Coffee is a brewed drink prepared from roasted coffee beans, the seeds of berries from certain Coffea species. The genus Coffea is native to tropical Africa and Madagascar, the Comoros, Réunion in the Indian Ocean. Coffee plants are now cultivated in over 70 countries in the equatorial regions of the Americas, Southeast Asia, Indian subcontinent, Africa; the two most grown are C. arabica and C. robusta. Once ripe, coffee berries are picked and dried. Dried coffee seeds are roasted to varying degrees, depending on the desired flavor. Roasted beans are ground and brewed with near-boiling water to produce the beverage known as coffee. Coffee is darkly colored, bitter acidic and has a stimulating effect in humans due to its caffeine content, it is one of the most popular drinks in the world, it can be prepared and presented in a variety of ways. It is served hot, although iced coffee is a popular alternative. Clinical studies indicate that moderate coffee consumption is benign or mildly beneficial in healthy adults, with continuing research on whether long-term consumption lowers the risk of some diseases, although those long-term studies are of poor quality.
The earliest credible evidence of coffee-drinking appears in modern-day Yemen in southern Arabia in the middle of the 15th century in Sufi shrines. It was here in Arabia that coffee seeds were first roasted and brewed in a similar way to how it is now prepared, but the coffee seeds had to be first exported from East Africa to Yemen, as the Coffea arabica plant is thought to have been indigenous to the former. The Yemenis began to cultivate the seed. By the 16th century, the drink had reached Persia and North Africa. From there, it spread to the rest of the world; as of 2016, Brazil was the leading grower of producing one-third of the world total. Coffee is a major export commodity, it is one of the most valuable commodities exported by developing countries. Green, unroasted coffee is one of the most traded agricultural commodities in the world; some controversy has been associated with coffee cultivation and the way developed countries trade with developing nations, as well as the impact on the environment with regards to the clearing of land for coffee-growing and water use.
The markets for fair trade and organic coffee are expanding, notably in the USA. The word coffee appears to have derived from the name of the region where coffee beans were first used by a herder in the 6th or 9th century: kaffa derived from Kaffa Province, the name of the region in ancient Abyssinia; the word "coffee" entered the English language in 1582 via the Dutch koffie, borrowed from the Ottoman Turkish kahve, borrowed in turn from the Arabic qahwah. The Arabic word qahwah was traditionally held to refer to a type of wine whose etymology is given by Arab lexicographers as deriving from the verb qahiya, "to lack hunger", in reference to the drink's reputation as an appetite suppressant, it has been proposed that the source may be the Proto-Central Semitic root q-h-h meaning "dark". The term "coffee pot" dates from 1705; the expression "coffee break" was first attested in 1952. According to legend, ancestors of today's Oromo people in a region of Kaffa in Ethiopia were believed to have been the first to recognize the energizing effect of the coffee plant.
However, there is no direct evidence, found earlier than the 15th century indicating where in Africa coffee first grew or who among the native populations might have used it as a stimulant. The story of Kaldi, the 9th-century Ethiopian goatherd who discovered coffee when he noticed how excited his goats became after eating the beans from a coffee plant, did not appear in writing until 1671 and is apocryphal. Other accounts attribute the discovery of coffee to Sheikh Omar. According to an ancient chronicle, known for his ability to cure the sick through prayer, was once exiled from Mocha in Yemen to a desert cave near Ousab. Starving, Omar found them to be bitter, he tried roasting the seeds to improve the flavor. He tried boiling them to soften the seed, which resulted in a fragrant brown liquid. Upon drinking the liquid Omar was sustained for days; as stories of this "miracle drug" reached Mocha, Omar was made a saint. The earliest credible evidence of coffee-drinking or knowledge of the coffee tree appears in the middle of the 15th century in the accounts of Ahmed al-Ghaffar in Yemen.
