Ferrari 375 F1
The first outcome of Lampredis work was the experimental 275 S. Just two of these racing barchettas were built, based on the 166 MM but using the experimental 3. 3-litre V12 and these were raced at the Mille Miglia of 1950 on April 23. Although one car held the lead for a time, both were forced to retire with mechanical failure before the end. The 275 F1 made its debut at the Grand Prix of Belgium on June 18, with three Weber 42DCF carburetors, a single overhead camshaft for each bank of cylinders, and two valves per cylinder, the engine produced a capable 300 hp at 7200 rpm. Alberto Ascari drove the car to place, marking the end of the 3. 3-litre engine. The 275 was replaced at the Grand Prix of Nations at Geneva on July 30,1950 by the 340 F1, as the name suggests, the car sported a larger 4. 1-litre version of Lampredis V12. Other changes included a new de Dion tube rear suspension based on that in the 166 F2 car and it had a longer 2,420 mm wheelbase, but other dimensions remained the same.
With 335 hp, Ascari was able to keep up with the Alfa Romeo 158 of Juan Manuel Fangio, although the 340 proved itself capable, it was only the middle step in Ferraris 1950 car development. Ferrari achieved the 4. 5-litre goal of the formula with the 375 F1 and this 4. 5-litre engine produced roughly the same power as its 4. 1-litre predecessor, but its tractability earned Ascari second place in that debut race. Ascaris wins at the Nürburgring and Monza and strong throughout the season cemented the companys position as a Formula One contender. Changes in the Formula One regulations led the company to shift the big engine to an Indy car, three new Weber 40IF4C carburettors brought power output to 400 hp, the wheelbase was lengthened, and the chassis and suspension were strengthened. Although the car performed well in European testing, it was not able to meet the American challenge, Ascari was the driver who did qualify the car for the race, starting 25th with a qualifying speed of 134.3 mp/h.
The big V12 was scrapped for 1954, as Formula One required a 2. 5-litre engine, the new 553 F1 adopted Lampredis four cylinder engine, leaving the V12 for sports car use. Ferrari, A Complete Guide to All Models
Automotive design is the profession involved in the development of the appearance, and to some extent the ergonomics, of motor vehicles or more specifically road vehicles. This most commonly refers to automobiles but refers to motorcycles, buses, the functional design and development of a modern motor vehicle is typically done by a large team from many different disciplines included within automotive engineering. Automotive design in context is primarily concerned with developing the visual appearance or aesthetics of the vehicle. Automotive design is practiced by designers who usually have an art background, the task of the design team is usually split into three main aspects, exterior design, interior design, and color and trim design. Graphic design is an aspect of design, this is generally shared amongst the design team as the lead designer sees fit. Design focuses not only on the outer shape of automobile parts. The aesthetic value will need to correspond to ergonomic functionality and utility features as well, though not all the new vehicular gadgets are to be designated as factory standard items, some of them may be integral to determining the future course of any specific vehicular models.
The stylist responsible for the design of the exterior of the vehicle develops the proportions, Exterior design is first done by a series of digital or manual drawings. Progressively, drawings that are more detailed are executed and approved by appropriate layers of management, Clay and or digital models are developed from, and along with the drawings. The data from these models are used to create a full sized mock-up of the final design. With three- and five-axis CNC milling machines, the model is first designed in a computer program and carved using the machine. Even in times of high-class 3d software and virtual models on power walls, here the emphasis is on ergonomics and the comfort of the passengers. The procedure here is the same as with exterior design, the color and trim designer is responsible for the research and development of all interior and exterior colors and materials used on a vehicle. These include paints, fabric designs, grains, headliner, wood trim, contrast and pattern must be carefully combined to give the vehicle a unique interior environment experience.
