By using split crankpins or ignoring minor vibrations, any V angle is possible. The 180° configuration is referred to as a flat-twelve engine or a boxer although it is in reality a 180° V since the pistons can. This is not important in a car if all-out performance is the only goal. Since cost and fuel economy are usually important even in luxury and racing cars and it is often used in marine engines where great power is required, and the hull width is limited, but a longer vessel allows faster hull speed. In twin-propeller boats, two V12 engines can be enough to sit side-by-side, while three V12 engines are sometimes used in high-speed three-propeller configurations. Large, fast cruise ships can have six or more V12 engines, after World War II, the compact, more powerful, and vibration-free turboprop and turbojet engines replaced the V12 in aircraft applications. The first V-type engine was built in 1889 by Daimler, to a design by Wilhelm Maybach, by 1903 V8 engines were being produced for motor boat racing by the Société Antoinette to designs by Léon Levavasseur, building on experience gained with in-line four-cylinder engines.
In 1904, the Putney Motor Works completed a new V12 marine racing engine—the first V12 engine produced for any purpose, a single camshaft mounted in the central V operated the valves directly. As in many engines, the camshaft could be slid longitudinally to engage a second set of cams. Starting is by pumping a charge into each cylinder and switching on the trembler coils, a sliding camshaft gave direct reversing. The camshaft has fluted webs and main bearings in graduated thickness from the largest at the flywheel end, displacing 1,120 cu in, the engine weighed 950 pounds and developed 150 bhp. Little is known of the achievements in the 40-foot hull for which it was intended. One V12 Dörwald marine engine was still running in a Hong Kong junk in the late-1960s. Two more V12s appeared in the 1909-1910 motor boat racing season, the Lamb Boat & Engine Company of Clinton, Iowa built a 1,559 cu in engine for the companys 32-foot Lamb IV. It weighed in at 2,114 pounds, no weight is known for the massive 3,464 cu in F-head engine built by the Orleans Motor Company.
Output is quoted as nearly 400 bhp, by 1914, when Panhard built two 2,356 cu in engines with four-valve cylinder heads the V12 was well established in motor boat racing. In October 1913, Louis Coatalen, chief engineer of the Sunbeam Motor Car Company entered a V12 powered car in the Brooklands short, the engine displaced 9 L, with bore and stroke of 80 x 150 mm. An aluminum crankcase carried two blocks of three cylinders each along each side, with a 60 degree included angle, the cylinders were of iron, with integral cylinder heads with L-shaped combustion chambers
A chassis consists of an internal vehicle frame that supports an artificial object in its construction and use, can provide protection for some internal parts. An example of a chassis is the underpart of a motor vehicle, if the running gear such as wheels and transmission, and sometimes even the drivers seat, are included, the assembly is described as a rolling chassis. In the case of vehicles, the rolling chassis means the frame plus the running gear like engine, drive shaft, differential. An under body, which is not necessary for integrity of the structure, is built on the chassis to complete the vehicle. For commercial vehicles, a rolling chassis consists of an assembly of all the parts of a truck to be ready for operation on the road. The design of a car chassis will be different than one for commercial vehicles because of the heavier loads. Commercial vehicle manufacturers sell chassis only and chassis, as well as chassis cab versions that can be outfitted with specialized bodies and these include motor homes, fire engines, box trucks, etc.
In particular applications, such as buses, a government agency like National Highway Traffic Safety Administration in the U. S. defines the design standards of chassis. An armoured fighting vehicles hull serves as the chassis and comprises the part of the AFV that includes the tracks, drivers seat. This describes the hull, although common usage might include the upper hull to mean the AFV without the turret. The hull serves as a basis for platforms on tanks, armoured carriers, combat engineering vehicles. In an electronic device, the chassis consists of a frame or other supporting structure on which the circuit boards. In the absence of a frame, the chassis refers to the circuit boards and components themselves. The combination of chassis and outer covering is called an enclosure. Vietnam Studies, Department of the Army, Washington, D. C.1978
1970 24 Hours of Le Mans
The 197024 Hours of Le Mans was the 38th Grand Prix of Endurance, and took place on 13 and 14 June 1970. It was the round of the 1970 World Sportscar Championship season. Much of the footage of the motion picture was taken from a competing car. Despite a lack of drivers, as Ferrari had only two F1 pilots permanently under contract, the Scuderia entered four works cars. More Armco was added to the track in the spots that originally werent as dangerous as other spots where Armco was added the year previous. During tests in Zeltweg, Wyers engineer John Horsmann had the idea to increase downforce to the expense of drag and this worked well as the new short tail gave the 917 better stability. The new version was called 917 K. Wyer was surprised to discover that another team was carefully preparing Le Mans with close support from Porsche, as in 1969, the Porsche Salzburg team was a de facto second works team under control of members of the Porsche family. The Martini Racing team gained support from Porsche AG.