It was here in Arabia that coffee seeds were first roasted and brewed, in a similar way to how it is prepared now. Coffee was used by Sufi circles to stay awake for their religious rituals. Accounts differ on the origin of the coffee plant prior to its appearance in Yemen. From Ethiopia, coffee could have been introduced to Yemen via trade across the Red Sea. One account credits Muhammad Ibn Sa'd for bringing the beverage to Aden from the African coast. Other early accounts say Ali ben Omar of the Shadhili Sufi order was the first to introduce coffee to Arabia. According to al Shardi, Ali ben Omar may have encountered coffee during his stay with the Adal king Sadadin's companions in 1401. Famous 16th-century Islamic scholar Ibn Hajar al-Haytami notes in his
San Francisco Bay Area
San Francisco Bay Area is a populous region surrounding the San Francisco, San Pablo and Suisun Bay estuaries in the northern part of the U. S. state of California. Although the exact boundaries of the region vary depending on the source, the Bay Area is defined by the Association of Bay Area Governments to include the nine counties that border the aforementioned estuaries: Alameda, Contra Costa, Napa, San Mateo, Santa Clara, Solano and San Francisco. Other sources may exclude parts of or entire counties, or expand the definition to include neighboring counties that don't border the bay such as San Benito, San Joaquin, Santa Cruz. Home to 7.68 million people, Northern California's nine-county Bay Area contains many cities, towns and associated regional and national parks, connected by a complex multimodal transportation network. The larger combined statistical area of the region, which includes twelve counties, is the second-largest in California, the fifth-largest in the United States, the 41st-largest urban area in the world with 8.75 million people.
The Bay Area's population is ethnically diverse: for example half of the region's residents are Hispanic, African American, or Pacific Islander, all of whom have a significant presence throughout the region. The earliest archaeological evidence of human settlements in the Bay Area dates back to 3000 BC. In 1769, the Bay Area was inhabited by the Ohlone people when a Spanish exploration party led by Gaspar de Portolà entered the Bay – the first documented European visit to the Bay Area. After Mexico established independence from Spain in 1821, the region was controlled by the Mexican government until the United States purchased the territory in 1846 during the Mexican–American War. Soon after, discovery of gold in California attracted a flood of treasure seekers, many using ports in the Bay Area as an entry point. During the early years of California's statehood, state legislative business rotated between three locations in the Bay Area before a permanent state capital was established in Sacramento.
A major earthquake leveled the city of San Francisco and environs in 1906, but the region rebuilt in time to host the 1915 Panama-Pacific Exposition. During World War II, the Bay Area played a major role in America's war effort in the Asiatic-Pacific Theater, with San Francisco's Fort Mason acting as a primary embarkation point for American forces. In 1945, the United Nations Charter was signed in San Francisco, establishing the United Nations, in 1951, the Treaty of San Francisco ended the U. S.'s war with Japan. Since the Bay Area has experienced numerous political and artistic movements, developing unique local genres in music and art and establishing itself as a hotbed of progressive politics. Economically, the post-war Bay Area saw huge growth in the financial and technology industries, creating a vibrant and diverse economy with a gross domestic product of over $800 billion, home to the second highest concentration of Fortune 500 companies in the United States. Despite its urban character, the San Francisco Bay is one of California's most ecologically important habitats, providing key ecosystem services such as filtering pollutants and sediments from the rivers, supporting a number of endangered species.
The region is known for the complexity of its landforms, the result of millions of years of tectonic plate movements. Because the Bay Area is crossed by six major earthquake faults, the region is exposed to hazards presented by large earthquakes; the climate is temperate and very mild, is ideal for outdoor recreational and athletic activities such as hiking. The Bay Area is host to seven professional sports teams and is a cultural center for music and the arts, it is host to several institutions of higher education, ranging from primary schools to major research universities. Home to 101 municipalities and nine counties, governance in the Bay Area is multifaceted and involves numerous local and regional actors, each with wide-ranging and overlapping responsibilities; the borders of the San Francisco Bay Area are not delineated, the unique development patterns influenced by the region's topography, as well as unusual commute patterns caused by the presence of three central cities and employment centers located in various suburban locales, has led to considerable disagreement between local and federal definitions of the area.
