Governments and private organizations have developed car classification schemes that are used for innumerable purposes including regulation and categorization, among others. This article details commonly used classification schemes in use worldwide, vehicles can be categorized in numerous ways. Regulatory agencies may establish a vehicle classification system for determining a tax amount, in the United Kingdom, a vehicle is taxed according to the vehicles construction, weight, type of fuel and emissions, as well as the purpose for which it is used. Other jurisdictions may determine vehicle tax based upon environmental principles, such as the user pays principle, another standard for road vehicles of all types that is used internationally, is ISO 3833-1977. In the United States, since 2010 the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety uses a scheme it has developed that takes into account a combination of both shadow and weight. The United States Federal Highway Administration has developed a scheme used for automatically calculating road use tolls.
There are two categories depending on whether the vehicle carries passengers or commodities. Vehicles that carry commodities are further subdivided by number of axles and number of units, the United States Environmental Protection Agency has developed a classification scheme used to compare fuel economy among similar vehicles. Passenger vehicles are classified based on a total interior passenger. Trucks are classified based upon their gross vehicle weight rating, heavy duty vehicles are not included within the EPA scheme. A similar set of classes is used by the Canadian EPA, in Australia, the Federal Chamber of Automotive Industries publishes its own classifications. This is a table listing several different methods of vehicle classification. Straddling the boundary between car and motorbike, these vehicles have engines under 1.0 litre, typically only two passengers, and are sometimes unorthodox in construction. Some microcars are three-wheelers, while the majority have four wheels, microcars were popular in post-war Europe, where their appearance led them to be called Bubble cars.
More recent microcars are often electric powered, the size of ultracompact cars will be less than minicars, but have engine greater than 50cc displacement and able to transport 1 or 2 persons. Ultracompact cars cannot use standard, because of strict safety standards for minicars. The regulation about running capacity and safety performance of cars will be published in early autumn. Today, there are smaller than ultracompact cars, called category-1 motorized vehicles which it has 50cc displacement or less
A coachbuilder is a manufacturer of bodies for automobiles or a manufacturer of complete horse-drawn vehicles. Coachwork is the body of a vehicle, a horse-drawn coach or carriage, or, by extension. The term is reserved for bodies built on a separate chassis. With reference to motor vehicles, auto body is the term in North American English. Coachbuilders are, carrossiers in French, carrozzeria in Italian, karosseriebauer in German, a British trade association the Worshipful Company of Coachmakers and Coach Harness Makers, was incorporated in 1630. Some British coachmaking firms operating in the 20th century were established even earlier, rippon was active in the time of Queen Elizabeth I, Barker founded in 1710 by an officer in Queen Annes Guards, Brewster a relative newcomer, formed in 1810. This chassis would be delivered by the manufacturer to the coachbuilder of the buyers choice, the chassis would be a rolling chassis which included the chassis frame, brakes, complete steering system including the wheel, radiator and dashboard.
The manufacturer delivered the chassis with lighting system, spare wheel and rear mudguards, the very easily damaged honeycomb radiator and protected by a shell, became the main visual element identifying the chassis brand. The manufacturer retained an element of control over bodies, bodies not approved by the chassis manufacturer would lose the chassis manufacturers chassis warranties. Until the second World War it would not have been unusual to order the most popular cars as only a chassis and have a local coachbuilder put a body on it for you, the Austin 7s of the 1920s and 1930s were favourite subjects. For example, Fisher Body built all of Cadillacs closed bodies in the 1910s, though automobile manufacturers brought body building skills in-house, the practice of bespoke or custom coachbuilding remained in favour among the wealthy, who continued the habit of centuries past. All ultra-luxury vehicles sold as chassis only, for instance, when Duesenberg introduced their Model J, it was offered as chassis only, for $8,500.