Designers work closely with the exterior and interior designers, designers draw inspiration from other design disciplines such as, industrial design, home furnishing and sometimes product design. Specific research is done into global trends to design for two to three model years in the future. Trend boards are created from research in order to keep track of design influences as they relate to the automotive industry. The designer uses this information to develop themes and concepts that are further refined and tested on the vehicle models
Silverstone Circuit is a motor racing circuit in England next to the Northamptonshire villages of Silverstone and Whittlebury. The circuit straddles the Northamptonshire and Buckinghamshire border, with the current main circuit entry on the Buckinghamshire side, the Northamptonshire towns of Towcester and Brackley and Buckinghamshire town of Buckingham are close by, and the nearest large towns are Northampton and Milton Keynes. Silverstone is the current home of the British Grand Prix, which it first hosted in 1948, the 1950 British Grand Prix at Silverstone was the first race in the newly created World Championship of Drivers. The race rotated between Silverstone and Brands Hatch from 1955 to 1986, but relocated permanently to Silverstone in 1987, the circuit hosts the British round of the MotoGP series. However, the Donington Park leaseholders suffered economic problems resulting in the BRDC signing a 17-year deal with Ecclestone to hold the British Grand Prix at Silverstone. Silverstone is built on the site of a World War II Royal Air Force bomber station, RAF Silverstone, the airfields three runways, in classic WWII triangle format, lie within the outline of the present track.
Silverstone was first used for motorsport by an ad hoc group of friends who set up a race in September 1947. One of their members, Maurice Geoghegan, lived in nearby Silverstone village and was aware that the airfield was deserted and he and eleven other drivers raced over a two-mile circuit, during the course of which Geoghegan himself ran over a sheep that had wandered onto the airfield. The sheep was killed and the car written off, and in the aftermath of this event the race became known as the Mutton Grand Prix. The next year the Royal Automobile Club took a lease on the airfield and their first two races were held on the runways themselves, with long straights separated by tight hairpin corners, the track demarcated by hay bales. However, for the 1949 International Trophy meeting, it was decided to switch to the perimeter track and this arrangement was used for the 1950 and 1951 Grands Prix. In 1952 the start line was moved from the Farm Straight to the straight linking Woodcote and Copse corners, for the 1975 meeting a chicane was introduced to try to tame speeds through the mighty Woodcote Corner, and Bridge Corner was subtly rerouted in 1987.
The track underwent a major redesign between the 1990 and 1991 races, transforming the ultra-fast track into a technical track. The reshaped tracks first F1 race was perhaps the most memorable of recent years, following the deaths of Senna and fellow Grand Prix driver Roland Ratzenberger at Imola in 1994, many Grand Prix circuits were modified in order to reduce speed and increase driver safety. As a consequence of this the entry from Hangar Straight into Stowe Corner was modified in 1995 so as to make its entry less dangerous, in addition, the flat-out Abbey kink was modified to a chicane in just 19 days before the 1994 GP. Parts of the circuit, such as the grid, are 17 metres wide. After a new pit building, the Silverstone Wing, was completed in time for the 2011 race, almost flat out, the right-hander of Abbey leads immediately into the left-hander of Farm before cars brake heavily into the second gear, right-handed turn three, Village Corner. Turn 6, the left hander of Brooklands, is taken by drivers in second gear and leads immediately into Luffield, another second gear curve, a right-hand hairpin
Aurelio Lampredi was an Italian automobile and aircraft engine designer. Born in Livorno, he began his career at Piaggio, makers of the Vespa scooter and he worked at Isotta Fraschini before World War II, and joined Reggiane to design aircraft engines. Lampredis fame brought him to Ferrari in 1946 where he designed large 3.3,4.1 and 4.5 L versions of its V12 which first saw use in the 1950s 275S,340 F1 and 375 F1 race cars. Lampredi returned to Isotta Fraschini in March 1947 but returned to Ferrari at the beginning of 1948, Lampredis engines were used as large naturally aspirated alternatives to the diminutive Gioacchino Colombo-designed V12s used in most Ferrari cars until that time. Especially after the failure of Colombos supercharged engine in Formula One, Lampredi oversaw Ferraris racing effort during its early success in 1952 and 1953. Lampredis work at Ferrari ended permanently in 1955 when Ferrari bought Lancias racing team and famed engine designer Vittorio Jano, though Lampredis engine designs lived on in Ferrari road cars, Janos V6 and V8 engines quickly replaced Lampredis large V12s for racing use.
