Fernand Léger

Joseph Fernand Henri Léger was a French painter and filmmaker. In his early works he created a personal form of cubism which he modified into a more figurative, populist style, his boldly simplified treatment of modern subject matter has caused him to be regarded as a forerunner of pop art. Léger was born in Argentan, Lower Normandy, where his father raised cattle. Fernand Léger trained as an architect from 1897 to 1899, before moving in 1900 to Paris, where he supported himself as an architectural draftsman. After military service in Versailles, Yvelines, in 1902–1903, he enrolled at the School of Decorative Arts after his application to the École des Beaux-Arts was rejected, he attended the Beaux-Arts as a non-enrolled student, spending what he described as "three empty and useless years" studying with Gérôme and others, while studying at the Académie Julian. He began to work as a painter only at the age of 25. At this point his work showed the influence of impressionism, as seen in Le Jardin de ma mère of 1905, one of the few paintings from this period that he did not destroy.

A new emphasis on drawing and geometry appeared in Léger's work after he saw the Cézanne retrospective at the Salon d'Automne in 1907. In 1909 he moved to Montparnasse and met Alexander Archipenko, Jacques Lipchitz, Marc Chagall, Joseph Csaky and Robert Delaunay. In 1910 he exhibited at the Salon d'Automne in the same room as Jean Metzinger and Henri Le Fauconnier. In his major painting of this period, Nudes in the Forest, Léger displays a personal form of Cubism that his critics termed "Tubism" for its emphasis on cylindrical forms. In 1911 the hanging committee of the Salon des Indépendants placed together the painters identified as'Cubists'. Metzinger, Albert Gleizes, Le Fauconnier, Delaunay and Léger were responsible for revealing Cubism to the general public for the first time as an organized group; the following year he again exhibited at the Salon d'Automne and Indépendants with the Cubists, joined with several artists, including Le Fauconnier, Gleizes, Francis Picabia and the Duchamp brothers, Jacques Villon, Raymond Duchamp-Villon and Marcel Duchamp to form the Puteaux Group—also called the Section d'Or.

Léger's paintings, from until 1914, became abstract. Their tubular and cubed forms are laconically rendered in rough patches of primary colors plus green and white, as seen in the series of paintings with the title Contrasting Forms. Léger made no use of the collage technique pioneered by Picasso. Léger's experiences in World War. Mobilized in August 1914 for service in the French Army, he spent two years at the front in Argonne, he produced many sketches of artillery pieces and fellow soldiers while in the trenches, painted Soldier with a Pipe while on furlough. In September 1916 he died after a mustard gas attack by the German troops at Verdun. During a period of convalescence in Villepinte he painted The Card Players, a canvas whose robot-like, monstrous figures reflect the ambivalence of his experience of war; as he explained:... I was stunned by the sight of the breech of a 75 millimeter in the sunlight, it was the magic of light on the white metal. That's all it took for me to forget the abstract art of 1912–1913.

The crudeness, variety and downright perfection of certain men around me, their precise sense of utilitarian reality and its application in the midst of the life-and-death drama we were in... made me want to paint in slang with all its color and mobility. This work marked the beginning of his "mechanical period", during which the figures and objects he painted were characterized by sleekly rendered tubular and machine-like forms. Starting in 1918, he produced the first paintings in the Disk series, in which disks suggestive of traffic lights figure prominently. In December 1919 he married Jeanne-Augustine Lohy, in 1920 he met Le Corbusier, who would remain a lifelong friend; the "mechanical" works Léger painted in the 1920s, in their formal clarity as well as in their subject matter—the mother and child, the female nude, figures in an ordered landscape—are typical of the postwar "return to order" in the arts, link him to the tradition of French figurative painting represented by Poussin and Corot.

In his paysages animés of 1921, figures and animals exist harmoniously in landscapes made up of streamlined forms. The frontal compositions, firm contours, smoothly blended colors of these paintings recall the works of Henri Rousseau, an artist Léger admired and whom he had met in 1909, they share traits with the work of Le Corbusier and Amédée Ozenfant who together had founded Purism, a style intended as a rational, mathematically based corrective to the impulsiveness of cubism. Combining the classical with the modern, Léger's Nude on a Red Background depicts a monumental, expressionless woman, machinelike in form and color, his still life compositions from this period are dominated by stable, interlocking rectangular formations in vertical and horizontal orientation. The Siphon of 1924, a still life based on an advertisement in the popular press for the aperitif Campari, represents the high-water mark of the Purist aesthetic in Léger's work, its balanced composition and fluted shapes suggestive of classical columns are brought together with a quasi-cinematic close-up of a hand holding a bottle.

As an enthusiast of the modern, Léger was attracted to cinema, for a time he considered giving up painting for filmmaking. In 1923–24 he designed the set for the laboratory scene in Marcel L'Herbier's L

List of The Mummy (film series) characters

The following is a selected list of characters who have appeared throughout The Mummy film series and its spin-off series The Scorpion King. Main and minor characters are included. Rick is the main character in The Mummy films, he served as a captain in the French Foreign Legion before becoming an adventurer. Evelyn and her brother Jonathan met him in a Cairo prison, where Evelyn negotiates his release early in the movie so that he can lead them to the ancient city of Hamunaptra, as he is one of the few men to visit the city and return alive. After the boat they are using to traverse the river Nile is attacked and destroyed by the warriors trying to prevent the resurrection of the "creature", he leads them to Hamunaptra where they unearth the rotting corpse of Imhotep; that evening after fending off another attack by the warriors known as the Medjai, he watches as Evelyn accidentally awakens Imhotep. After a small scuffle with the plagues that come with unleashing Imhotep and the Mummy himself, he, along with the remaining survivors, flees back to Cairo.

