The Fender Stratocaster is a model of electric guitar designed from 1952 into 1954 by Leo Fender, Bill Carson, George Fullerton, completed by Freddie Tavares. The Fender Musical Instruments Corporation has continuously manufactured the Stratocaster from 1954 to the present, it is a double-cutaway guitar, with an extended top "horn" shape for balance like the Precision Bass guitar. Along with the Gibson Les Paul and Fender Telecaster, it is one of the most-often emulated electric guitar shapes. "Stratocaster" and "Strat" are trademark terms belonging to Fender. Guitars that duplicate the Stratocaster by other manufacturers are called S-Type or ST-type guitars; the Stratocaster was the first Fender guitar to feature three pickups and a spring tension vibrato system, as well as being the first Fender with a contoured body. The Stratocaster's sleek, contoured body shape differed from the flat, squared edge design of the Telecaster; the Stratocaster's double cutaways allowed players easier access to higher positions on the neck.
The first model offered for sale was the 1954 Fender Stratocaster. The design featured a solid contoured ash body, a 21-fret one-piece maple neck with black dot inlays, Kluson SafeTiPost tuning machines; the color was a two-color, dark brown to golden yellow sunburst pattern, although custom color guitars were produced. The first models had a serial number imprinted on the Bakelite back plate. After mid-1954, the four-digit serial number was stamped into the steel heel plate. In 1956, Fender began using alder for most custom-color Stratocaster bodies. While ash needed grain filler and sanding blocks for contour sanding. In 1960, the available custom colors were standardized with a paint chip chart, many of which were Duco automobile lacquer colors from DuPont available at an additional 5% cost. Inter-departmental Dupont support. A single-ply, eight-screw hole white pickguard held all electronic components except the recessed jack plate, facilitating assembly. After 1965, the Fender company, under the control of CBS Instruments, saw a drop in quality control meaning lower quality build and lower grade instruments for customers.
Despite this, the popularity of Jimi Hendrix in the late 1960's saw a resurgence in sales due to his fondness for the instrument. However, after 1974, the increased production of lower quality instruments by the company saw the advent of the Japanese entering the market to produce replicas of the pre-1966 Stratocasters. Original Stratocasters were manufactured with five vibrato springs attached to a milled inertia block and anchored to the back of the body; the novel mechanism pivots on a fulcrum design with a six screw bridge plate, allowing the whole set up to "float" while transferring the strings energy directly into the body. Though advertised as "Tremolo", vibrato is the correct term for pitch variation. In the floating position, players can move the bridge-mounted vibrato tremolo arm up or down to modulate the pitch of the notes being played. Hank Marvin, Jeff Beck and Ike Turner have used the Stratocaster's floating vibrato extensively in their playing; as string gauges have changed, players have experimented with the number of springs.
As the average gauge has decreased over the years, modern Stratocasters are equipped with three springs as a stock option in order to counteract the reduced string tension. While the floating bridge has unique advantages for wavering pitch upwards, the functionality of the "floating" has been accepted, yet disputed by some musicians. Leo insisted it leave the factory floating while designer Freddie Tavares preferred it tightened flush for full bridge plate/body contact resonance; as the bridge floats, the instrument has a tendency to go out of tune during double-stop string bends. Many Stratocaster players opt to tighten the springs so that the bridge is anchored against the guitar body: in this configuration, the vibrato arm can still be used to slacken the strings and therefore lower the pitch, but it cannot be used to raise the pitch; some players, such as Eric Clapton and Ronnie Wood, feel that the floating bridge has an excessive propensity to detune guitars and so inhibit the bridge's movement with a chunk of wood wedged between the bridge block and the inside cutout of the tremolo cavity, by increasing the tension on the tremolo springs.
Some Stratocasters have a fixed bridge in place of the vibrato assembly. There is considerable debate about the effects on tone and sustain of the material used in the vibrato system's'inertia bar' and many aftermarket versions are available; the Stratocaster features three single coil pickups, with the output selected by a 3-way switch. Guitarists soon discovered that by positioning the switch in between the first and second position, both the bridge and middle pickups could be selected, the middle and neck pickups could be selected between the 2nd and 3rd position; when two pickups are selected they are wired in parallel which leads to a slight drop in output as more current is allowed to pass to the ground. However in newer guitars, since the middle pickup is always wired in reverse (and with its magnets ha
STARR-seq is a method to assay enhancer activity for millions of candidates from arbitrary sources of DNA. It is used to identify the sequences that act as transcriptional enhancers in a direct and genome-wide manner. In eukaryotes, transcription is regulated by sequence-specific DNA-binding proteins associated with a gene’s promoter and by distant control sequences including enhancers. Enhancers are non-coding DNA sequences, containing several binding sites for a variety of transcription factors, they recruit transcriptional factors that modulate chromatin structure and directly interact with the transcription machinery placed at the promoter of gene. Enhancers are able to regulate transcription of target genes in a cell type-specific manner, independent of their location or distance from the promoter of genes, they can regulate transcription of genes located in a different chromosome. However, the knowledge about enhancers so far has been limited to studies of a small number of enhancers, as they have been difficult to identify at a genome-wide scale.
