Berlinetta is an especially sporty form of coupé. Typically a two-seater, the type may include 2+2s, the original meaning for berlinetta in Italian is “little saloon”. Introduced in the 1930s, the term was popularized by Ferrari in the 1950s, Opel, Alfa Romeo, and other European car manufacturers have used the Berlinetta label. In North America, Chevrolet produced a version of the Chevrolet Camaro called the Berlinetta, the model offered European styling touches to emphasize the interior rather than the performance of the car, which had long been the main selling point of the Camaro
Robert Bosch GmbH
Robert Bosch GmbH, or Bosch, is a German multinational engineering and electronics company headquartered in Gerlingen, near Stuttgart, Germany. It is the worlds largest supplier of automotive components measured by 2011 revenues, the company was founded by Robert Bosch in Stuttgart in 1886. Bosch is 92% owned by Robert Bosch Stiftung, Boschs core products are automotive components, industrial products and building products. The history of the started in a backyard in Stuttgart-West as the Werkstätte für Feinmechanik und Elektrotechnik on November 15,1886. One year later, Bosch presented the first low voltage magneto for gas engines, twenty years later, the first magneto for automobiles followed. The first factory was opened by Bosch in Stuttgart in 1901, in 1906, the company produced its 100, 000-th magneto. In the same year, Bosch introduced the 8-hours day for workers, in 1910, the Feuerbach plant was founded and built close to Stuttgart. In this factory, Bosch started to produce headlights in 1913, in 1917, Bosch was transformed into a corporation.
In 1926, Bosch started to produce windscreen wipers, and in 1927, Bosch bought the gas appliances production from Junkers & Co. in 1932. In the same year, the company developed its first power drill, in 1937, Bosch was transformed into a limited liability company. Boschs subsidiary, Dreilinden Maschinenbau GmbH was a manufacturer in Kleinmachnow. This subsidiary employed forced laborers, prisoners of war and concentration camp detainees, there are two books published by Angela Martin and Hanna Sjöberg that report about Boschs use of slave labor. Since 2006, there is a commemoration in the forced labor camp. On March 12,1942, the founder, Robert Bosch. After the second war, Bosch established a partnership with the Japanese company Denso. In 1964, the Robert Bosch Stiftung was founded, Bosch founded a new development center in Schwieberdingen in 1968, and headquarters moved to Gerlingen in 1970. In 1981, the company participated on an equity basis in the Telefonbau & Normalzeit GmbH that was renamed Telenorma in 1985, in 1994, this part of the company was renamed as Bosch Telecom GmbH.
In 2000, Bosch sold the Private Networks area, in 2001, Bosch acquired the Mannesmann Rexroth AG which was renamed to Bosch Rexroth AG
The Ferrari F430 is a sports car that was produced by the Italian car manufacturer Ferrari from 2004 to 2009. A successor to the Ferrari 360, it debuted at the 2004 Paris Motor Show and its successor, the Ferrari 458, was unveiled on 28 July 2009. Designed by Pininfarina, under the guidance of Frank Stephenson, the styling of the F430 was revised from its predecessor. Although the drag coefficient remained the same, downforce was greatly enhanced, despite sharing the same basic Alcoa Aluminium chassis, roof line and glass, the car looked significantly different from the 360. A great deal of Ferrari heritage was included in the exterior design, at the rear, the Enzos tail lights and interior vents were added. The cars name was etched into the Testarossa-styled drivers side mirror, the large oval openings in the front bumper are reminiscent of Ferrari racing models from the 60s, specifically the 156 sharknose Formula One car and 250 TR61 Le Mans cars of Phil Hill. The F430 features a 4. 3L V8 petrol engine of the Ferrari-Maserati F136 family and this new power plant was a significant departure for Ferrari, as all previous Ferrari V8s were descendants of the Dino racing program of the 1950s.
This fifty-year development cycle came to an end with the entirely new 4. 3L, the engines output specifications are,490 PS, at 8500 rpm and 465 N·m of torque at 5250 rpm, 80% of which is available below 3500rpm. Despite a 20% increase in displacement, engine weight grew by only 4 kg and engine dimensions were decreased, the brakes on the F430 were designed in close cooperation with Brembo and Bosch, resulting in a new cast-iron alloy for the discs. The new alloy includes molybdenum which has better heat dissipation performance, the F430 was available with the optional Carbon fibre-reinforced Silicon Carbide ceramic composite brake package. Ferrari claims the carbon ceramic brakes will not fade even after 300-360 laps at their test track, the F430 featured the E-Diff, a computer-controlled limited slip active differential which can vary the distribution of torque based on inputs such as steering angle and lateral acceleration. Other notable features include the first application of Ferraris manettino steering wheel-mounted control knob, drivers can select from five different settings which modify the vehicles ESC system, Skyhook electronic suspension, transmission behavior, throttle response, and E-Diff.