Other examples include the Bugatti Type 57, Cadillac V-16, Ferrari 250, Isotta Fraschini Tipo 8, delahaye had no in-house coachworks, so all its chassis were bodied by independents, who created some of their most attractive designs on the Type 135. Most of the Delahayes were bodied by Chapron, Franay, Figoni & Falaschi, the advent of unibody construction, where the car body is unified with, and structurally integral to the chassis, made custom coachbuilding practically impossible. Hermann Graber Ramsauer & Cie, known as Worblaufen after the place they were built, mulliner Park Ward Mulliners Nu-Track Park Ward Harold Radford Salmons Swallow Tickford Tilbury, originators of the Tilbury carriage. Thrupp & Maberly Vanden Plas Vincent of Reading Windover Wingham Martin Walter Walter Alexander & Sons, now Alexander Dennis Ltd Wrightbus James Young Brewster & Co. Brunn Budd Company Derham Earl Automobile Works Fisher Fleetwood KEM Motorworks LeBaron Locke N2A motors Inc. a Langmesser Co. Murphy Rollston Willoughby
Front-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout
In automotive design, an FR, or front-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout is one where the engine is located at the front of the vehicle and driven wheels are located at the rear. This was the automobile layout for most of the 20th century. Modern designs commonly use the front-engine, front-wheel-drive layout, the first FR car was an 1895 Panhard model, so this layout was known as the Système Panhard in the early years. The layout has the advantage of minimizing mechanical complexity, as it allows the transmission to be placed in-line with the output shaft. In comparison, a vehicle with the engine over the driven wheels eliminates the need for the drive shaft, in order to reduce the relative weight of the drive shaft, the transmission was normally split into two parts, the gearbox and the final drive. The gearbox was produced with its highest gear being 1,1. The final drive, in the axle, would reduce this to the most appropriate speed for the wheels. As power is the product of torque and angular velocity, spinning the shaft faster for any given power reduces the torque, in an era when gasoline was cheap and cars were heavy, the mechanical advantages of the FR drivetrain layout made up for any disadvantage in weight terms.
It remained almost universal among car designs until the 1970s, after the Arab oil embargo of 1973 and the 1979 fuel crises, a majority of American FR vehicles were phased out for the FF layout – this trend would spawn the SUV-van conversion market. Throughout the 1980s and 1990s, most American companies set as a priority the eventual removal of rear-wheel drive from their mainstream, chrysler went 100% FF by 1990 and GMs American production went entirely FF by 1997 except the Corvette and Camaro. This configuration is referred to as a transaxle since the transmission. In Europe, front-wheel drive was popularized by small cars like the Mini, Renault 5 and Volkswagen Golf, upscale marques like Mercedes-Benz, BMW, and Jaguar remained mostly independent of this trend, and retained a lineup mostly or entirely made up of FR cars. Japanese mainstream marques such as Toyota were almost exclusively FR until the late 1970s, toyotas first FF vehicle was the Toyota Tercel, with the Corolla and Celica becoming FF while the Camry was designed as an FF from the beginning.
The Supra, Cressida and Century remained FR, luxury division Lexus has a mostly FR lineup. Subarus BRZ is an FR car, currently most cars are FF, including all front-engined economy cars, though FR cars are making a return as an alternative to large sport-utility vehicles. In North America, GM returned to production of FR-based luxury vehicles with the 2003 Cadillac CTS, as of 2012, all but the SRX and XTS are FR-based vehicles. Chevrolet reintroduced the FR-based Camaro in 2009, and the Caprice PPV in 2011, Pontiac had a short run with the FR-based G8 and Pontiac Solstice. A Chevrolet replacement for the G8 called the Chevrolet SS was released in 2013, chrysler and Dodge reintroduced the 300 and Charger on a FR platform
The Ferrari 599 is an Italian sports car produced by Ferrari. It was the brands flagship, replacing the 575M Maranello in 2006 as a 2007 model. Styled by Pininfarina under the direction of Ferraris Frank Stephenson, the 599 GTB debuted at the Geneva Motor Show in February 2006 and it is named for its total engine displacement, Gran Turismo Berlinetta nature, and the Fiorano Circuit test track used by Ferrari. The Tipo F140 C6.0 L V12 engine produces a maximum 620 PS and its 608 N·m of torque was a record for Ferraris GT cars. Most of the modifications to the engine were done to allow it to fit in the Fioranos engine bay, a traditional 6-speed manual transmission as well as Ferraris 6-speed called F1 SuperFast is offered. The Fiorano sees the debut of Ferraris new traction control system, the vast majority of the 599 GTBs have been equipped with the semi-automatic gearbox as opposed to the manual 6-speed gearbox. Only 30 examples have been produced with a manual gearbox of which 20 were destined to the United States and 10 remained in Europe.