After Ferrari, Lampredi went to Fiat, where he oversaw that companys engine design efforts until 1977 and it was at Fiat where he designed the Fiat Twin-Cam and SOHC engines, which provided motive-force for most Fiat automobiles for over 32 years. He was manager of Fiats Abarth factory racing group from 1973 through 1982. He was responsible for designing the engine that allowed Fiat to allocate in the Brazilian market in 1976 and that engine equipped the Fiat 147, direct derivation of the European Fiat 127 but exclusively Brazilian. That was a big impact for the Brazilian automotive industry, because the Fiat 147 was the first national vehicle to have transverse mounted engine with belt driven overhead camshaft and it was the first engine made on a large scale to be powered by Ethanol. Then, in 1979 the Fiat 147 is known to be the worlds first car sold on a scale to be moved by Ethanol. Lampredi died in Livorno in 1989
Bira, was the first and remains the only Thai to drive in Formula One. He raced in Formula One and Grand Prix races for the Maserati and Connaught teams, among others. He was an Olympic sailor in the Melbourne Olympics,1956 in the Star, Rome Olympics,1960 in the Star, Tokyo Olympics,1964 in the Dragon and the Munich Olympics,1972 in the Tempest. In the 1960 Games he competed against another former Formula One driver, Roberto Mieres, Birabongse was the only Southeast Asian driver in Formula One until Malaysias Alex Yoong joined Minardi in 2001. Prince Bira was not only a driver, he was a pilot of gliders. In 1952 he flew from London to Bangkok in his own twin engine Miles Gemini aircraft, Prince Birabongses parents were Prince Bhanurangsi Savangwongse and his second wife. Birabongses paternal grandfather was King Mongkut, loosely portrayed in the Hollywood movies The King and I and Anna and his mother died when Prince Birabongse was only four years old. Birabongse was sent to Europe in 1927 to complete his education in England at Eton College, where he joined one of his nephews, while he was at Eton Biras father died, leaving him an orphan.
He was placed under the care of his cousin, Prince Chula Chakrabongse, on leaving Eton at age 18, in early 1933, Prince Bira moved in with Prince Chula in London, while he decided on his future. Prince Birabongse had been registered to attend Trinity College, initially, Prince Chula hired a tutor for Prince Bira, to better prepare him for the exam, but Prince Bira changed his mind and expressed a desire to learn sculpture rather than attend university. Prince Chula approached leading sculptor Charles Wheeler, and Wheeler took Prince Bira on as a pupil within his studio. Although Prince Bira showed some talent as a sculptor, in Wheelers opinion he needed to learn to draw, both Prince Chula and her parents placed severe limitations on their relationship, and it was not until 1938 that they were able to marry. Bira first raced with his cousin Prince Chulas team, White Mouse Racing, driving a Riley Imp at Brooklands in 1935, in this car Bira established the national motor racing colours of Siam, pale blue with yellow.
He lived near Geneva, and in the south of France, in 1935, Prince Chula gave him one of the new ERA voiturette racing cars—R2B, which was nicknamed Romulus. Bira finished second in his first ever race in Romulus, despite needing to stop for repairs, the remaining races of the season saw Bira consistently placing among the more powerful Grand Prix vehicles, with another second place, and fifth at the Donington Grand Prix. For 1936 the princes decided that the seasons results merited a second ERA. They purchased chassis R5B to use in British events and retained Romulus for international races, Chula purchased a Maserati 8CM to complete the White Mouse roster. Biras expertise behind the wheel earned him the Coupe de Prince Rainier at Monte Carlo, Bira won a further four races in the ERAs that season, and took the Grand Prix Maserati to 5th at Donington and 3rd at Brooklands
Brno is the second largest city in the Czech Republic by population and area, the largest Moravian city, and the historical capital city of the Margraviate of Moravia. Brno is the center of the South Moravian Region in which it forms a separate district. The city is a significant administrative centre and it is the seat of a number of state authorities, including the Ombudsman, and the Office for the Protection of Competition. Brno is an important centre of education, with 33 faculties belonging to 13 institutes of higher learning. Brno Exhibition Centre ranks among the largest exhibition centres in Europe, the complex opened in 1928 and established the tradition of large exhibitions and trade fairs held in Brno. Brno hosts motorbike and other races on the Masaryk Circuit, an established in 1930. Another cultural tradition is a fireworks competition, Ignis Brunensis. The other large preserved castle near the city is Veveří Castle by the Brno Dam Lake and this castle is the site of a number of legends, as are many other places in Brno.