Because of this, professor of geography at the University of California, Berkeley Richard Walker claimed that "no other U. S. city-region is as definitionally challenged."When the region began to develop during and after World War II, local planners settled on a nine-county definition for the Bay Area, consisting of the counties that directly border the San Francisco, San Pablo, Suisun estuaries: Alameda, Contra Costa, Napa, San Francisco, San Mateo, Santa Clara and Sonoma counties. Today, this definition is accepted by most local governmental agencies including San Francisco Regional Water Quality Control Board, Bay Area Air Quality Management District, the San Francisco Bay Restoration Authority, the Metropolitan Transportation Commission, the Association of Bay Area Governments, the latter two of which partner to deliver a Bay Area Census using the nine-county definition. Various U. S. Federal government agencies use definitions that differ from their local counterparts' nine-county definition.
For example, the Federal Communications Commission which regulates broadcast and satellite transmissions, includes nearby Colusa and Mendocino counties in their "San Francisco-Oaklan
Ramazzotti is an Italian digestivo bitter liqueur Amaro, bottled at 30% alcohol by volume. It is bottled in Canelli by Pernod Ricard. Http://www.ramazzotti.it/
Cinzano is an Italian brand of vermouth, a brand owned since 1999 by Gruppo Campari. It comes in four versions: Cinzano Rosso, amber-coloured. What became known as the "vermouth of Turin" proved popular with the bourgeoisie of Turin and Casanova. Cinzano Bianco followed, based on a different combination of herbs that included artemisia, cloves and gentian. Exports began in the 1890s, to Argentina and the USA, among others. In Paris in 1913, Cinzano was the first product to be advertised with a neon sign on its roof. Cinzano remained a family-run business until 1985. Beginning that year, the Marone family, Turin industrialists, began to sell shares in the business, culminating in 1992 with an agreement to turn Cinzano International S. A. over to International Distillers & Vintners, a wholly owned subsidiary of Grand Metropolitan. At the time of its sale, Cinzano's share of the vermouth market in Europe was measured in the low single digits, sales that placed it a distant second to Martini; as a result of a 1997 merger, Grand Metropolitan became Diageo.
The Cinzano bicycling team had a central role in the film Breaking Away. Cinzano was well known in Britain for its humorous television advertisements featuring Leonard Rossiter and Joan Collins. One of these featured the pair on a plane journey, with Rossiter accidentally hitting the "recline" switch on Collins chair, causing her to spill a glass of the drink over herself; the Cinzano logo can be seen in the background during the celebration after Michael marries Apollonia Vitelli in Sicily. The tractor trailer followed by Dave in Breaking. Sean Connery makes a large martini with Cinzano in Thunderball. List of Italian companies
Angostura bitters is a concentrated bitters based on gentian and spices, by House of Angostura in Trinidad and Tobago. It is used for flavouring beverages or, less food; the bitters were first produced in the town of Angostura, hence the name, but do not contain angostura bark. The bottle is recognisable by its distinctive oversized label.'Angostura' is Spanish for'narrowing', the town of Angostura having been located at the first narrowing of the Orinoco River. The recipe was developed as a tonic by a German, Johann Gottlieb Benjamin Siegert, surgeon general in Simón Bolívar's army in Venezuela. Siegert began to sell it in 1824 and established a distillery for the purpose in 1830. Siegert was based in the town of Angostura and used locally available ingredients aided by botanical knowledge of the local Amerindians; the product was sold abroad from 1853, in 1875 the plant was moved from Ciudad Bolivar to Port of Spain, where it remains. Angostura won a medal at the Weltausstellung 1873 Wien; the medal is still depicted on the oversized label, along with reverse which shows Emperor Franz Joseph I of Austria in profile.