Moreover, many regulatory elements function only in specific conditions. Enhancer detection in Drosophila is an original methodology using random insertion of transposon-derived vector that encodes a reporter protein downstream of a minimal promoter; this approach allows to observe the expression of reporter in transgenic animals and provides information about nearby genes that are regulated by these sequences. The discovery and characterization of cell types along with genes involved in their determination have been improved by the discovery of this technique. During the past few years, post-genomic technologies, have displayed specific features of poised and active enhancers that have improved enhancer discovery. Development of new methods such as deep sequencing of DNase I hypersensitive sites, formaldehyde-assisted isolation of regulatory elements sequencing, chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by deep sequencing provide genome-wide enhancer predictions by enhancer-associated chromatin features.
DHS-sequencing and FAIRE-sequencing fail to provide a direct functional or quantitative readout of enhancer activity. To obtain this, reporter assays that deduce enhancer strength from the loads of reporter transcripts is needed. Moreover, such assays are not able to offer the millions of tests required for identification of enhancers in genome-wide manner. Development of STARR-seq help to identify enhancers in a direct and genome-wide manner. Taking advantage of the knowledge that enhancers can work independent of their relative locations, candidate sequences are placed downstream of a minimal promoter, allowing the active enhancers to transcribe themselves; the strength of each enhancer is reflected by its richness among cellular RNAs. Such a direct coupling of candidate sequences to enhancer activity enables the parallel evaluation of millions of DNA fragments from arbitrary sources. Genomic DNA is randomly broken down to small fragments. Adaptors are ligated to size-selected DNA fragments.
Next, adaptor linked fragments are amplified and the PCR products are purified followed by placing candidate sequences downstream of a minimal promoter of screening vectors, giving them an opportunity to transcribe themselves. Candidate cells are transfected with reporter library and cultured. Thereafter, total RNAs are extracted and poly-A RNAs isolated. Using reverse transcription method, cDNAs are produced and candidate fragments are used for high-throughput paired end sequencing. Sequence reads are mapped to the reference genome and computational processing of data is carried out. Applying this technology to Drosophila genome, Arnold et al. found 96% of the non-repetitive genome with at least 10-fold coverage. Authors discovered that most identified enhancers were placed within introns in the first intron and intergenic regions. 4.5% of enhancers were located at transcription start sites, suggesting that these enhancers can start transcription and improve transcription from a distant TSS.
The strongest enhancers were near housekeeping genes such as enzymes or component of the cytoskeleton and developmental regulators such as the transcription factors. The strongest enhancer was located within the intron of the transcription factor zfh1; this transcription factor regulates neuropeptide expression and growth of larval neuromuscular junctions in Drosophila. The ribosomal protein genes were the only class of genes with poor enhancers ranking. Moreover, authors demonstrated that many genes are regulated by several independent active enhancers in a single cell type. Furthermore, gene expression levels on average were correlated with the sum of the enhancer strengths per gene, supporting direct link between gene expression and enhancer activity. Applying this technology to the characterization and discovery of regulatory variant alleles, Vockley et al. characterized the effects of human genetic variation on non-coding regulatory element function, measuring the activity of 100 putative enhancers captured directly from the genomes of 95 members of a study cohort.
This approach enables the functional fine-mapping of causal regulatory variants in regions of high linkage disequilibrium identified by eQTL analyses. This approach provides a general path forward to identify perturbations in gene regulatory elements that contribute to complex phenotypes. STARR-seq has been used to measure the regulatory activity of DNA fragments that have been enriched for sites occupied by specific transcription factors. Cloning ChIP DNA libraries generated from ch
Everette Brown is an American football coach and former linebacker, the assistant linebackers coach for the Carolina Panthers of the National Football League. He played college football at Florida State and was drafted by the Carolina Panthers in second round of the 2009 NFL Draft. Brown played for the San Diego Chargers, Detroit Lions, Philadelphia Eagles, Dallas Cowboys, Washington Redskins. Brown attended Beddingfield High School in Wilson, North Carolina, where he graduated in 2005, he was a two-sport star in track. In high school football, he recorded 120 tackles with 16 sacks as a senior. Brown caught 40 passes for 770 yards and 10 touchdowns as a tight end, he played in the Shrine Bowl All-Star game. An standout track & field athlete, Brown was a state qualifier in the sprinting events, he captured the state title in the 200-meter dash event at the 2002 NCHSAA 1A T&F Championships, recording a career-best time of 22.2 seconds. At the 2003 NCHSAA 1A T&F Championships, he took 9th in the 100-meter dash, 5th in the 200-meter dash and 9th in the high jump.