A new low drag version of the 917 was developed for Le Mans with support from the external consultant Robert Choulet, the 917 L featured a spectacular new Long Tail body with a wing, which had very low drag and better stability than the 1969 version. Ferrari brought a similar body, dubbed Coda Lunga, two 917 L were entered in Le Mans, one by Porsche Salzburg, the other by Martini Racing. The spectacular livery of this car was an elaborate whirls and swoops of light green on a blue background. The car gained the nickname of the Hippie Car or the Psychedelic Porsche from the team, the Porsche-Salzburgs 917L was powered by a new 4. 9L engine that Porsche had introduced at the 1000km Monza. Wyer lined up three 917Ks, two with the 4. 9L engine for the drivers, and one with the 4. 5L unit. A fourth JWA 917K entry, chassis 013 with number 26, was not accepted — the drivers would have been actor Steve McQueen and reigning F1 world champion Jackie Stewart. With only one privateer 917K, that of David Piper, seven flat-12 from Zuffenhausen faced twelve V12 from Maranellos, the 3. 0L prototype category saw four competing factories.
Of the two 1969 Ferrari 312P of NART driven in practise at rather slow pace, only chassis 0872 with the roof extension was used to race. Of the three 1969 908/02 accepted, one of Martini crashed in practice, and the Solar Production car had to serve as camera mule anyway, Matra entered two MS650s and a new MS660. Except for Jack Brabham all the drivers were French, Alfa Romeo, until 1951 the major Italian competitor, had upgraded their Alfa Romeo Tipo 33 from 2 to 3 litres
Fiat Automobiles S. p. A. is the largest automobile manufacturer in Italy, a subsidiary of FCA Italy S. p. A. which is part of Fiat Chrysler Automobiles. Fiat Automobiles S. p. A. was formed in January 2007 when Fiat reorganized its automobile business, Fiats main market is Europe, mainly focused in Italy. Historically successful in citycars and supermini sector, currently Fiat has a range of models focused on two segments. Fiat does not currently offer any large family car, nor an executive car - these market segments have, to some extent been covered by the Lancia and Alfa Romeo brands, which Fiat owns. Fiats share of the European market shrank from 9.4 per cent in 2000 to 5.8 per cent in the summer of 2004, at this point Sergio Marchionne was appointed as Fiats chief executive. By March 2009 their market share had expanded to 9.1 per cent, Fiats built their five-story Lingotto plant in 1915 through 1918, at the time it was Europes largest car manufacturing plant. Later the Mirafiori plant was built, in Turin, to prepare for production of the all-new Fiat 128, Fiat opened their Rivalta plant in October 1968.
Until the 128 entered production, the plant was used to build versions of the 850 and 124 as well as parts for the Fiat Dino. Fiats 2014 range of car engines comprised eleven units, eight petrols. The second generation Punto was a seller in the UK after its October 1999 launch. The original Fiat 500 had been one of the few competitors for the iconic Mini during its 1960s heyday. Fiat has invested for a time in South America, mainly in Brazil. They built their first Brazilian car plant in the Greater Belo Horizonte city of Betim in 1973, recently a brand new model developed in Brazil has been launched, the Fiat Uno. Other European models are imported to Brazil, Fiat 500. Some others are still in production, Idea, Fiat has a long history in the United States. In 1908, the Fiat Automobile Co. was established in the country and a plant in Poughkeepsie, N. Y. began producing Fiats a year later, like the Fiat 60 HP and the Fiat 16-20 HP. These luxury cars were produced long before Chrysler Corp. was formed in 1925 from older manufacturers that were acquired by Walter P.
