SpA is a multinational company based in Milan, formerly listed on the Milan Stock Exchange since 1922. It was acquired in 2015 by ChemChina, the company is one of the largest tyre manufacturers behind Bridgestone, Michelin and Goodyear. It is present in over 160 countries, has 20 manufacturing sites in 14 countries, Pirelli has been sponsoring sport competitions since 1907 and is the exclusive tyre supplier for the Formula One Championship for 2011–2019 and for the FIM World Superbike Championship. Pirelli is now a pure tyre manufacturing company, in the past it has launched fashion project and operated in renewable energy and sustainable mobility. Founded in Milan in 1872 by Giovanni Battista Pirelli, the company specialised in rubber and derivative processes. Thereafter, Pirellis activities were focused on the production of tyres and cables. In 2005, Pirelli sold its division to Goldman Sachs. In the 1950s, Alberto Pirelli commissioned the building of a skyscraper, Pirelli Tower, in 1974, Pirelli invented the wide radial tyre, upon a request from the Lancia rally racing team for a tyre strong enough to withstand the power of the new Lancia Stratos.
At that time, racing tyres were either slick tyres made with the cross ply technique, or radial tyres, both were unusable for the Lancia Stratos, as the radials were destroyed within 10 km, and the slicks too stiff. Lancia asked Pirelli for a solution, and in 1975 Pirelli created a wide tyre with a reduced sidewall height like a slick, Porsche started using the same tyres with the Porsche 911 Turbo. In 1988, Pirelli acquired the Armstrong Rubber Company, which was headquartered in New Haven, Connecticut, in 2002 the company started a range of Pirelli branded clothing and eyewear. In March 2015, it was announced that Pirelli shareholders has accepted a €7.1 billion bid from ChemChina for the company, the transaction was completed and the company was delisted in November 2015. The list of Pirelli main shareholders As of September 2016 The list of Pirelli Board of Directors, the Pirelli Calendar is published annually, and regularly features famous actresses and fashion models. The Pirelli Internetional Award is given annually for the best international multimedia involving the communication of science, power is nothing without control is the well known slogan of Pirelli Tyre Company, and is featured in numerous television and print advertisements.
Pirelli is the main sponsor of Italian football club Inter Milan. Pirelli has a history of sponsoring football teams, Pirelli is well known for its long term primary sponsorship of the Italian football team Inter Milan. Pirelli previously appeared as a sponsor on the shirts of the Maltese football club Valletta for a short time, Pirellis sponsorship of football teams is not limited to Europe, South America is a key market and as a result successful clubs have been sponsored by the tyre company. The Brazilian team Palmeiras, Uruguayan team Peñarol and Argentinian side Vélez Sársfield all had Pirelli as a shirt sponsor, when English Football League One side Burton Albion Football Club built their new stadium in 2005, Pirelli became the title sponsor of the new ground
Italy, officially the Italian Republic, is a unitary parliamentary republic in Europe. Located in the heart of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Austria, San Marino, Italy covers an area of 301,338 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate and Mediterranean climate. Due to its shape, it is referred to in Italy as lo Stivale. With 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth most populous EU member state, the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom, which eventually became a republic that conquered and assimilated other nearby civilisations. The legacy of the Roman Empire is widespread and can be observed in the distribution of civilian law, republican governments, Christianity. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, exploration, Italian culture flourished at this time, producing famous scholars and polymaths such as Leonardo da Vinci, Galileo and Machiavelli. The weakened sovereigns soon fell victim to conquest by European powers such as France and Austria.
Despite being one of the victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil. The subsequent participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in defeat, economic destruction. Today, Italy has the third largest economy in the Eurozone and it has a very high level of human development and is ranked sixth in the world for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military and diplomatic affairs, as a reflection of its cultural wealth, Italy is home to 51 World Heritage Sites, the most in the world, and is the fifth most visited country. The assumptions on the etymology of the name Italia are very numerous, according to one of the more common explanations, the term Italia, from Latin, was borrowed through Greek from the Oscan Víteliú, meaning land of young cattle. The bull was a symbol of the southern Italic tribes and was often depicted goring the Roman wolf as a defiant symbol of free Italy during the Social War. Greek historian Dionysius of Halicarnassus states this account together with the legend that Italy was named after Italus, mentioned by Aristotle and Thucydides.