0-100 km/h in 3.7 seconds 0-200 km/h in 11.0 seconds Top speed, the ride height has been lowered, which lowers the cars center of gravity. The package includes optimised tyres featuring a compound that offers improved grip, the cars electronics have changed. The gearboxs shifts are faster in high-performance settings, while new engine software improved accelerator response, the exhaust silencer was modified to produce more marked and thrilling sound under hard usage while still delivering just the right comfort levels at cruising speed. The exterior and interior were upgraded with more carbon fiber components, on 8 April 2010, Ferrari announced official details of the 599 GTO. Its engine produces 670 PS at 8250 rpm, with 620 N·m of torque at 6500 rpm, Ferrari claims the 599 GTO can reach 100 km/h in under 3.3 seconds and has a top speed of over 335 km/h. At 1,605 kilograms, the 599 GTO weighs almost 100 kg less than the standard GTB, production is limited to 599 cars. Of these, approximately 125 were produced for the United States market, Ferrari has given only two other models that used the GTO designation, the 1962250 GTO and the 1984288 GTO.
Unlike the previous GTOs however, the 599 GTO was not designed for homologation in any racing series, the convertible version of the 599, the SA Aperta, was introduced 2010 Paris Motor Show as a unique limited edition in honor of designers Sergio Pininfarina and Andrea Pininfarina. The SA Aperta used the performance engine from the 599 GTO. The 599XX is a car designed for use only and is not street legal. The rev limiter is raised to 9000 rpm, with the engine rated for 730 PS at 9000 rpm, weight is reduced by reducing the weight of the engine unit components, the use of composite materials, and the use of carbon-fiber body parts and brake pads
Automotive design is the profession involved in the development of the appearance, and to some extent the ergonomics, of motor vehicles or more specifically road vehicles. This most commonly refers to automobiles but refers to motorcycles, buses, the functional design and development of a modern motor vehicle is typically done by a large team from many different disciplines included within automotive engineering. Automotive design in context is primarily concerned with developing the visual appearance or aesthetics of the vehicle. Automotive design is practiced by designers who usually have an art background, the task of the design team is usually split into three main aspects, exterior design, interior design, and color and trim design. Graphic design is an aspect of design, this is generally shared amongst the design team as the lead designer sees fit. Design focuses not only on the outer shape of automobile parts. The aesthetic value will need to correspond to ergonomic functionality and utility features as well, though not all the new vehicular gadgets are to be designated as factory standard items, some of them may be integral to determining the future course of any specific vehicular models.
The stylist responsible for the design of the exterior of the vehicle develops the proportions, Exterior design is first done by a series of digital or manual drawings. Progressively, drawings that are more detailed are executed and approved by appropriate layers of management, Clay and or digital models are developed from, and along with the drawings. The data from these models are used to create a full sized mock-up of the final design. With three- and five-axis CNC milling machines, the model is first designed in a computer program and carved using the machine. Even in times of high-class 3d software and virtual models on power walls, here the emphasis is on ergonomics and the comfort of the passengers. The procedure here is the same as with exterior design, the color and trim designer is responsible for the research and development of all interior and exterior colors and materials used on a vehicle. These include paints, fabric designs, grains, headliner, wood trim, contrast and pattern must be carefully combined to give the vehicle a unique interior environment experience.
Designers work closely with the exterior and interior designers, designers draw inspiration from other design disciplines such as, industrial design, home furnishing and sometimes product design. Specific research is done into global trends to design for two to three model years in the future. Trend boards are created from research in order to keep track of design influences as they relate to the automotive industry. The designer uses this information to develop themes and concepts that are further refined and tested on the vehicle models
The Ferrari GG50 is a concept car created by Ferrari to mark the fifty years during which Giorgetto Giugiaro had been designing cars. It was introduced at the 2005 Tokyo Motor Show, the Ferrari F1 GG50 has special modifications inspired by Formula 1, to improve performance. It uses a 65 degree V12 naturally aspirated petrol engine, the engine develops peak power of 540 horsepower, which is 94 horsepower per litre. The GG50 uses a sequential mode automatic transmission, the GG50 is a 2+2 coupé supercar. Most of the elements of the design are from the similar Ferrari 612 Scaglietti. Some cues, such as the wheel, derive from Ferraris F1 vehicles of the past. Unique parts of the GG50 are its dashboard and the fact that the GG50 uses the Pioneer AVIC–X1R satellite navigation system, Tokyo Motor Show 2005 Highlights Ferrari GG50 Information from ConceptCarz. com
The Ferrari 456 and 456M are front-engined grand tourers which were produced by Ferrari from 1992 to 2003. The 456 was a replacement for the defunct front-engined 412 as the companys V12-powered four seater, the updated 456M, which was the last Ferrari model to use pop-up headlamps, was replaced in 2004 by the 612 Scaglietti. Pietro Camardella and Lorenzo Ramaciotti at Pininfarina designed the original 456 which was available in GT, the difference in name signifies the transmission, the former has a six-speed manual and the latter has a four-speed automatic developed in partnership with FF Developments, in Livonia, MI. This was only the automatic transmission ever offered by Ferrari. The 5.5 L 65° V12 engine was derived from the Dino V6 rather than the more conventional 60° V12s used in the 412 and it produced 442 PS with 4 valves per cylinder and Bosch Motronic M2.7 engine management. It could push the 1690 kg car and four passengers to 302 km/h making it the worlds fastest production four-seater, acceleration to 100 km/h was just 5.2 seconds, with a 13.4 second quarter-mile time.