The exact formula is a guarded secret, with only one person knowing the whole recipe, passed hereditarily. Angostura bitters are concentrated and may be an acquired taste. Angostura bitters are a key ingredient in many cocktails. Used to help with upset stomachs of the soldiers in Simón Bolívar's army, it became popular in soda water and was served with gin; the mix stuck in the form of a pink gin, is used in many other alcoholic cocktails such as long vodka, consisting of vodka, Angostura bitters, lemonade. In the United States, it is best known for its use in whiskey cocktails: the Old Fashioned, made with whiskey, bitters and water, the Manhattan, made with rye whiskey and sweet vermouth. In a Pisco Sour a few drops are sprinkled for aroma and decoration. In a Champagne Cocktail a few drops of bitters are added to a sugar cube. In Hong Kong, Angostura bitters are included in the local Gunner cocktail. Though not in the classic recipe, bartenders sometimes add more flavour to the Mojito cocktail by sprinkling a few drops of Angostura bitters on top.
Bitters can be used in "soft" drinks. In Malawi, bitters are added to a mix of crushed ice, ginger ale and Sprite to make a'rock shandy'. Angostura Bitters Drink Guide, a promotional booklet of 1908, was reprinted in 2008 with a new introduction by Ross Bolton. Among certain bartending communities shots of Angostura are taken as the'bartender's handshake' either during or after the shift is done; the largest purveyor of Angostura bitters in the world is Nelsen's Hall Bitters Pub on Washington Island off the northeast tip of Door Peninsula in Door County, Wisconsin. The pub began selling shots of bitters as a stomach tonic for medicinal purposes under a pharmaceutical license during Prohibition in the United States; the practice, which helped the pub to become the oldest continuously-operating tavern in Wisconsin, remained a tradition after the repeal of Prohibition. As of 2018, the pub hosts a Bitters Club, incorporates bitters into food menu items, sells upwards of 10,000 shots per year. Angostura bitters are alleged to have restorative properties.
Angostura bitters is incorrectly believed to have poisonous qualities because it is associated with angostura bark, although not toxic, during its use as a medicine was adulterated by unscrupulous sellers, who padded out the sacks of bark with cheaper, poisonous Strychnos nux-vomica or copalchi bark. Since 2007, Angostura has produced Angostura Orange, an orange bitters. There was a shortage of Angostura bitters in 2009. There were incorrect rumours of a product recall, or that production of the bitters had stopped at the plant in Trinidad; the shortage was the subject of many news articles and blogs in the cocktail industry. Gentian Meinhard's Bitters Official Angostura Bitters website
Cardamom, sometimes cardamon or cardamum, is a spice made from the seeds of several plants in the genera Elettaria and Amomum in the family Zingiberaceae. Both genera are native to Indonesia, they are recognized by their small seed pods: triangular in cross-section and spindle-shaped, with a thin, papery outer shell and small, black seeds. Species used for cardamom are native throughout subtropical Asia; the first references to cardamom are found in Sumer, in the Ayurvedic literatures of India. Nowadays, it is cultivated in some other countries, such as Guatemala and Tanzania; the German coffee planter Oscar Majus Kloeffer introduced Indian cardamom to cultivation in Guatemala before World War I. Cardamom is the world's third-most expensive spice, surpassed in price per weight only by vanilla and saffron; the word "cardamom" is derived from the Latin cardamomum, the Latinisation of the Greek καρδάμωμον, a compound of κάρδαμον, "cress" + ἄμωμον, the name for a kind of Indian spice plant. The earliest attested form of the word κάρδαμον signifying "cress" is the Mycenaean Greek ka-da-mi-ja, written in Linear B syllabic script, in the list of flavourings on the "Spice" tablets found among palace archives in the House of the Sphinxes in Mycenae.
