Burns, The Burns Archive, serve as the medical and technical advisers for Steven Soderbergh’s period medical Cinemax series, The Knick, starring Clive Owen; the Knick looks at the professional and personal lives of Dr. John W. Thackery and the staff at New York's Knickerbocker Hospital during the early part of the twentieth century.
The Archive was instrumental in the recreation of turn-of-the-century medicine, as Dr. Burns worked with production and the actors to make the hospital scenes realistic and authentic to the period. Dr. Burns provided immersive tutorials in the world of early-20th-century surgery, complete with hands-on practice; the Archive's extensive photographic record of medical history served as comprehensive resources for procedures and became important references for everything from the antiseptic atomizers in the operating theater to an early X-ray machine, to the prosthetic worn by a recurring character. Dr. Stanley B. Burns, the Archive’s Founder, is a New York City ophthalmologist who acquired his first medical photograph in 1975 and established the Burns Archive in 1977; the Archive began receiving recognition in 1978, when a selection of its 19th and 20th century photographs were featured in the Time Life Encyclopedia of Collectibles entry on photographs. The Archive was called “one of the world’s most important repositories of early medical history” by The New York Times, “the world’s greatest collection of early medical photography” by New York, “one of the six most important collections in the world” by Aperture, “one of America’s Top 100 Collectors” by Art and Antiques Magazine, “the most important held photo archive in the world” by New York’s The Village Voice.
The Burns Archive, through Burns Archive Press and other publishers, has published over 40 books in 40 years, including: Stiffs, Skulls, & Skeletons: Medical Photography and Symbolism, with Elizabeth A. Burns Mirror, Mirror: The Burns Collection Daguerreotypes Shooting Soldiers: Civil War Medical Photography By R. B. Bontecou Sleeping Beauty III: Memorial Photography: The Children Ophthalmology: A Photographic History 1845-1945, Volumes 1-4 Deadly Intent: Crime and Punishment
Visnagar is a city and a municipality in Mehsana district in the Indian state of Gujarat. Visnagar is a taluka place. Jay Shankar Sundri, Master Trikam are well-known theatre actors of yesteryears while Prashant Barot is a well-known actor of theatre and movies from Visnagar "Visnagar" named after its founder king Visaladev from Ajmer Dynasty was founded in 953 on the auspicious day of'Akhatrij'. Founded just as an outpost of the kingdom of king Visaldeo surrounding the present'Deliya Talao' a huge water tank covering an area of approx 2 lac sq. meter. As it was falling on a strategic geographical location, Visnagar faced many war fights between Visaldeo, Ider dynasty and Gayakwads with change of rulers Visnagar so many changes and it grew with a fort wall with 6 gates none of them is present at this time but at some places, remains can be seen. Visnagar Kasba Under Gayakwad rule, Visnagar become the first town in North Gujarat to have an underground water supply and sewerage system, Railway was brought glory with it for the development of Visnagar with electricity.
Visnagar produced many freedom fighters during the time of the British Rule. Noted teachers, drama artists, writers were among those who highlighted Visnagar. Education facilities were instrumental in getting awareness among people. Nearly 29 schools of which two are for girls only and 7 colleges attract students and people outside Visnagar for years. Visnagar City Industrial establishments like submersible pumps, thrashers and copper vessels drew attention nationwide; the present population of Visnagar is 65,826 and the majority is of Hindus. Industrial development, real estate development, education facilities, medical facilities attract people from surrounding villages to come and stay here. Visnagar is located at 23.7°N 72.55°E / 23.7. Earlier Visnagar was known as "Copper City" because there were so many workers who used to make pots from copper, it has a big garden called "Doshabhai Garden". It is considered one of the major commercial centers of the Mehsana district. Visnagar is surround by many great places with religious and architectural importance like Ambaji, unjha, Patan, Modhera and Vadnagar.