At the time of its development it was the most powerful car ever developed by Ferrari. In 1996 engine was changed with Motronic M5.2 management, the name 456 is derived from the fact that each cylinder displaces 456 cubic centimeters. This was the last Ferrari to use this convention until the 488. Despite its supercar performance, the 456 has an unstressed engine. The chassis is a steel spaceframe construction with a one-piece composite bonnet. The body panels are welded to the chassis by using a special sandwich filler called feran that, approximately 3,289 of all versions were built. These consisted of the versions,456 GT,1,548,456 GTA,403, 456M GT,688. The Modificata 456M appeared in 1998, starting with chassis number 109589, many changes were made to improve aerodynamics and cooling, and the interior – still featuring Connolly Leather – was freshened with new seats and other conveniences. Some readily apparent changes can be seen in the two adjoining pictures, the 456 has a smaller grille with fog lights outside the grille.
The 456 had hood-mounted air scoops which can be removed on the 456M. The undercarriage spoiler on the 456M is fixed, where the older 456 had a spoiler that began its deployment above 105 km/h. The Tour de France Blue with Daytona Seats was the most desirable color, in the final year of production 2002/3 customers could specify their vehicle using the Carrozzeria Scaglietti Program
Ingrid Bergman was a Swedish actress who starred in a variety of European and American films. She won three Academy Awards, two Emmy Awards, four Golden Globe Awards, a BAFTA Award, and the Tony Award for Best Actress. She is best remembered for her roles as Ilsa Lund in Casablanca and as Alicia Huberman in Notorious, before becoming a star in American films, Bergman had been a leading actress in Swedish films. Her introduction to American audiences came with her role in the English-language remake of Intermezzo. Selznicks financial problems meant that Bergman was often loaned to other studios, apart from Casablanca, her performances from this period include Victor Flemings remake of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, For Whom the Bell Tolls and The Bells of St. Marys. Her last films for Selznick were Alfred Hitchcocks Spellbound and Notorious and her final film for Hitchcock was Under Capricorn. After a decade in American films, she starred in Roberto Rossellinis Stromboli, many of her personal and film documents can be seen in the Wesleyan University Cinema Archives.
According to the St. James Encyclopedia of Popular Culture, Bergman quickly became the ideal of American womanhood, in 2007, the American Film Institute ranked Bergman as the fourth-greatest female screen legend of classic American cinema. Bergman, named after Princess Ingrid of Sweden, was born on 29 August 1915 in Stockholm, to a Swedish father, Justus Bergman, when she was two years old, her mother died. Her father, who was an artist and photographer, died when she was 13, in the years before he died, he wanted her to become an opera star, and had her take voice lessons for three years. But she always knew from the beginning that she wanted to be an actress, sometimes wearing her mothers clothes and her father documented all her birthdays with a borrowed camera. After his death, she was sent to live with an aunt and she moved in with her Aunt Hulda and Uncle Otto, who had five children. Another aunt she visited, Elsa Adler, first told Ingrid, when she was 11, that her mother may have had some Jewish blood, but her aunt cautioned her about telling others about her possible ancestry as there might be some difficult times coming.