The modern genus name Elettaria is derived from the local name. The root ēlam is attested in all Dravidian languages viz. Kannada elakki, Telugu yelakulu, Tamil elakkai and elakka in Malayalam; the second element kai means "seed" or "fruit". The Malabar region had historical trade connections and was a prominent area of cardamom cultivation. A related root is present in Hindi elaichi, Bengali ælachi, Sylheti elasi and Punjabi elaichi "green cardamom". In Sindhi, it is called photta. In standard Afghan Pashto, it is called Hel. In Sanskrit, it was known as ellka. In Marathi, it is known as velchi or veldoda. In Sri Lanka, the plant is known as enasal in the Sinhala language; the two main types of cardamom are: True or green cardamom comes from the species Elettaria cardamomum and is distributed from India to Malaysia. What is referred to as white cardamon is Siam cardamom, Amomum krervanh. Black cardamom known as brown, large, longer, or Nepal cardamom, comes from species Amomum subulatum and is native to the eastern Himalayas and cultivated in Eastern Nepal and parts of Darjeeling district in West Bengal of India, southern Bhutan.
The two types of cardamom, κάρδαμομον and ἄμωμον, were distinguished in the fourth century BCE by the Greek father of botany, Theophrastus. Theophrastus and informants knew that these varieties were and from India. Both forms of cardamom are used as flavourings and cooking spices in both food and drink, as a medicine. E. cardamomum is used as a spice, a masticatory, in medicine. Cardamom has a unique taste, with an intensely aromatic, resinous fragrance. Black cardamom has a distinctly more smoky, though not bitter, with a coolness some consider similar to mint. Green cardamom is one of the most expensive spices by weight but little is needed to impart flavour, it is best stored in the pod, as exposed or ground seeds lose their flavour. Grinding the pods and seeds together lowers both the quality and the price. For recipes requiring whole cardamom pods, a accepted equivalent is 10 pods equals 1 1⁄2 teaspoons of ground cardamom, it is a common ingredient in Indian cooking. It is often used in baking in the Nordic countries, in particular in Sweden and Finland, where it is used in traditional treats such as the Scandinavian Jule bread Julekake, the Swedish kardemummabullar sweet bun, Finnish sweet bread pulla.
In the Middle East, green cardamom powder is used as a spice for sweet dishes, as well as traditional flavouring in coffee and tea. Cardamom is used to a wide extent in savoury dishes. In some Middle Eastern countries and cardamom are ground in a wooden mortar, a mihbaj, cooked together in a skillet, a mehmas, over wood or gas, to produce mixtures as much as 40% cardamom. In Asia, both types of cardamom are used in both sweet and savory dishes in the south. Both are frequent components in spice mixes, such as Indian and Nepali masalas and Thai curry pastes. Green cardamom is used in traditional Indian sweets and in masala chai. Both are often used as a garnish in basmati rice and other dishes. Individual seeds are sometimes used in much the same way as chewing gum, it is used by confectionery giant Wrigley. It is included in aromatic bitters and herbal teas. In Korea, medicinal cardamom and black cardamom are used in traditional tea called jeho-tang; the content of essential oil in the seeds is dependent on storage conditions, but may be as high as 8%.
In the oil were found α-terpineol 45%, myrcene 27%, limonene 8%, menthone 6%, β-phellandrene 3%, 1,8-cineol 2%, sabinene 2% and heptane 2%. Other sources report 1,8-cineol, α-terpenylacetate, sabinene and borneol. In the seeds of round cardamom from Java, the content of essential oil is lower, t
Espresso is coffee of Italian origin, brewed by expressing or forcing a small amount of nearly boiling water under pressure through finely ground coffee beans. Espresso is thicker than coffee brewed by other methods, has a higher concentration of suspended and dissolved solids, has crema on top; as a result of the pressurized brewing process, the flavors and chemicals in a typical cup of espresso are concentrated. Espresso is the base for other drinks such as a caffè latte, caffè macchiato, caffè mocha, flat white, or caffè Americano. Espresso has more caffeine per unit volume than most coffee beverages, but because the usual serving size is much smaller, the total caffeine content is less than a mug of standard brewed coffee, contrary to a common belief. Although the actual caffeine content of any coffee drink varies by size, bean origin, roast method and other factors, a typical serving of espresso contains 120 to 170 milligrams of caffeine whereas a typical serving of drip coffee contains 150 to 200mg.