The feature is similar to Land Rovers Terrain Response system, the Ferrari F430 was released with exclusive Goodyear Eagle F1 GSD3 EMT tires, which have a V-shaped tread design, run-flat capability, and OneTRED technology. In the US, the company requested an exemption from the design requirements. The F430 Spider is the convertible version based on the coupé, the F430 Spider is Ferraris 21st road going convertible. The Ferrari F430 Spider made its premiere at the Geneva motor show. The car was designed by Pininfarina with aerodynamic simulation programs used for Formula 1 cars. The roof panel automatically folds away inside a space above the engine bay, the conversion from a closed top to an open-air convertible is a two-stage folding-action
Governments and private organizations have developed car classification schemes that are used for innumerable purposes including regulation and categorization, among others. This article details commonly used classification schemes in use worldwide, vehicles can be categorized in numerous ways. Regulatory agencies may establish a vehicle classification system for determining a tax amount, in the United Kingdom, a vehicle is taxed according to the vehicles construction, weight, type of fuel and emissions, as well as the purpose for which it is used. Other jurisdictions may determine vehicle tax based upon environmental principles, such as the user pays principle, another standard for road vehicles of all types that is used internationally, is ISO 3833-1977. In the United States, since 2010 the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety uses a scheme it has developed that takes into account a combination of both shadow and weight. The United States Federal Highway Administration has developed a scheme used for automatically calculating road use tolls.
There are two categories depending on whether the vehicle carries passengers or commodities. Vehicles that carry commodities are further subdivided by number of axles and number of units, the United States Environmental Protection Agency has developed a classification scheme used to compare fuel economy among similar vehicles. Passenger vehicles are classified based on a total interior passenger. Trucks are classified based upon their gross vehicle weight rating, heavy duty vehicles are not included within the EPA scheme. A similar set of classes is used by the Canadian EPA, in Australia, the Federal Chamber of Automotive Industries publishes its own classifications. This is a table listing several different methods of vehicle classification. Straddling the boundary between car and motorbike, these vehicles have engines under 1.0 litre, typically only two passengers, and are sometimes unorthodox in construction. Some microcars are three-wheelers, while the majority have four wheels, microcars were popular in post-war Europe, where their appearance led them to be called Bubble cars.
More recent microcars are often electric powered, the size of ultracompact cars will be less than minicars, but have engine greater than 50cc displacement and able to transport 1 or 2 persons. Ultracompact cars cannot use standard, because of strict safety standards for minicars. The regulation about running capacity and safety performance of cars will be published in early autumn. Today, there are smaller than ultracompact cars, called category-1 motorized vehicles which it has 50cc displacement or less
Enzo Ferrari (automobile)
The Enzo Ferrari is a 12 cylinder mid-engine berlinetta sports car named after the companys founder, Enzo Ferrari. Also used are not allowed in F1 such as active aerodynamics. After a downforce of 7600 N is reached at 300 km/h the rear wing is actuated by computer to maintain that downforce, the Enzos F140 B V12 engine was the first of a new generation for Ferrari. It is based on the design of the V8 found in Maseratis Quattroporte and this design will replace the former architectures seen in V12 and V8 engines used in most other contemporary Ferraris. The 2005 F430 is the second Ferrari to get a version of this new powerplant. The Enzo was designed by Ken Okuyama, the Japanese former Pininfarina head designer, the company sent invitations to existing customers, those who had previously bought the F40 and F50. All 349 cars were sold in this way before production began, after numerous requests, Ferrari decided to build 50 more Enzos, bringing the total to 399. Before being unveiled at the Paris Motor show, the Enzo was flown from Italy to the U. S.
to be filmed in Charlies Angels and it was driven on a beach by actress Demi Moore. After filming was complete, the Enzo was flown to France to be in the Motor Show, Enzos are listed as being built in 2003. In 2004, a 400th Enzo was built and donated to the Vatican for charity, three development mules were built, M1, M2, and M3. Each was bodied to look like a 348, a model which had succeeded by two generations of mid-engined V8 sports cars—the F355 and the 360 Modena—by the time the mules were built. The third mule was offered for auction alongside the 400th Enzo in June 2005, the Enzo is a rear mid-engined vehicle with a 43. 9/56.1 front/rear weight distribution. The engine is Ferraris F140B 65° V12 with 4 valves per cylinder, dual overhead cams, bosch Motronic ME7 fuel injection is used and the engine is naturally aspirated. It displaces 5998 cc and produces 660 PS at 7800 rpm and 657 N·m at 5500 rpm, the Enzo has a semi-automatic transmission using paddles to control an automated shifting and clutch mechanism, with LED lights on the steering wheel telling the driver when to change gears.