Biographer Aleksandra Ziolkowska-Boehm, notes that the claim of Jewish blood was likely an embellishment, after being forced to do an in-depth genealogical investigation, Bergmans maternal cousin found there to be no Jewish ancestry on Bergmans mothers side. Later, she received a scholarship to the state-sponsored Royal Dramatic Theatre School, after several months she was given a part in a new play, Ett Brott, written by Sigfrid Siwertz. Chandler notes that this was totally against procedure at the school, during her first summer break, she was hired by a Swedish film studio, which led to her leaving the Royal Dramatic Theatre after just one year, to work in films full-time. Her first film role after leaving the Royal Dramatic Theatre was a part in 1935s Munkbrogreven. She went on to act in a films in Sweden, including En kvinnas ansikte, which was remade as A Womans Face with Joan Crawford
Modena is a city and comune on the south side of the Po Valley, in the Province of Modena in the Emilia-Romagna region of northern Italy. One of Ferraris cars, the 360 Modena, was named after the town itself, the University of Modena, founded in 1175 and expanded by Francesco II dEste in 1686, has traditional strengths in economics and law and is the second oldest athenaeum in Italy. Italian military officers are trained at the Military Academy of Modena, the Biblioteca Estense houses historical volumes and 3,000 manuscripts. The Cathedral of Modena, the Torre della Ghirlandina and Piazza Grande are a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1997, Modena is known in culinary circles for its production of balsamic vinegar. Modena lies on the Pianura Padana, and is bounded by the two rivers Secchia and Panaro, both affluents of the Po River and their presence is symbolized by the Two Rivers Fountain in the citys center, by Giuseppe Graziosi. The city is connected to the Panaro by the Naviglio channel, the Apennines begin some 10 kilometres from the city, to the south.
The commune is divided into four circoscrizioni and these are, Centro storico Crocetta Buon Pastore San Faustino Modena has a humid subtropical climate, with an average annual precipitation of 809 millimetres. Summers are warm and winters are chilly and wetter, with the possibility of snowfall and this climate is described by the Köppen climate classification as Cfa. From 1945 to 1992, Modena had a consecutive series of Communist mayors. From the 1990s, the city has been governed by center-left coalitions, at the April 2006 elections, the city of Modena gave about 50% of its votes to the Democratic Party. The legislative body of the municipality is the City Council which is composed by 35 members elected every five years, Modenas executive body is the City Committee composed by 9 assessors, the deputy-mayor and the mayor. The current mayor of Modena is Giancarlo Muzzarelli, member of the Democratic Party of Italy, the territory around Modena was inhabited by the Villanovans in the Iron Age, and by Ligurian tribes and the Gaulish Boii.
Livy described it as a fortified citadel where Roman magistrates took shelter, the outcome of the siege is not known, but the city was most likely abandoned after Hannibals arrival. Mutina was refounded as a Roman colony in 183 BC, to be used as a base by Marcus Aemilius Lepidus. In the 1st century BC Mutina was besieged twice, the first siege was by Pompey in 78 BC, when Mutina was defended by Marcus Junius Brutus. The city eventually surrendered out of hunger, and Brutus fled, in the civil war following Caesars assassination, the city was besieged again, this time by Mark Antony, in 44 BC, and defended by Decimus Junius Brutus. Octavian relieved the city with the help of the Senate, cicero called it Mutina splendidissima in his Philippics. It is said that Mutina was never sacked by Attila, for a dense fog hid it, as of December 2008, Italian researchers have discovered the pottery center where the oil lamps that lit the ancient Roman empire were made
A grand tourer is a performance and luxury automobile capable of high speed and long-distance driving. The most common format is a two-door coupé with either a two-seat or a 2+2 arrangement, the grand touring concept is eurocentric, the definition implies material differences in performance at speed and amenities between elite automobiles and those of ordinary motorists. In post-war United States, the Interstate Highway System and wide availability of powerful Straight-six, European GTs did find success penetrating the American personal luxury car market, notably the Mercedes-Benz SL-Class. Grand touring car design evolved from vintage and pre-World War II fast touring cars, italy developed the first gran turismo cars. The small, light-weight and aerodynamic coupé, named the Berlinetta, independent carrozzeria provided light and flexible fabric coachwork for powerful short-wheelbase fast-touring chassis by manufacturers such as Alfa Romeo. Later, Carrozzeria Touring of Milan would pioneer sophisticated Superleggera aluminium bodywork, the additional comfort of an enclosed cabin was beneficial for the Mille Miglia road-race held in Italys often wintry north.