Another architectural monument of Brno is the functionalist Villa Tugendhat which has been included on the UNESCO list of World Heritage Sites, one of the natural sights nearby is the Moravian Karst. The etymology of the name Brno is disputed and it perhaps comes from Old Czech brnie muddy, swampy. Alternative derivations are from a Slavic verb brniti or a Celtic language spoken in the area before it was overrun by Germanic peoples, throughout its history, Brnos locals referred to the town in other languages, including Brünn in German, ברין in Yiddish and Bruna in Latin. The city was referred to as Brunn in English. The Asteroid 2889 Brno was named after the city, as well as the Bren light machine gun, one of the most famous weapons of World War II. In the early 11th century Brno was established as a castle of a prince from the House of Přemyslid. Brno was first mentioned in Cosmas Chronica Boëmorum dated to year 1091, seats of these rulers and thus capitals of these territories were castles and towns of Brno and Znojmo.
In the late 12th century, Moravia began to reunify, forming the Margraviate of Moravia, since then, until the mid of the 17th century, it was not clear which town should be the capital of Moravia. Political power was therefore divided between Brno and Olomouc, but Znojmo played an important role. The Moravian Diet, the Moravian Land Tables, and the Moravian Land Court were all seated in both cities at once, Brno was the official seat of the Moravian Margraves, and its geographical position closer to Vienna became important
Formula One car
The regulations governing the cars are unique to the championship. The Formula One regulations specify that cars must be constructed by the teams themselves, though the design. The modern-day Formula One cars are constructed from composites of carbon fibre, the minimum weight permissible is 702 kg including the driver but not fuel. Cars are weighed with dry-weather tyres fitted, prior to the 2014 F1 season, cars often weighed in under this limit so teams added ballast in order to add weight to the car. The advantage of using ballast is that it can be placed anywhere in the car to provide ideal weight distribution and this can help lower the cars centre of gravity to improve stability and allows the team to fine-tune the weight distribution of the car to suit individual circuits. The 2009 season limited engines to 18,000 rpm in order to improve engine reliability, the FIA has continually enforced material and design restrictions to limit power. Even with the restrictions, the V10s in the 2005 season were reputed to develop 980 hp, the lesser funded teams had the option of keeping the current V10 for another season, but with a rev limiter to keep them competitive with the most powerful V8 engines.
The only team to take this option was the Toro Rosso team, the engines consume around 450 l of air per second. Race fuel consumption rate is normally around 75 l/100 km travelled, All cars have the engine located between the driver and the rear axle. In the 2004 championship, engines were required to last a full race weekend, for the 2005 championship, they were required to last two full race weekends and if a team changes an engine between the two races, they incur a penalty of 10 grid positions. In 2007, this rule was altered slightly and an engine only had to last for Saturday and Sunday running and this was to promote Friday running. In the 2008 season, engines were required to last two race weekends, the same regulation as the 2006 season. However, for the 2009 season, each driver is allowed to use a maximum of 8 engines over the season and this method of limiting engine costs increases the importance of tactics, since the teams have to choose which races to have a new or an already-used engine.