The gearbox has a time of just 150 milliseconds. The transmission was a first generation design from the late 1990s. The Enzo has 4 wheel independent suspension with push-rod actuated shock absorbers which can be adjusted from the cabin, complemented with anti-roll bars at the front, the Enzo uses 19-inch wheels and has 15-inch Brembo disc brakes. The wheels are held by a lug nut and fitted with Bridgestone Potenza Scuderia RE050A tires
Automotive design is the profession involved in the development of the appearance, and to some extent the ergonomics, of motor vehicles or more specifically road vehicles. This most commonly refers to automobiles but refers to motorcycles, buses, the functional design and development of a modern motor vehicle is typically done by a large team from many different disciplines included within automotive engineering. Automotive design in context is primarily concerned with developing the visual appearance or aesthetics of the vehicle. Automotive design is practiced by designers who usually have an art background, the task of the design team is usually split into three main aspects, exterior design, interior design, and color and trim design. Graphic design is an aspect of design, this is generally shared amongst the design team as the lead designer sees fit. Design focuses not only on the outer shape of automobile parts. The aesthetic value will need to correspond to ergonomic functionality and utility features as well, though not all the new vehicular gadgets are to be designated as factory standard items, some of them may be integral to determining the future course of any specific vehicular models.
The stylist responsible for the design of the exterior of the vehicle develops the proportions, Exterior design is first done by a series of digital or manual drawings. Progressively, drawings that are more detailed are executed and approved by appropriate layers of management, Clay and or digital models are developed from, and along with the drawings. The data from these models are used to create a full sized mock-up of the final design. With three- and five-axis CNC milling machines, the model is first designed in a computer program and carved using the machine. Even in times of high-class 3d software and virtual models on power walls, here the emphasis is on ergonomics and the comfort of the passengers. The procedure here is the same as with exterior design, the color and trim designer is responsible for the research and development of all interior and exterior colors and materials used on a vehicle. These include paints, fabric designs, grains, headliner, wood trim, contrast and pattern must be carefully combined to give the vehicle a unique interior environment experience.
Designers work closely with the exterior and interior designers, designers draw inspiration from other design disciplines such as, industrial design, home furnishing and sometimes product design. Specific research is done into global trends to design for two to three model years in the future. Trend boards are created from research in order to keep track of design influences as they relate to the automotive industry. The designer uses this information to develop themes and concepts that are further refined and tested on the vehicle models
A valve train or valvetrain is a mechanical system that controls operation of the valves in an internal combustion engine, in which a sequence of components transmits motion throughout the assembly. A traditional reciprocating internal combustion engine uses valves to control air and fuel flow into and out of the cylinders, the valve train consists of valves, rocker arms, pushrods and camshaft. Valve train opening/closing and duration, as well as the geometry of the train, controls the amount of air. Timing for open/close/duration is controlled by the camshaft that is synchronized to the crankshaft by a chain, camless This layout uses no camshafts at all. Technologies such as solenoids are used to actuate the valves. The valve train is the system responsible for operation of the valves. Valves are usually of the type, although many others have been developed such as sleeve, slide. Poppet valves typically require small coil springs, appropriately named valve springs and they are attached to the valve stem ends, seating within spring retainers.
Depending on the used, the valves are actuated directly by a rocker arm, finger. Overhead camshaft engines use fingers or bucket tappets, upon which the cam lobes contact, rocker arms are actuated by a pushrod, and pivot on a shaft or individual ball studs in order to actuate the valves. Pushrods are long, slender metal rods seated within the engine block, at the bottom ends the pushrods are fitted with lifters, either solid or hydraulic, upon which the camshaft, located within the cylinder block, makes contact. The camshaft pushes on the lifter, which pushes on the pushrod, which pushes on the rocker arm, camshafts must actuate the valves at the appropriate time in the combustion cycle. In order to accomplish this the camshaft is linked to and kept in synchronisation with the crankshaft through the use of a chain, rubber belt. Because these mechanisms are essential to the timing of valve actuation they are named timing chains, timing belts. Typical normal-service engine valve-train components may be too lightweight for operating at high revolutions per minute, valve float will damage the valvetrain over time, and could cause the valve to be damaged as it is still partially open while the piston comes to the top of its stroke.