Some of the best attractive places to visit near visnagar are Tirupati natural & Water park, Bliss Aqua world, Sankus water park & Resort, Tirupati Rushivan Adventure park. Visnagar is 20 km away from Mehsana Railway station and the nearest airport is at Ahmedabad As of 2001 India census,Visnagar had a population of 68,826. Males constitute 53% of the population and females 47%. Visnagar has an average literacy rate of 77%, male literacy is 82%, female literacy is 71%, Adarsh Vidhyalay, Visnagar G. D. High School, Visnagar Kanya Sala, Visnagar Modern English School, Visnagar N. M. Nootan Sarva Vidyalaya, Visnagar Navyug Shisuniketan, Visnagar Prakash Vidyalaya, Visnagar Sardar Patel High School, Visnagar School of Victors, Visnagar School of Achievers Shri Sahajanand School, Visnagar Gurukul School, Visnagar Galaxy Sankalchand Patel University G D General Hospital Gokul orthopedic hospital Aakash Eye Hospital Sanjeevani Hospital Siddhivinayak Hospital MIMS Hospital Himani Hospital Sardar Patel Hospital Jyoti Nursing Home Upasna Hospital Narsinhbhai Patel Dental College & Hospital Ridham Hospital for Women Amee Hospital Krishna Hospital Narsinhbhai Patel Medical College & Hospital Bakarpur Basana Becharpura Bhalak Bhandu Bokarvada Chhogala Chitroda Mota Chitrodipura Dadhiyal Denap Dhamanva Dharusana Ganpatpura Ghaghret Gothva Gunja Gunjala Hasanpur Iyasara Jetalvasana Kada Kajialiyasana Kamalpur Kankupura Kamana Kansa Kansarakui Khadalpur Khandosan Kharvada Kiyadar Kuvasana Lachhadi Laxmipura Magroda Mahamadpur Megha Aliyasana Paldi Pudgam Rajgadh Ralisana Rampura Randala Rangakui Rangpur Ravalapura Saduthala Satusana Savala Sunshi Tarabh Thalota Thumthal Udalpur Umta Vadu Valam Visnagar
Martin Witherspoon Gary was an attorney and politician from South Carolina, advancing to the rank of brigadier general in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. He played a major leadership role in the 1876 Democratic political campaign to elect Wade Hampton III as governor, planning a detailed campaign to disrupt the Republican Party and black voters by violence and intimidation. Gary was first elected to office as a state representative in 1860, he was elected to the State Senate in 1876 from South Carolina, serving two terms. He fell out with Hampton after failing to get appointments to the US Senate in 1877 and 1879, left politics in 1881 after finishing his second term, he died in April of that year. Born in Cokesbury, South Carolina, to Dr. Thomas Reeder Gary and Mary Ann Porter, the young Gary received his primary education at Cokesbury Academy before enrolling at South Carolina College in 1850, his participation in the Great Biscuit Rebellion in 1852 resulted in his withdrawal from the state college.
He returned to his studies and graduated from Harvard in 1854. In 1855, Gary was admitted to the bar in South Carolina and began practicing as a lawyer in Edgefield. Gary was elected in 1860 to the South Carolina House of Representatives as a secessionist, his time in office was short. When South Carolina seceded in 1861, he joined Hamptons Legion as a captain of infantry. At the First Battle of Manassas, he was given control of the Legion after his superior officers were disabled. By 1862 Gary had been elected as lieutenant colonel of the infantry battalion in the Legion and was promoted to colonel when given control of a regiment. Hampton's Legion came under the command of General Longstreet and was active in the battles of Virginia through mid-1863 before being transferred to help the Army of Tennessee in the latter part of the year. Back east, Gary was commissioned as a brigadier general of a cavalry brigade; the Brigade was part of the Department of Richmond until January 1865. It included the infantry battalion of Hamptons Legion, mounted on March 11, 1864 and transferred from Longstreets Corps.