As of the 2014 season, all F1 cars have been equipped with turbocharged 1. 6-litre V6 engines, turbochargers have been banned since 1988. This change may give an improvement of up to 29% fuel efficiency, the benefit is that air is not traveling through as much pipework, in turn reducing turbo lag and increases efficiency of the car. In addition, it means that the air moving through the compressor is much cooler as it is away from the hot turbine section. Formula One cars use semi-automatic sequential gearboxes, with stating that 8 forward gears and 1 reverse gear must be used. The gearbox is constructed of titanium, as heat dissipation is a critical issue
Ferrari N. V. is an Italian sports car manufacturer based in Maranello. Founded by Enzo Ferrari in 1939 as Auto Avio Costruzioni, the company built its first car in 1940, however the companys inception as an auto manufacturer is usually recognized in 1947, when the first Ferrari-badged car was completed. Ferrari is the worlds most powerful according to Brand Finance. In May 2012 the 1962 Ferrari 250 GTO became the most expensive car in history, Fiat S. p. A. acquired 50 percent of Ferrari in 1969 and expanded its stake to 90 percent in 1988. In October 2014 Fiat Chrysler Automobiles announced its intentions to separate Ferrari S. p. A. from FCA, through the remaining steps of the separation, FCAs interest in Ferraris business was distributed to shareholders of FCA, with 10 percent continuing to be owned by Piero Ferrari. The spin-off was completed on 3 January 2016, Ferrari road cars are generally seen as a symbol of speed and wealth. Enzo Ferrari was not initially interested in the idea of producing road cars when he formed Scuderia Ferrari in 1929, Scuderia Ferrari literally means Ferrari Stable and is usually used to mean Team Ferrari.
Ferrari bought and fielded Alfa Romeo racing cars for gentlemen drivers, in September 1939 Enzo Ferrari left Alfa Romeo under the provision that he would not use the Ferrari name in association with races or racing cars for at least four years. A few days he founded Auto Avio Costruzioni, headquartered in the facilities of the old Scuderia Ferrari, the new company ostensibly produced machine tools and aircraft accessories. In 1940 Ferrari did in fact produce a race car – the Tipo 815 and it was the first Ferrari car and debuted at the 1940 Mille Miglia, but due to World War II it saw little competition. In 1943 the Ferrari factory moved to Maranello, where it has remained ever since, the factory was bombed by the Allies and subsequently rebuilt including a works for road car production. The first Ferrari-badged car was the 1947125 S, powered by a 1.5 L V12 engine, Enzo Ferrari reluctantly built, the Scuderia Ferrari name was resurrected to denote the factory racing cars and distinguish them from those fielded by customer teams.
In 1960 the company was restructured as a corporation under the name SEFAC S. p. A. Early in 1969, Fiat took a 50 percent stake in Ferrari, new model investment further up in the Ferrari range received a boost. In 1988, Enzo Ferrari oversaw the launch of the Ferrari F40, the last new Ferrari to be launched before his death that year, in 1989 the company was renamed as Ferrari S. p. A. From 2002 to 2004, Ferrari produced the Enzo, their fastest model at the time and it was to be called the F60, continuing on from the F40 and F50, but Ferrari was so pleased with it, they called it the Enzo instead. It was initially offered to loyal and reoccurring customers, each of the 399 made had a tag of $650,000 apiece. On 15 September 2012,964 Ferrari cars (worth over $162 million attended the Ferrari Driving Days event at Silverstone Circuit, on 29 October 2014, the FCA group, resulting from the merger between manufacturers Fiat and Chrysler, announced the split of its luxury brand, Ferrari
Alberto Ascari was an Italian racing driver and twice Formula One World Champion. He was a racer who completed in motorcycle racing before switching to cars. Back to back World titles in 1952 and 1953 sandwiched an appearance in the Indianapolis 500 in 1952, Ascari won the legendary Mille Miglia in 1954. When Alberto was a child, his father, who was a racing driver. Alberto once admitted that he warned his children not to become close to him because of the risk involved in his profession. So this proved when he was killed during a test session for Scuderia Ferrari at the Autodromo Nazionale Monza and he was preparing for the Supercortemaggiore 1000 kilometre race that he was to have run with his protégé Eugenio Castellotti on the weekend that followed the accident. The son of one of Italys great pre-war drivers, Alberto Ascari went on to one of Formula One racings most dominant. His unexplained fatal accident – at the age as his fathers, on the same day of the month. Born in Milan, Ascari was the son of Antonio Ascari, such was his passion to become a racing driver like his father, twice he ran away from school.