Upgrading to high pressure valve springs could allow higher valvetrain speeds, high-output and engines used in competition feature camshafts and valvetrain components that are designed to withstand higher RPM ranges. These changes include additional modifications such as larger-sized valves combined with freer breathing intake, automakers offer factory-approved performance parts to increase engine output, and numerous aftermarket parts vendors specialize in valvetrain modifications for various engine applications
A transmission is a machine in a power transmission system, which provides controlled application of the power. Often the term refers simply to the gearbox that uses gears and gear trains to provide speed. In British English, the term refers to the whole drivetrain, including clutch, prop shaft, differential. In American English, the term more specifically to the gearbox alone. The most common use is in vehicles, where the transmission adapts the output of the internal combustion engine to the drive wheels. Such engines need to operate at a high rotational speed, which is inappropriate for starting, stopping. The transmission reduces the engine speed to the slower wheel speed. Transmissions are used on bicycles, fixed machines. Often, a transmission has multiple gear ratios with the ability to switch between them as speed varies and this switching may be done manually or automatically. Directional control may be provided, single-ratio transmissions exist, which simply change the speed and torque of motor output.
The output of the transmission is transmitted via the driveshaft to one or more differentials, while a differential may provide gear reduction, its primary purpose is to permit the wheels at either end of an axle to rotate at different speeds as it changes the direction of rotation. Conventional gear/belt transmissions are not the mechanism for speed/torque adaptation. Alternative mechanisms include torque converters and power transformation, automatic transmissions use a valve body to shift gears using fluid pressures in conjunction with an ecm. Early transmissions included the right-angle drives and other gearing in windmills, horse-powered devices, and steam engines, in support of pumping, most modern gearboxes are used to increase torque while reducing the speed of a prime mover output shaft. This means that the shaft of a gearbox rotates at a slower rate than the input shaft. A gearbox can be set up to do the opposite and provide an increase in speed with a reduction of torque. Some of the simplest gearboxes merely change the rotational direction of power transmission.
Many typical automobile transmissions include the ability to select one of several gear ratios, in this case, most of the gear ratios are used to slow down the output speed of the engine and increase torque
A retractable hardtop, known as coupé convertible or coupé cabriolet, employs an automatically operated, multi-part, self-storing hardtop in lieu of a folding textile-based roof. Frenchman Georges Paulin subsequently designed the production 1934 Peugeot 601 Éclipse manually retractable hardtop, advances in electronics and weatherproofing materials have made the modern retractable hardtop increasingly popular. 1919 Ben P. Ellerbeck conceived a retractable hardtop – a manually operated system on a Hudson coupe that allowed unimpeded use of the seat even with the top down –. 1935 Peugeot introduced the first production, power-operated retractable hardtop in 1935, the French coachbuilder, Marcel Pourtout, custom-built other examples of Paulins designs on a larger Peugeot chassis as well. The first Eclipse 402s offered a top, but in 1936 was replaced by a manually operated version on a stretched chassis. 1941 Chrysler introduced a retractable hardtop concept car, the Chrysler Thunderbolt,1953 Ford Motor Company spent an estimated US$2 million to engineer a Continental Mark II with a servo-operated retractable roof.
The project was headed by Ben Smith, a 30-year-old draftsman, the concept was rejected for cost and marketing reasons. Engineering work was recycled to the Ford Division which used the mechanism in their 1957-1959 flagship Ford Fairlane 500 Skyliner after an estimated US$18 million more was spent. 1955 Brothers Ed and Jim Gaylord showed their first prototype at the 1955 Paris motor show,1957 Ford introduced the Fairlane 500 Skyliner in the United States. A total of 48,394 were built from 1957 to 1959, the retractable top was noted for its complexity and usually decent reliability in the pre-transistor era. The Skyliner was a car with little luggage space. 1989 Toyota introduced a retractable hardtop, the MZ20 Soarer Aerocabin. The car featured a folding hardtop and was marketed as a 2-seater with a cargo area behind the front seats. 1995 The Mitsubishi GTO Spyder by ASC was marketed in the U. S, produced by French coachbuilding specialist Heuliez, the Macarenas top can be folded in about 30 seconds.