The Brigade was transferred to the Cavalry Corps, Army of Northern Virginia in January 1865, but Gary refused to surrender with General Lee at Appomattox. Instead he led 200 men of his brigade to escort President Davis and his cabinet from Greensboro, North Carolina, to his mother's house in Cokesbury, where he ended his service as a Confederate soldier. After the war, Gary resumed his law practice in Edgefield and pursued a number of other business ventures. Fed up with the Radical Republican government which obeyed the constitutional amendments and allowed the African-American majority in the South Carolina population to have a say in the government, he became an outspoken racist. On one occasion he said "that the negro shall not become a part of the body politic, or from any qualification either as to education or property, be allowed to vote in this country." Gary worked with white paramilitary groups, rifle clubs and the Red Shirts, who organized in 1874 to suppress black voting in the state.
A manuscript of his "Plan of the Campaign of 1876" shows the level of detail and attention he gave to this project. In the summer of 1876, Matthew Calbraith Butler wrote to his former commander, Wade Hampton III, urging him to seek the governorship in the upcoming election. Butler omitted the details of the violent campaign planned by Gary and others, Hampton accepted. Two years Gary claimed credit for convincing Hampton to run, it soon became apparent that Hampton did not support Gary's campaign plan, known as a modified version of the Mississippi Plan or the "Shotgun Policy. It was known in South Carolina as the "Edgefield Plan" due to Gary's leadership in its design and implementation, it called for the bribery or intimidation of African-American Republican voters by local Democratic "rifle clubs" or "Red Shirts," formed ostensibly to attend campaign events and to ensure order at polling places. The Red Shirts conducted parades and rode at political gatherings with the overt goal of overturning the Republicans.
Gary's tactics helped Hampton to win, as black Republican voting was suppressed in Aiken and Edgefield counties. In addition, Hampton had expressed himself as a moderate with paternalistic interest in blacks and won their trust and votes in several areas. In Edgefield and Laurens counties, the total votes for Hampton exceeded the total number of registered voters; the election returns from these two counties were challenged by the state board of returns. Their contribution was critical. Hampton's victory resulted from a deal between South Carolina Democratic leaders and the national Republican Party. In April 1877 Republican candidate Hayes received the hitherto contested votes of South Carolina electors and was declared the winner of the contested United States presidential race. In return, he ordered the withdrawal of Federal troops from South Carolina and Louisiana, ending the formal Reconstruction era. Gary was elected to the state senate from Edgefield County in 1876, he was reelected in 1878.
During his time in the State Senate, he became a vocal opponent of Governor Hampton because Hampton blocked his appointment to a U. S. Senate seat in 1877 and 1879. In addition and his allies prevented Gary's candidacy in the gubernatorial election of 1880. Upon leaving the South Carolina Senate in 1881, Gary returned to his family home in Cokesbury, he died there on April 9, was buried in Tabernacle Cemetery in Cokesbury. List of American Civil War generals Andrew, Jr. Rod. Wade Hampton: Confederate Warrior and Southern R
Laura Smith Haviland was an American abolitionist and social reformer. She was an important figure in the history of the Underground Railroad. Laura Smith Haviland was born on December 20, 1808, in Kitley Township, Canada to American parents, Daniel Smith and Asenath "Sene" Blancher, who had immigrated shortly before her birth. Haviland wrote that Daniel was "a man of ability and influence, of clear perceptions, strong reasoning powers," while her mother Sene was "of a gentler turn... a quiet spirit and kind to all, much beloved by all who knew her." The Smiths, farmers of modest means, were devout members of the Society of Friends, better known as Quakers. Haviland's father was a minister in the Society and her mother was an Elder. Though the Quakers dressed plainly, forbade dancing and other pursuits they deemed frivolous, many of their views were progressive by the standards of the day; the Quakers encouraged the equal education of men and women, an extraordinarily forward-thinking position in an age when most individuals were illiterate, providing a woman with a thorough education was viewed as unnecessary.