Espresso is made by forcing hot water under high pressure through finely ground compacted coffee. Tamping down the coffee promotes the water's penetration through the grounds; this process produces an syrupy beverage by extracting both solid and dissolved components. The crema is produced by emulsifying the oils in the ground coffee into a colloid, which does not occur in other brewing methods. There is no universal standard defining the process of extracting espresso, but there are several published definitions which attempt to place constraints on the amount and type of ground coffee used, the temperature and pressure of the water, the rate of extraction. One uses an espresso machine to make espresso; the act of producing a shot of espresso is termed "pulling" a shot, originating from lever espresso machines, which require pulling down a handle attached to a spring-loaded piston, forcing hot water through the coffee at high pressure. Today, however, it is more common for the pressure to be generated by an electric pump.
The technical parameters outlined by the Italian Espresso National Institute for making a "certified Italian espresso" are: Espresso is both a coffee beverage and a brewing method. It is not bean blend, or roast level. Any bean or roasting level can be used to produce authentic espresso. For example, in southern Italy, a darker roast is preferred. Farther north, the trend moves toward lighter roasts, while outside Italy a wide range is popular. Angelo Moriondo, from Turin, patented a steam-driven "instantaneous" coffee beverage making device in 1884; the device is "almost the first Italian bar machine that controlled the supply of steam and water separately through the coffee" and Moriondo is "certainly one of the earliest discoverers of the expresso machine, if not the earliest". Unlike true espresso machines, it brewed in bulk, not as individual servings. Seventeen years in 1901, Luigi Bezzera, from Milan, came up with a number of improvements to the espresso machine, he patented a number of these, the first of, applied for on 19 December 1901.
It was titled "Innovations in the machinery to prepare and serve coffee beverage". In 1903, the patent was bought by Desiderio Pavoni, who founded the La Pavoni company and began to produce the machine industrially in a small workshop in Via Parini in Milan; the popularity of espresso developed in various ways. In Italy, the rise of espresso consumption was associated with urbanization, espresso bars providing a place for socializing. Further, coffee prices were controlled by local authorities, provided the coffee was consumed standing up, encouraging the "stand at a bar" culture. In the English-speaking world, espresso became popular in the form of cappuccino, owing to the tradition of drinking coffee with milk and the exotic appeal of the foam; the latte is claimed to have been invented in the 1950s by Italian American Lino Meiorin of Caffe Mediterraneum in Berkeley, California, as a long cappuccino, was popularized in Seattle, nationally and internationally by Seattle-based Starbucks in the late 1980s and 1990s.
In the United Kingdom, espresso grew in popularity among youth in the 1950s, who felt more welcome in the coffee shops than in public houses. Espresso was popular within the Italian diaspora, growing in popularity with tourism to Italy exposing others to espresso, as developed by Eiscafès established by Italians in Germany. Expatriate Italian espresso bars were downmarket venues, serving the working-class Italian diaspora and thus providing appeal to the alternative subculture; as specialty coffee developed in the 1980s, an indigenous artisanal coffee culture developed, with espresso instead positioned as an upmarket drink. In the 2010s, coffee culture commentators distinguish large-chain mid-market coffee as "Second Wave Coffee", upmarket artisanal coffee as "Third Wave Coffee". In the Middle East and Asia, espresso is growing in popularity, with the opening of Western coffee-shop chains. Home espresso machines have increased in popularity with the general rise of interest in espresso. Today, a wide range