Chrysler, the New Jersey factory was closed when the U. S. entered World War I in 1917. Fiat returned to North America in the 1950s, selling the original 500, Fiat 600 Multipla, Fiat 1100, Fiat 1200, for example the Fiat 124 Sport Spider and the Fiat X1/9
North American Racing Team
The North American Racing Team was created by businessman Luigi Chinetti to promote the Ferrari marque in United States through success in endurance motorsport. It was created in 1958 when Chinetti received backing from wealthy racers George Arents, NART raced at only the worlds premier races, such as the 24 Hours of Daytona in Florida and the 24 Hours of Le Mans in Le Mans, France. Their first race was the 12 Hours of Sebring in March 1958, pedro Rodríguez won the second and the third editions of Daytona with NART team. In 1963 was a three hours race and in 1964 a 2,000 kilometers, both in a Ferrari 250 GTO. A Ferrari 158 officially entered by NART sealed the win of the 1964 F1 World championship with John Surtees and this was done as a protest concerning arguments between Ferrari and the Italian Racing Authorities regarding the homologation of a new mid-engined Ferrari race car. The peak of NARTs own racing success came in 1965, when a NART-entered 250 LM became the last Ferrari to win Le Mans outright with Jochen Rindt, with this model, NART scored 2nd in the 1973 Daytona 24h, behind a Porsche 911.
NART raced Ferraris until 1982, at which point it had participated in more than 200 races with over 100 different drivers, including Mario Andretti and Phil Hill. NART had a Ferrari model with its attached to it – the 1967275 GTB/4 NART Spyder was a convertible version of the 275 GTB/4 requested especially by Luigi Chinetti. The original order of 25 cars was never fulfilled, as only 10 were delivered from the Maranello factory, because of the popularity of the drop-top NART Spyder design, many 275 GTB/4 were converted to drop-top models to imitate the NART Spyders design
Compared to OHV pushrod systems with the same number of valves, the reciprocating components of the OHC system are fewer and have a lower overall mass. Though the system drives the camshafts may be more complex, most engine manufacturers accept that added complexity as a trade-off for better engine performance. The fundamental reason for the OHC valvetrain is that it offers an increase in the ability to exchange induction. Another performance advantage is gained as a result of the better optimised port configurations made possible with overhead camshaft designs, with no intrusive pushrods, the overhead camshaft cylinder head design can use straighter ports of more advantageous cross-section and length. The OHC design allows for higher speeds than comparable cam-in-block designs. The higher engine speeds thus allowed increases power output for a given torque output, in earlier OHC systems, including inter-war Morrises and Wolseleys, oil leaks in the lubrication systems were an issue. Single overhead camshaft is a design in which one camshaft is placed within the cylinder head, in the SOHC design, the camshaft operates the valves directly, traditionally via a bucket tappet, or via an intermediary rocker arm. SOHC cylinder heads are less expensive to manufacture than double overhead camshaft cylinder heads.
Timing belt replacement can be easier since there are fewer camshaft drive sprockets that need to be aligned during the replacement procedure, SOHC designs offer reduced complexity compared to overhead valve designs — when used for multivalve cylinder heads, in which each cylinder has more than two valves. Exhaust and inlet manifolds were both on the side of the engine block. This did, offer excellent access to the spark plugs, in the early 1980s, Toyota and Volkswagen Group used a directly actuated, SOHC parallel valve configuration with two valves for each cylinder. The Toyota system used hydraulic tappets, the Volkswagen system used bucket tappets with shims for valve clearance adjustment. Honda used a similar system in their motorcycles, using the term Unicam for the concept. This system uses one camshaft for each bank of cylinder heads, with the cams operating directly onto the valve and indirectly, through a short rocker arm. This allows a compact, light valvetrain to operate valves in a combustion chamber.