Quaker women as well as men acted as ministers. While most Quakers did not agitate vocally for abolition, the majority condemned slavery as brutal and unjust, it was in this atmosphere. In 1815, her family left Canada and returned to the United States, settling in the remote and sparsely populated town of Cambria, in western New York. At the time there was no school near their home, for the next six years Haviland's education consisted of little more than "a spelling lesson" given to her daily by her mother. Haviland described herself as an inquisitive child interested in the workings of the world around her, who at a young age began questioning her parents about everything from scripture to Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation. Once she had mastered spelling, Haviland supplemented her meager education by devouring every book she could borrow from friends and neighbors, reading everything from religious material to serious historical studies. At sixteen, Laura met Charles Haviland, Jr. a devout young Quaker, whose parents were both respected ministers.
They were married on November 1825, at Lockport, New York. According to Laura, Charles was a devoted husband and theirs was a happy marriage, they were the parents of eight children. The Havilands spent the first four years of their marriage in Royalton Township, near Lockport, New York, before moving in September, 1829, to Raisin, Lenawee County, in the Michigan Territory, they settled three miles from the homestead her parents acquired four years earlier. Michigan was a unsettled wilderness, but land was cheap, there were a number of other Quakers in the vicinity. Haviland vividly recalled seeing African Americans verbally abused, physically assaulted, in Lockport, New York, when she was a child; these experiences, combined with the horrific descriptions in John Woolman's history of the slave-trade, made an indelible impression. The pictures of these crowded slave-ships, with the cruelties of the slave system after they were brought to our country affected me to tears... My sympathies became too enlisted for the poor negroes who were thus enslaved for time to efface.
Haviland and other members of the Raisin community helped Elizabeth Margaret Chandler organize the Logan Female Anti-Slavery Society in 1832. It was the first anti-slavery organization in Michigan. Five years in 1837, Haviland and her husband founded a "manual labor school... designed for indigent children,", known as the Raisin Institute. Haviland instructed the girls in household chores, while her husband and one of her brothers, Harvey Smith, taught the boys to perform farm work. At the Havilands' insistence, the school was open to all children, "regardless of race, creed, or sex." It was the first racially integrated school in Michigan. Some of Haviland's white students, upon learning they were to study with African Americans, threatened to leave. Most were persuaded to remain and Laura wrote that once the students were together in the classroom their prejudices "soon melted away."In 1838, Harvey Smith sold his farm, the proceeds were used to erect accommodations for fifty students. The Havilands expanded the school's curriculum, operating it more along the lines of traditional elementary and secondary schools.
They hired a graduate of Oberlin College to serve as the school's principal. Due to their diligence, the Raisin Institute was soon recognized as one of the best schools in the Territory; as the Havilands became more involved in anti-slavery work, tensions grew within the Quaker community. There was a split between the so-called "radical abolitionists," like the Havilands, who wanted immediate emancipation, the majority of Orthodox Quakers. Although the Quakers condemned slavery, most did not approve of active participation in abolitionist societies. By 1839, in order to continue with their abolitionist work, the Havilands, her parents, fourteen other like-minded Quakers, felt compelled to resign their membership, they joined a group of Methodists known as the Wesleyans, who were devoted to the abolitionist cause. In the spring of 1845, an epidemic of erysipelas killed six members of Haviland's family, including both of her parents, her husband, her youngest child. Haviland fell ill, but survived.
At thirty-six, Haviland found herself a widow with seven children to support, a farm to run, the Raisin Institute to manage, substantial debts to repay. Sadly, just two years tragedy struck again, when her eldest son died. Due to lack of funds, Haviland was
Sphacelotheca reiliana known as Sporisorium reilianum, is a species of biotrophic fungus in the family Microbotryaceae. It is a plant pathogen that infects sorghum. Sporisorium reilianum causes the diseases maize head sorghum head smut; this soil borne smut fungus has two formae speciales. S. reilianum f. sp. reilianum is specific to sorghum and S. reilianum f. sp. zeae is specific to maize. It is unknown. Symptoms of the fungus are expressed on both the tassels of corn and sorghum as well as on the actual ear in the form of large smut galls; when the sorghum tassel is infected, the fragile gall membrane will have a range from just a few black spores to a large mass of black spores covering the tassel. The spores are a sign of the disease and are used for dispersal of the disease to other corn and sorghum plants; when the ear of the corn is infected, it looks small and tear-drop shaped and seems as though it does not have a cob inside at all. The cob is replaced by white sori which are the structures that make and hold the spores of the fungus.