He raced motorcycles in his earlier years, at the age of just 19, Ascari was signed to ride for the Bianchi team. He married a girl the same year. When Italy entered World War II, the garage, now run by Alberto, was conscripted to service. It was during this period, he established a transport business. His partner in the enterprise was a racing driver, Luigi Villoresi. The pair did survive being capsized in Tripoli harbour along with a shipment of lorries, as their business supported the Italian war effort, it made them exempt from being called up during the war. Following the end of World War II Alberto Ascari began racing in Grands Prix with Maserati 4CLT and his teammate was Villoresi, who would become a mentor and friend to Ascari. The pair were successful on the circuits in the North of Italy, soon he was bestowed with the nickname Ciccio, meaning Tubby. Formula One regulations were introduced by the FIA in 1946, with the aim of replacing the pre-war Grand Prix structure
He was widely known as il Commendatore or il Drake. In his final years he was referred to as lIngegnere or il Grande Vecchio. Ferrari was born on 18 February 1898 in Modena and his birth certificate had recorded his birth date on 20 February because a heavy snowstorm had prevented his father from reporting the birth at the local registry office. He was the younger of two children to Alfredo and Adalgisa Ferrari, after his elder sibling Alfredo Junior, Alfredo Senior was the son of a grocer from Carpi and started a workshop fabricating metal parts at the family home. Enzo grew up with formal education. At the age of 10 he witnessed Felice Nazzaros win at the 1908 Circuit di Bologna, during World War I he served in the 3rd Mountain Artillery Regiment of the Italian Army. His father Alfredo, and his brother, Alfredo Jr. died in 1916 as a result of a widespread Italian flu outbreak. Ferrari became severely sick himself in the 1918 flu pandemic and was discharged from Italian service. Following the familys carpentry business collapse, Ferrari started searching for a job in the car industry and he unsuccessfully volunteered his services to FIAT in Turin, eventually settling for a job as test-driver for C. M. N.
A car manufacturer in Milan, which rebuilt used truck bodies into small passenger cars, on November 23 of the same year, he took part in the Targa Florio but had to retire after his cars fuel tank developed a leak. The prancing horse emblem was created when Italian fighter pilot Francesco Baracca was shot down during World War I, Baracca gave Enzo Ferrari a necklace with the prancing horse on it prior to takeoff. Baracca was tragically shot down and killed, in memory of his death, Enzo Ferrari used the prancing horse to create the emblem that would become the world famous Ferrari shield. However the world first saw this emblem on an Alfa Romeo as Ferrari was still tied up with Alfa Romeo and it was not until 1947 that the shield was first seen on a Ferrari. This was the birth of Ferrari, in 1924 Ferrari won the Coppa Acerbo at Pescara, a success that encouraged Alfa Romeo to offer him a chance to race in much more prestigious competitions. Ferrari himself continued racing until 1932, before he left Alfa Romeo to found Scuderia Ferrari, despite the quality of the Scuderia drivers, the team struggled to compete with Auto Union and Mercedes.
In 1937 Alfa Romeo decided to regain control of its racing division. Unhappy with the arrangement, Ferrari left and founded Auto-Avio Costruzioni, with the outbreak of World War II in 1943, Ferraris factory was forced to undertake war production for Mussolinis fascist government. Following Allied bombing of the factory, Ferrari relocated from Modena to Maranello, at the end of the conflict, Ferrari decided to start making cars bearing his name, and founded Ferrari S. p. A. in 1947
A supercharger is an air compressor that increases the pressure or density of air supplied to an internal combustion engine. This gives each intake cycle of the more oxygen, letting it burn more fuel and do more work. Power for the supercharger can be provided mechanically by means of a belt, shaft, when power is provided by a turbine powered by exhaust gas, a supercharger is known as a turbosupercharger – typically referred to simply as a turbocharger or just turbo. Common usage restricts the term supercharger to mechanically driven units, in 1848 or 1849 G. Jones of Birmingham, England brought out a Roots-style compressor. The worlds first functional, actually tested engine supercharger was made by Dugald Clerk, gottlieb Daimler received a German patent for supercharging an internal combustion engine in 1885. Louis Renault patented a centrifugal supercharger in France in 1902, an early supercharged race car was built by Lee Chadwick of Pottstown, Pennsylvania in 1908 which reportedly reached a speed of 100 mph.