The Unicam valve train was first used in single cylinder dirt bikes, a dual overhead camshaft valvetrain layout is characterised by two camshafts located within the cylinder head, one operating the intake valves and the other one operating the exhaust valves. This design reduces valvetrain inertia more than is the case with a SOHC engine, a DOHC design permits a wider angle between intake and exhaust valves than do SOHC engines. This can allow for a less restricted airflow at higher engine speeds, DOHC with a multivalve design allows for the optimum placement of the spark plug which, in turn, improves combustion efficiency
In architecture and structural engineering, a space frame or space structure is a truss-like, lightweight rigid structure constructed from interlocking struts in a geometric pattern. Space frames can be used to large areas with few interior supports. Like the truss, a frame is strong because of the inherent rigidity of the triangle. Alexander Graham Bell from 1898 to 1908 developed space frames based on tetrahedral geometry, bells interest was primarily in using them to make rigid frames for nautical and aeronautical engineering, with the tetrahedral truss being one of his inventions. Max Mengeringhausen developed the grid system called MERO in 1943 in Germany. The commonly used method, still in use has individual tubular members connected at joints and variations such as the space deck system, octet truss system. Stéphane de Chateau in France invented the Tridirectional SDC system, Unibat system, a method of tree supports was developed to replace the individual columns. Buckminster Fuller patented the octet truss in 1961 while focusing on architectural structures, Space frames are typically designed using a rigidity matrix.
The special characteristic of the matrix in an architectural space frame is the independence of the angular factors. If the joints are sufficiently rigid, the angular deflections can be neglected, the simplest form of space frame is a horizontal slab of interlocking square pyramids and tetrahedra built from aluminium or tubular steel struts. In many ways this looks like the jib of a tower crane repeated many times to make it wider. A stronger form is composed of interlocking tetrahedra in which all the struts have unit length, more technically this is referred to as an isotropic vector matrix or in a single unit width an octet truss. More complex variations change the lengths of the struts to curve the overall structure or may incorporate other geometrical shapes, within the meaning of space frame, we can find three systems clearly different between them, Curvature classification Space plane covers. These spatial structures are composed of planar substructures and their behavior is similar to that of a plate in which the deflections in the plane are channeled through the horizontal bars and the shear forces are supported by the diagonals.
This type of vault has a section of a simple arch. Usually this type of space frame does not need to use tetrahedral modules or pyramids as a part of its backing, spherical domes and other compound curves usually require the use of tetrahedral modules or pyramids and additional support from a skin. Classification by the arrangement of its elements Single layer grid, all elements are located on the surface to be approximated. The elements are organized in two layers parallel to each other at a distance apart
A mid-engine layout describes the placement of an automobile engine between the rear and front axles. The mid-engine layout makes ABS brakes and traction control systems work better, the mid-engine layout may make a vehicle safer, since an accident can occur if a vehicle cannot stay in its own lane around a curve or is unable to stop quickly enough. This balance is harder to achieve when the weight of the engine is located far to the front or far to the rear of the vehicle. Some automobile designs strive to balance the fore and aft weight distribution by means, such as putting the engine in the front. Another benefit comes when the mass of the engine is located close to the back of the seats. It makes it easier for the suspension to absorb the force of bumps so the riders feel a smoother ride, but in sports cars the engine position is once again used to increase performance and the potentially smoother ride is usually more than offset by stiffer shock absorbers. The largest drawback of mid-engine cars is restricted rear passenger space, the engine in effect pushes the passenger compartment forward towards the front axle.
The mid-engine layout was common in buses in the 1950s and 1960s. The Ferrari Mondial is to date the only example of a true mid-engined convertible with seating for 4. A version of the Lotus Evora with a roof panel is anticipated. Like any layout where the engine is not front-mounted and facing the wind and this has been a problem in some cars, but this issue seems to have been largely solved in newer designs. For example, the Saleen S7 employs large engine-compartment vents on the sides, mid engined cars are more dangerous than front-engined cars if the driver loses control - although this may be initially harder to provoke due to the superior balance - and the car begins to spin. Conversely, a car is more likely to break away in a progressive. The term mid-engine has usually been applied to cars having the engine located between the driver and the drive axles. This layout is referred to here as RMR layout and racing cars typically have this mid-engine layout, as these vehicles handling characteristics are more important than other features, such as capacity.