It has a beam behind the front seats which incorporates LCD screens into the crossmember for the rear passengers. 2006 General Motors introduced a retractable version of the Pontiac G6. The roof featured a relatively simple two-piece folding design and did not materially reduce rear seat space, production continued through the 2009 model year. The Volkswagen Eos features a five-segment retractable roof where one section is itself an independently sliding transparent sunroof, the Mercedes SL hardtop features a glass section that rotates during retraction to provide a more compact stack
Fuel injection is the introduction of fuel in an internal combustion engine, most commonly automotive engines, by the means of an injector. All diesel engines use fuel injection by design, petrol engines can use gasoline direct injection, where the fuel is directly delivered into the combustion chamber, or indirect injection where the fuel is mixed with air before the intake stroke. On petrol engines, fuel injection replaced carburetors from the 1980s onward, the functional objectives for fuel injection systems can vary. All share the task of supplying fuel to the combustion process. Carburetors have the potential to atomize fuel better, Fuel injection dispenses with the need for a separate mechanical choke, which on carburetor-equipped vehicles must be adjusted as the engine warms up to normal temperature. Furthermore, on spark ignition engines, fuel injection has the advantage of being able to facilitate stratified combustion which have not been possible with carburetors, Fuel injection generally increases engine fuel efficiency.
With the improved cylinder-to-cylinder fuel distribution of multi-point fuel injection, less fuel is needed for the power output. Exhaust emissions are cleaner because the precise and accurate fuel metering reduces the concentration of toxic combustion byproducts leaving the engine. The more consistent and predictable composition of the exhaust makes emissions control devices such as catalytic converters more effective, herbert Akroyd Stuart developed the first device with a design similar to modern fuel injection, using a jerk pump to meter out fuel oil at high pressure to an injector. This system was used on the engine and was adapted and improved by Bosch. Fuel injection was in commercial use in diesel engines by the mid-1920s. Another early use of direct injection was on the Hesselman engine invented by Swedish engineer Jonas Hesselman in 1925. Hesselman engines use the ultra lean-burn principle, fuel is injected toward the end of the compression stroke and they are often started on gasoline and switched to diesel or kerosene.
Direct fuel injection was used in notable World War II aero-engines such as the Junkers Jumo 210, the Daimler-Benz DB601, the BMW801, German direct injection petrol engines used injection systems developed by Bosch from their diesel injection systems. Later versions of the Rolls-Royce Merlin and Wright R-3350 used single point fuel injection, due to the wartime relationship between Germany and Japan, Mitsubishi had two radial aircraft engines utilizing fuel injection, the Mitsubishi Kinsei and the Mitsubishi Kasei. Alfa Romeo tested one of the first electronic systems in Alfa Romeo 6C2500 with Ala spessa body in 1940 Mille Miglia. The engine had six electrically operated injectors and were fed by a semi-high-pressure circulating fuel pump system, all diesel engines have fuel injected into the combustion chamber. The invention of mechanical injection for gasoline-fueled aviation engines was by the French inventor of the V8 engine configuration, Leon Levavasseur in 1902, the first post-World War I example of direct gasoline injection was on the Hesselman engine invented by Swedish engineer Jonas Hesselman in 1925
An engine or motor is a machine designed to convert one form of energy into mechanical energy. Heat engines burn a fuel to heat, which is used to create a force. Electric motors convert electrical energy into motion, pneumatic motors use compressed air. In biological systems, molecular motors, like myosins in muscles, use energy to create forces. The word engine derives from Old French engin, from the Latin ingenium–the root of the word ingenious. Pre-industrial weapons of war, such as catapults and battering rams, were called siege engines, the word gin, as in cotton gin, is short for engine. Most mechanical devices invented during the revolution were described as engines—the steam engine being a notable example. However, the steam engines, such as those by Thomas Savery, were not mechanical engines. In this manner, an engine in its original form was merely a water pump. Devices converting heat energy into motion are commonly referred to simply as engines, examples of engines which exert a torque include the familiar automobile gasoline and diesel engines, as well as turboshafts.
Examples of engines which produce thrust include turbofans and rockets, the term motor derives from the Latin verb moto which means to set in motion, or maintain motion. Thus a motor is a device that imparts motion and engine came to be used largely interchangeably in casual discourse. However, the two words have different meanings, rocketry uses the term rocket motor, even though they consume fuel. A heat engine may serve as a prime mover—a component that transforms the flow or changes in pressure of a fluid into mechanical energy. An automobile powered by a combustion engine may make use of various motors and pumps. Another way of looking at it is that a motor receives power from an external source, simple machines, such as the club and oar, are prehistoric. More complex engines using human power, animal power, water power, wind power and these were used in cranes and aboard ships in Ancient Greece, as well as in mines, water pumps and siege engines in Ancient Rome. The writers of those times, including Vitruvius and Pliny the Elder, treat these engines as commonplace, by the 1st century AD, cattle and horses were used in mills, driving machines similar to those powered by humans in earlier times