If there is an infected tassel, it is that the ears will have head smut. Sporisorium reilianum is noted to have a sexual stage in its disease cycle similar to that of Ustilago maydis. Initial infections occur on roots of young seedlings; the pathogen is found on ear and tassel tissues as the host plant matures. At maturity teliospores can be found in the white sori of the infected heads of corn; these will be dispersed by the wind. Favorable nutritive soil and weather conditions around 23-30 °C allows for germination of the teliospores in the soil. Generation of a four-celled basidium occurs; these sporidia fuse due to a compatibility or likeness that induces the formation of dikaryotic mycelium, infectious and parasitic. This intracellular mycelium can be found invaded in parts of the flowering development of the corn, S. reilianum can decrease floral tissue due to an ability to detect floral induction. S. reilianum is biotrophic in that it depends on the sorghum for growth and survival. The inflorescence of the male or female parts of the plants, female being the ear and the male being the tassel can be affected by the timing of infection by this species.
Necrosis and disease development is most prevalent on the head of the infected host. Maize head smut occurs in most maize-growing areas, including many regions of North America, Australia and southern Europe, it causes tremendous loss of yield during outbreaks due to the replacement of the ear with large smut sori. To infect maize roots, S. reilianum f. sp. zeae must form a dikaryotic parasitic hypha which results for the mating of two compatible haploid strains. The infection always occurs in soil via the root, unlike Ustilago maydis, another maize smut, which infects maize plants via aerial parts. Temperatures of 23-30 °C are optimal for field infection of corn, suspected to be due to maximum teliospore germination. Detection of S. reilianum is a key step toward the development of an effective disease management system. Conventional methods, including pathogen isolation and microscopic morphological study, are labor-intensive and cumbersome, sometimes yield inconclusive results. Rapid and sensitive molecular tools, such as PCR, are required for the detection and evaluation of S. reilianum.
In 1999 there was developed a DNA-based assay for the detection of S. reilianum and its differentiation from Ustilago maydis. More in 2012, a method using Fourier transform infrared spectrometry was established for identification of S. reilianum spores. Head smut can be controlled by seed treatment with fungicides. Foliar application of fungicides have not controlled the disease. Crop rotation is of questionable value because the smut spores can survive for long periods in the soil, it has been suggested that the most economical and environmentally friendly method to reduce maize yield losses is to breed and deploy resistant maize hybrids. In comparison with other cereal crops, such as rice and wheat, maize has fewer qualitative resistance genes that have been used extensively by breeders. Instead, maize has more quantitative resistance loci deployed in the field to counter the majority of diseases. In other words, maize resistance to S. reilianum is thought to be under polygenic control. The cumulative effects of multiple smaller-effect quantitative resistance loci can produce high or complete resistance.
The pathogenic tendency of Sporisorium reilianum as illustrated above is to carry out its life cycle in congruence with the growth of either maize or sorghum as the host plant. For example, In place of ears of corn; the onset of this smut is sporadic and progressive however disease severity is high. For example, a field of corn can have 10% infected with yield loss that has an 80% apparent infection rate. Post infection treatment to eliminate or reduce the disease are marginally ineffective; the massive crop loss that this pathogen can create is devastating to producers who are unaware of the teliospores overwintering in the soil. Treatment of seeds with a fungicide during planting or prior to harvest is important to limit the spread of spores if high risk field areas known by the producer, it is important to limit transmission of spores to disease free areas via harvesting equipment or planting tools. The incidence of Sporisorium reilianum occurs in occurs in Africa, Europe, U. S. and China. Fungicide use in the market today indicates that there are abou