Additionally the mechanical layout and packaging of an RMR car is substantially different from that of a front engine or rear engine car, in handling and vehicle layout FMR is substantially the same as FR. Some vehicles could be classified as FR or FMR depending on the installed engine. Historically most classical FR cars such as the Ford Models T and A would qualify as a FMR engine car, not all manufacturers use the Front-Mid designation
They are made of an elastic material formed into the shape of a helix which returns to its natural length when unloaded. Under tension or compression, the material of a coil spring undergoes torsion, the spring characteristics therefore depend on the shear modulus, not Youngs Modulus. A coil spring may be used as a torsion spring, the material of the spring is thereby subjected to a bending moment, either reducing or increasing the helical radius. In this mode, it is the Youngs Modulus of the material determines the spring characteristics. Metal coil springs are made by winding a wire around a shaped former - a cylinder is used to form cylindrical coil springs, types of coil spring are, Tension/extension coil springs, designed to resist stretching. They usually have a hook or eye form at each end for attachment, compression coil springs, designed to resist being compressed. A typical use for compression coil springs is in car suspension systems, volute springs are used as heavy load compression springs. A strip of plate is rolled into the shape of both a helix and a spiral, when compressed, the strip is stiffer edge-on than a wire coil, but the spiral arrangement allows the turns to overlap rather than bottoming out on each other.
Torsion springs, designed to resist twisting actions, often associated to clothes pegs or up-and-over garage doors. Spring Helical Spring by Sándor Kabai at The Wolfram Demonstrations Project, Institute of Spring Technology Spring Manufacturers Institute, tutorial by Dave Silberstein. You Spring From Morning To Night, April 1949, Popular Science article on the basics of steel coil springs manufacturing
Sports car racing
Sports car racing is a form of circuit auto racing with sports cars that have two seats and enclosed wheels. They may be purpose-built or related to road-going models, a type of hybrid between the purism of open-wheelers and the familiarity of touring car racing, this style is often associated with the annual Le Mans 24 Hours endurance race. First run in 1923, Le Mans is one of the oldest motor races still in existence, other classic but now defunct sports car races include the Italian classics, the Targa Florio and Mille Miglia, and the Mexican Carrera Panamericana. Most top class sports car races emphasize endurance and strategy, longer races usually involve complex pit strategy and regular driver changes. These makers top road cars have often very similar both in engineering and styling to those raced. This close association with the nature of the cars serves as a useful distinction between sports car racing and touring cars. The 12 Hours of Sebring,24 Hours of Daytona, and 24 Hours of Le Mans were once considered the trifecta of sports car racing.
In the 1920s, the used in endurance racing and Grand Prix were still basically identical, with fenders. Cars such as the Bugatti Type 35 were almost equally at home in Grands Prix and endurance events, but specialisation gradually started to differentiate the sports-racer from the Grand Prix car. As mainly Italian cars and races defined the genre, the category was called Gran Turismo, as long distances had to be travelled and some basic comfort were necessary in order to endure the task. After the Second World War, sports car racing emerged as a form of racing with its own classic races. Top Grand Prix drivers competed regularly in sports car racing, from 1962 sports cars temporarily took a back seat to GT cars with the FIA replacing the World Championship for Sports Cars with the International Championship for GT Manufacturers. The US scene tended to feature small MG and Porsche cars in the smaller classes, the combination of mostly British chassis and American V8 engines gave rise to the popular and spectacular Can-Am series in the 1960s and 1970s.
Clubmans provided much entertainment at club-racing level from the 1960s into the 1990s, after a relative period of decline in the 1980s a British GT Championship emerged in the mid-90s. Road races such as the Mille Miglia included everything from stock touring cars to World Championship contenders, the Mille Miglia was the largest sporting event in Italy until a fatal accident caused its demise in 1957. The Targa Florio, another road race, remained part of the world championship until the 1970s. Between the late 1960s and late 1970s, Matra and Renault made significant, the competition at Le Mans even made it to the movie screens, with Steve McQueens film Le Mans. This era was seen by many as the highpoint of sports car racing, with the technology, a peculiarly American form of sports car racing was the Can-Am series, in which virtually unlimited sports prototypes competed in relatively short races
Auto racing is a sport involving the racing of automobiles for competition. Almost as soon as automobiles had been invented, races of various sorts were organised, by the 1930s specialist racing cars had developed. There are now numerous different categories, each with different rules and it was won by the carriage of Isaac Watt Boulton. Internal combustion auto racing events began soon after the construction of the first successful gasoline-fueled automobiles, the first organized contest was on April 28,1887, by the chief editor of Paris publication Le Vélocipède, Monsieur Fossier. It ran 2 kilometres from Neuilly Bridge to the Bois de Boulogne, on July 22,1894, the Parisian magazine Le Petit Journal organized what is considered to be the worlds first motoring competition, from Paris to Rouen. One hundred and two competitors paid a 10-franc entrance fee, the first American automobile race is generally held to be the Thanksgiving Day Chicago Times-Herald race of November 28,1895. Press coverage of the event first aroused significant American interest in the automobile, brooklands, in Surrey, was the first purpose-built motor racing venue, opening in June 1907.