The worlds first series-produced cars with superchargers were Mercedes 6/25/40 hp, both models were introduced in 1921 and had Roots superchargers. They were distinguished as Kompressor models, the origin of the Mercedes-Benz badging which continues today, on March 24,1878 Heinrich Krigar of Germany obtained patent #4121, patenting the first ever screw-type compressor. Later that same year on August 16 he obtained patent #7116 after modifying and improving his original designs and his designs show a two-lobe rotor assembly with each rotor having the same shape as the other. Although the design resembled the Roots style compressor, the screws were clearly shown with 180 degrees of twist along their length, the technology of the time was not sufficient to produce such a unit, and Heinrich made no further progress with the screw compressor. Nearly half a century later, in 1935, Alf Lysholm and he patented the method for machining the compressor rotors. There are two types of superchargers defined according to the method of gas transfer, positive displacement.
Positive displacement blowers and compressors deliver an almost constant level of pressure increase at all engine speeds, dynamic compressors do not deliver pressure at low speeds, above a threshold speed, pressure increases with engine speed. Positive-displacement pumps deliver a nearly fixed volume of air per revolution at all speeds, Roots superchargers are external compression only. External compression refers to pumps that transfer air at ambient pressure into the engine, if the engine is running under boost conditions, the pressure in the intake manifold is higher than that coming from the supercharger. That causes a backflow from the engine into the supercharger until the two reach equilibrium and it is the backflow that actually compresses the incoming gas. This is an inefficient process and the factor in the lack of efficiency of Roots superchargers when used at high boost levels. The lower the boost level the smaller is this loss, and Roots blowers are very efficient at moving air at low pressure differentials, all the other types have some degree of internal compression
A carburetor, or carburettor, or carburator, or carburetter is a device that blends air and fuel for an internal combustion engine in the proper ratio for combustion. It is sometimes shortened to carb in North America or carby in Australia. To carburate or carburet is to blend the air and fuel or to equip with a carburetor for that purpose, carburetors have largely been supplanted in the automotive and, to a lesser extent, aviation industries by fuel injection. They are still common on engines for lawn mowers, rototillers. The word carburetor comes from the French carbure meaning carbide, carburer means to combine with carbon. In fuel chemistry, the term has the specific meaning of increasing the carbon content of a fluid by mixing it with a volatile hydrocarbon. The first carburetor was invented by Samuel Morey in 1826, a carburetor was invented by an Italian, Luigi De Cristoforis, in 1876. Another carburetor was developed by Enrico Bernardi at the University of Padua in 1882, for his Motrice Pia, a carburetor was among the early patents by Karl Benz as he developed internal combustion engines and their components.
Early carburetors were the surface type, in which air is charged with fuel by being passed over the surface of gasoline. In 1885, Wilhelm Maybach and Gottlieb Daimler developed a float carburetor for their engine based on the atomizer nozzle, hungarian engineers János Csonka and Donát Bánki patented a carburetor for a stationary engine in 1893. Frederick William Lanchester of Birmingham, experimented with the wick carburetor in cars, in 1896, Frederick and his brother built the first gasoline-driven car in England, a single cylinder 5 hp internal combustion engine with chain drive. Unhappy with the performance and power, they re-built the engine the next year into a horizontally opposed version using his new wick carburetor design. Carburetors were the method of fuel delivery for most US-made gasoline-fueled engines up until the late 1980s. 1991, Jeep Grand Wagoneer with the AMC360 cu in V8 engine, low-cost commercial vans and 4WDs in Australia continued with carburetors even into the 2000s, the last being the Mitsubishi Express van in 2003.
Elsewhere, certain Lada cars used carburetors until 2006, many motorcycles still use carburetors for simplicitys sake, since a carburetor does not require an electrical system to function. EEC legislation required all vehicles sold and produced in countries to have a catalytic converter after December 1992. This legislation had been in the pipeline for some time, with cars becoming available with catalytic converters or fuel injection from around 1990. Fords first fuel-injected car was the Ford Capri RS2600 in 1970, general Motors launched its first fuel-injected car around the same time, when began to introduce fuel-injected engines to its Vauxhall Cavalier/Opel Ascona range