The Mummy follows them and enslaves the population of Cairo and makes the zombie-like people chase and try to kill them. After being cornered he is forced to flee, he enlists the help of Winston, a retired airforce pilot, to charter himself and Ardeth back to Hamunaptra. Here he battles Imhotep but to no avail. Only with the timely help of Jonathan and Evelyn does he manage to kill Imhotep. Once Imhotep is defeated, Hamunaptra sinks into the sand, due to the handiwork of Beni, an ex-soldier who served in the French Foreign Legion with O'Connell before becoming Imhotep's henchman. Evelyn and Rick fall in love and kiss while riding off into the sunset with Jonathan in tow, unaware that the saddle bags on their camels are filled with looted treasure that Beni stole before Hamunaptra sank into the sand. In the second film and Evelyn are now married, have an 8-year-old son named Alex and live in an elaborate Baroque estate outside London; when his son is kidnapped by sand bandits, O'Connell must race to thwart the rise of a returned and more powerful Imhotep.

Through conversations with loyal friend Ardeth Bay, it is revealed that O'Connell is a descendant of the Medjai, the race of ancients tasked with upholding the truce between the undead and the living. Ardeth Bay uses Rick's wrist tattoo as evidence of his'fate'. O'Connell struggles with the notion of his destiny to eternally battle mummies from all corners of the earth. In the end, O'Connell accepts his fate and is guided to the Oasis Pyramid, where Imhotep is planning on to gain control of the Scorpion King's evil army. O'Connell rages his way through a three-way battle that pits him between two ghastly foes and succeeds in destroying both of them; the conclusion of the battle and the death of the Scorpion King destroys the oasis, though O'Connell and his family escape in a hot-air balloon navigated by his long-time friend, Izzy. In the third film, Rick has retired to a quiet life of fishing and motorcar driving in the countryside. He's bored with his status as the greatest adventurer alive.

In a twist of fate however, his son, Alex ends up going to China and waking up the most terrifying mummies of the Orient. Thrilled to be a part of something exciting again, O'Connell and wife jump at the chance to join their 20-year-old son on a quest for Shangri-La to quell the advancement of a revived all-mummy Terracotta Army. Along the way, O'Connell fights evil Chinese nationalists with the help of the yeti. Evelyn Carnahan is a clumsy Egyptologist in the Cairo Museum of Antiquities. She, along with Rick and her brother Jonathan, travels to the lost city of Hamunaptra, where she hopes to find a rare, ancient book, the book of Amun-Ra; when some Americans find the Book of the Dead, purported to give eternal life, Evie steals the book from the sleeping American Egyptologist and reads a page of it. This unintentionally resurrects Imhotep. Imhotep wants to use her body as a vessel to resurrect his long-dead lover, Anck-su-namun, he takes Evie captive. Upon being rescued, she reads a page from the book of Amun-Ra.

Rick stabs Imhotep in the stomach. While he dies, he returns to his original undead form as a rotting corpse with his final parting words, which Evie translates as "Death is only the beginning". Evie shows little fighting skill but much bravery, such as when she attempts to shoot a Medjai with Rick's gun, fights Anck-su-namun. In the first part of the film she thinks. I don't like him one bit". However, as the first film progresses he gains her trust and they fall in love, she mentions that her brother's mother was Egyptian, making her half-Egyptian, half-English. In The Mummy, the character was meant to be Evelyn Carnarvon, the daughter of Lord Carnarvon, both present at the opening of Tutankhamen's tomb in November 1922, she and her brother were to be the children of the "cursed" Lord Carnarvon. The only evidence of this left in the film is in the line where Evelyn tells O'Connell that her father was a "very famous explorer". In The Mummy Returns it is revealed that she was, in her past life, an Egyptian princess, the daughter of the Pharaoh whom Imhotep and Anck-su-namun killed.

This makes her battle with Anck-su-namun personal, as they were foes in their past lives. Alexander "Alex" O'Connell is the son of Rick O'Connell. Throughout the second film, he is shown to have great intellect a

Thomas Leverett Nelson

Thomas Leverett Nelson was a United States District Judge of the United States District Court for the District of Massachusetts. Nelson was nominated by President Rutherford B. Hayes on January 7, 1879, to a seat vacated by John Lowell, he was confirmed by the United States Senate on January 10, 1879, received commission the same day. Nelson's service was terminated on November 1897, due to death. Born on March 4, 1827, in Haverhill, New Hampshire, one of twelve children of John and Lois Leverett Nelson, attended Kimball Union Academy in Meriden, New Hampshire, he attended Dartmouth College for two years graduated from the University of Vermont in 1846. Following graduation, he engaged in railroad construction. A serious accident which permanently injured his knee ended his engineering career and while in physical recovery, he began to study law with Judge Francis H. Dewey, he read law and was admitted to the bar in 1855. He entered private practice in Worcester, Massachusetts from 1855 to 1879.

He was a member of the Massachusetts House of Representatives in 1869. He was city solicitor for Worcester from 1870 to 1873, he served as Railroad Commissioner for the Worcester Railroad. Nelson was nominated by President Rutherford B. Hayes on January 7, 1879, to a seat on the United States District Court for the District of Massachusetts vacated by Judge John Lowell, he was confirmed by the United States Senate on January 10, 1879, received his commission the same day. His service terminated on November 1897, due to his death in Worcester. Nelson was active in Congregational churches early in his life and became a member of First Unitarian Church in Worcester and Central Church. Nelson was a member of the American Antiquarian Society. Ghen v. Rich, 8 F. 159 Thomas Leverett Nelson at the Biographical Directory of Federal Judges, a public domain publication of the Federal Judicial Center