It featured a 4.43 km concrete track with high-speed banked corners, One of the oldest existing purpose-built automobile racing circuits in the United States, still in use, is the 2. 5-mile -long Indianapolis Motor Speedway in Speedway, Indiana. It is the largest capacity venue of any variety worldwide, with a top capacity of some 257. NASCAR was founded by Bill France, Sr. on February 21,1948, the first NASCAR Strictly Stock race ever was held on June 19,1949, at Daytona Beach, Florida. From 1962, sports cars temporarily took a seat to GT cars. From 1972 through 2003, NASCARs premier series was called the Winston Cup Series, the changes that resulted from RJRs involvement, as well as the reduction of the schedule from 48 to 31 races a year, established 1972 as the beginning of NASCARs modern era. The IMSA GT Series evolved into the American Le Mans Series, the European races eventually became the closely related Le Mans Series, both of which mix prototypes and GTs. The best-known variety of racing, Formula One, which hosts the famous Monaco Grand Prix.
In single-seater, the wheels are not covered, and the cars often have aerofoil wings front, in Europe and Asia, open-wheeled racing is commonly referred to as Formula, with appropriate hierarchical suffixes. In North America, the Formula terminology is not followed, the sport is usually arranged to follow an international format, a regional format, and/or a domestic, or country-specific, format. In North America, the used in the National Championship have traditionally been similar though less sophisticated than F1 cars. The series most famous race is the Indianapolis 500, the other major international single-seater racing series is GP2
A brake is a mechanical device that inhibits motion by absorbing energy from a moving system. It is used for slowing or stopping a vehicle, axle, or to prevent its motion. Most brakes commonly use friction between two surfaces pressed together to convert the energy of the moving object into heat, though other methods of energy conversion may be employed. For example, regenerative braking converts much of the energy to electrical energy, other methods convert kinetic energy into potential energy in such stored forms as pressurized air or pressurized oil. Eddy current brakes use magnetic fields to convert energy into electric current in the brake disc, fin, or rail. Still other braking methods even transform kinetic energy into different forms, Brakes are generally applied to rotating axles or wheels, but may take other forms such as the surface of a moving fluid. In practice, fast vehicles usually have significant air drag, almost all wheeled vehicles have a brake of some sort. Even baggage carts and shopping carts may have them for use on a moving ramp, most fixed-wing aircraft are fitted with wheel brakes on the undercarriage.
Some aircraft feature air brakes designed to reduce their speed in flight, notable examples include gliders and some World War II-era aircraft, primarily some fighter aircraft and many dive bombers of the era. These allow the aircraft to maintain a speed in a steep descent. The Saab B17 dive bomber and Vought F4U Corsair fighter used the deployed undercarriage as an air brake, Friction brakes on automobiles store braking heat in the drum brake or disc brake while braking conduct it to the air gradually. When traveling downhill some vehicles can use their engines to brake, when the brake pedal of a modern vehicle with hydraulic brakes is pushed against the master cylinder, ultimately a piston pushes the brake pad against the brake disc which slows the wheel down. On the brake drum it is similar as the cylinder pushes the brake shoes against the drum which slows the wheel down, Brakes may be broadly described as using friction, pumping, or electromagnetics. Typically the term brake is used to mean pad/shoe brakes and excludes hydrodynamic brakes.
Friction brakes are often rotating devices with a pad and a rotating wear surface. Other brake configurations are used, but less often, a drum brake is a vehicle brake in which the friction is caused by a set of brake shoes that press against the inner surface of a rotating drum. The drum is connected to the rotating roadwheel hub, drum brakes generally can be found on older car and truck models. However, because of their low production cost, drum brake setups are installed on the rear of some low-cost newer vehicles, compared to modern disc brakes, drum brakes wear out faster due to their tendency to overheat