An improved and supercharged version, the 6C1750 GTC Gran Turismo Compressore, from the basic Fiat 508 Balilla touring chassis came the SIATA and Fiat aerodynamic gran turismo-style Berlinetta Mille Miglias of 1933 and 1935. The first recognised motor race for gran turismo cars was the 1949 Coppa Inter-Europa held at Monza, the Fiat based 1100 cc four-cylinder Cisitaila was no match on the race track for Ferraris new hand-built 2000 cc V12, and Ferrari dominated, taking the first three places. An 1100 cc class was created, but not in time to save Cisitalias business fortunes—the companys bankrupt owner Piero Dusio had already decamped to Argentina. The Maserati A61500 won the 1500 cc class at the 1949 Coppa-Europa and it was driven by Franco Bordoni, former fighter ace of the Regia Aeronautica who had debuted as a pilota da corsa at the 1949 Mille Miglia. The body of the A61500 was an elegant two-door fast-back coupe body, the first car constructed in Ferraris name, the V12125 S, a racing sports car, debuted in 1947 at the Piacenza racing circuit.
The Ferrari 166 Inter S coupé model won the 1949 Coppa Inter-Europa, regulations stipulated body form and dimensions but did not at this time specify a minimum production quantity. The car was driven by Bruno Sterzi, and is recognized as the first Ferrari gran turismo, Ferraris response for the new Gran Tursimo championship was the road/race Ferrari 212. All versions came with the standard Ferrari five-speed non-synchromesh gearbox and hydraulic drum brakes, all 1951 Ferraris shared a double tube frame chassis design evolved from the 166. Double-wishbone front suspension with leaf spring, and live rear axle with semi-elliptic leaf springs. Even more impressive than the new Ferrari in 1951 was the debut of Lancias Aurelia B20 GT. Lancia had begun production in 1950 of their technically advanced Aurelia sedan, at the 1951 Turin Motor Show, the Pinin Farina-bodied Gran Tursimo B20 Coupé version was unveiled to an enthusiastic motoring public. In the B20 are elements of the Cistalia of 1947, coupés which Pinin undertook on a 6C Alfa Romeo and Maserati in 1948, in addition the B20 had a shorter wheelbase and a higher rear axle ratio, making it a 100 mph car
By using split crankpins or ignoring minor vibrations, any V angle is possible. The 180° configuration is referred to as a flat-twelve engine or a boxer although it is in reality a 180° V since the pistons can. This is not important in a car if all-out performance is the only goal. Since cost and fuel economy are usually important even in luxury and racing cars and it is often used in marine engines where great power is required, and the hull width is limited, but a longer vessel allows faster hull speed. In twin-propeller boats, two V12 engines can be enough to sit side-by-side, while three V12 engines are sometimes used in high-speed three-propeller configurations. Large, fast cruise ships can have six or more V12 engines, after World War II, the compact, more powerful, and vibration-free turboprop and turbojet engines replaced the V12 in aircraft applications. The first V-type engine was built in 1889 by Daimler, to a design by Wilhelm Maybach, by 1903 V8 engines were being produced for motor boat racing by the Société Antoinette to designs by Léon Levavasseur, building on experience gained with in-line four-cylinder engines.
In 1904, the Putney Motor Works completed a new V12 marine racing engine—the first V12 engine produced for any purpose, a single camshaft mounted in the central V operated the valves directly. As in many engines, the camshaft could be slid longitudinally to engage a second set of cams. Starting is by pumping a charge into each cylinder and switching on the trembler coils, a sliding camshaft gave direct reversing. The camshaft has fluted webs and main bearings in graduated thickness from the largest at the flywheel end, displacing 1,120 cu in, the engine weighed 950 pounds and developed 150 bhp. Little is known of the achievements in the 40-foot hull for which it was intended. One V12 Dörwald marine engine was still running in a Hong Kong junk in the late-1960s. Two more V12s appeared in the 1909-1910 motor boat racing season, the Lamb Boat & Engine Company of Clinton, Iowa built a 1,559 cu in engine for the companys 32-foot Lamb IV. It weighed in at 2,114 pounds, no weight is known for the massive 3,464 cu in F-head engine built by the Orleans Motor Company.
Output is quoted as nearly 400 bhp, by 1914, when Panhard built two 2,356 cu in engines with four-valve cylinder heads the V12 was well established in motor boat racing. In October 1913, Louis Coatalen, chief engineer of the Sunbeam Motor Car Company entered a V12 powered car in the Brooklands short, the engine displaced 9 L, with bore and stroke of 80 x 150 mm. An aluminum crankcase carried two blocks of three cylinders each along each side, with a 60 degree included angle, the cylinders were of iron, with integral cylinder heads with L-shaped combustion chambers