Regarded as a four-star recruit by Rivals.com, Brown was listed as the No. 3 weakside defensive end prospects in his class. Receiving numerous offers, he took official visits to Florida State, North Carolina, Virginia Tech, before committing to the Seminoles. Brown red-shirted in 2005. In 2006 Brown was a Freshman All-America and All-ACC Freshman team honoree by The Sporting News, he played in all 13 games. He finished eighth on the team and second among Seminole freshmen in tackles with 27, he was second on the team in tackles for minus yardage with 13.5 and tied for third on the team with three quarterback sacks. His sophomore season of 2007 he was a starter at the left defensive end position where he earned a career-high eight starting assignments for the season and he recorded one start on the right side, he led the team in sacks, led all defensive linemen in tackles and tackles for loss while totaling a single-season career-high 37 tackles, a single-season career-high 6.5 quarterback sacks and 11.5 tackles for minus yardage In 2008, he was the Seminoles starter at the right defensive end position in each of the 13 games during the 2008 regular season.
He earned All-America Second-team honors by Rivals.com, Associated Press, Scout.com and the Walter Camp Foundation. He was the runner-up for ACC Player of the Year honors and the runner-up as the ACC Defensive Player of the Year. Brown was All-ACC First-team honors. A finalist for the Ted Hendricks Award, he finished the season third in the nation in sacks and tied for fourth in the FBS in tackles for loss. He was the team leader as well as ACC leader with a career-high 21.5 tackles for loss and the team leader with a career-high 13.5 quarterback sacks. He finished second in school history with 46.5 tackles for loss. And ranks third all-time for a single-season with 13.5 quarterback sacks and fifth all-time with 23.0 career quarterback sacks. Finished season with 36 stops with a career-high 30 unassisted tackles and 36 total tackles, he completed his FSU with 100 career tackles in just three seasons. Having received his college degree, Brown decided to forgo his final season of eligibility and enter the 2009 NFL Draft.
Brown was considered “a perfect fit as a rush-linebacker in a 3-4 scheme” by ESPN′s Todd McShay. He was listed at 6 ft 4 in by Florida State's media guide, but turned out to be just under 6 ft 2 in at the NFL Combine. Projected a first-round draft pick, Brown saw his draft stock falling because of questions about his size, he was picked 43rd overall in the second round by the Panthers, who traded their 2010 NFL Draft first-round pick to the San Francisco 49ers to get that pick. With Julius Peppers still demanding a trade, Brown was shifted to the right side defensive end spot in June 2009. In his first NFL season, Brown recorded 2.5 sacks and 2 forced fumbles. On September 4, 2011, Brown was waived by Carolina after recording 6 sacks in two seasons. Brown signed with the San Diego Chargers on November 1, 2011, he was released on March 13, 2012. Brown signed with the Detroit Lions on March 22, 2012. Brown signed with the Philadelphia Eagles on January 2, 2013, he was released on August 30, 2013. Brown signed with the Dallas Cowboys on October 29, 2013.
In his first game for the Cowboys five days he registered a sack on Minnesota Vikings's quarterback Christian Ponder in the Cowboys' 27-23 victory. Brown was released by the Cowboys on February 28, 2014. Brown signed with the Washington Redskins on July 28, 2014, their fifth day of training camp, after releasing outside linebacker Brandon Jenkins; the Redskins released him on August 30, 2014 for final roster cuts before the start of the 2014 season. He was re-signed on October 21, 2014, after a season-ending injury to Brian Orakpo, but was released on December 9, 2014. On August 16, 2015, Everette signed with the Cleveland Browns. On August 31, 2015, he was released by the Browns. On February 8, 2019, Brown was hired by the Carolina Panthers as an assistant linebackers coach. Brown was born in Stantonsburg, North Carolina a small town with a current population of 706. During his time at Florida State he devoted much of his time volunteering at various schools and speaking at organized events such as campaign designed to warn kids about the ill effects of tobacco.