The name Italia originally applied only to a part of what is now Southern Italy – according to Antiochus of Syracuse, but by his time Oenotria and Italy had become synonymous, and the name applied to most of Lucania as well. The Greeks gradually came to apply the name Italia to a larger region, excavations throughout Italy revealed a Neanderthal presence dating back to the Palaeolithic period, some 200,000 years ago, modern Humans arrived about 40,000 years ago. Other ancient Italian peoples of undetermined language families but of possible origins include the Rhaetian people and Cammuni. Also the Phoenicians established colonies on the coasts of Sardinia and Sicily, the Roman legacy has deeply influenced the Western civilisation, shaping most of the modern world
A transmission is a machine in a power transmission system, which provides controlled application of the power. Often the term refers simply to the gearbox that uses gears and gear trains to provide speed. In British English, the term refers to the whole drivetrain, including clutch, prop shaft, differential. In American English, the term more specifically to the gearbox alone. The most common use is in vehicles, where the transmission adapts the output of the internal combustion engine to the drive wheels. Such engines need to operate at a high rotational speed, which is inappropriate for starting, stopping. The transmission reduces the engine speed to the slower wheel speed. Transmissions are used on bicycles, fixed machines. Often, a transmission has multiple gear ratios with the ability to switch between them as speed varies and this switching may be done manually or automatically. Directional control may be provided, single-ratio transmissions exist, which simply change the speed and torque of motor output.
The output of the transmission is transmitted via the driveshaft to one or more differentials, while a differential may provide gear reduction, its primary purpose is to permit the wheels at either end of an axle to rotate at different speeds as it changes the direction of rotation. Conventional gear/belt transmissions are not the mechanism for speed/torque adaptation. Alternative mechanisms include torque converters and power transformation, automatic transmissions use a valve body to shift gears using fluid pressures in conjunction with an ecm. Early transmissions included the right-angle drives and other gearing in windmills, horse-powered devices, and steam engines, in support of pumping, most modern gearboxes are used to increase torque while reducing the speed of a prime mover output shaft. This means that the shaft of a gearbox rotates at a slower rate than the input shaft. A gearbox can be set up to do the opposite and provide an increase in speed with a reduction of torque. Some of the simplest gearboxes merely change the rotational direction of power transmission.
Many typical automobile transmissions include the ability to select one of several gear ratios, in this case, most of the gear ratios are used to slow down the output speed of the engine and increase torque
The Daily Telegraph
It was founded by Arthur B. Sleigh in 1855 as The Daily Telegraph and Courier, the papers motto, Was, is, and will be, appears in the editorial pages and has featured in every edition of the newspaper since April 19,1858. The paper had a circulation of 460,054 in December 2016 and its sister paper, The Sunday Telegraph, which started in 1961, had a circulation of 359,287 as of December 2016. The Daily Telegraph has the largest circulation for a newspaper in the UK. The two sister newspapers are run separately, with different editorial staff, but there is cross-usage of stories, articles published in either may be published on the Telegraph Media Groups www. telegraph. co. uk website, under the title of The Telegraph. However, including an editor, accuse it of being unduly influenced by advertisers. The Daily Telegraph and Courier was founded by Colonel Arthur B, Sleigh in June 1855 to air a personal grievance against the future commander-in-chief of the British Army, Prince George, Duke of Cambridge.
Joseph Moses Levy, the owner of The Sunday Times, agreed to print the newspaper, the paper cost 2d and was four pages long. Nevertheless, the first edition stressed the quality and independence of its articles and journalists, the paper was not a success, and Sleigh was unable to pay Levy the printing bill. Levy took over the newspaper, his aim being to produce a newspaper than his main competitors in London. The same principle should apply to all other events—to fashion, to new inventions, in 1876, Jules Verne published his novel Michael Strogoff, whose plot takes place during a fictional uprising and war in Siberia. In 1937, the newspaper absorbed The Morning Post, which espoused a conservative position. Originally William Ewart Berry, 1st Viscount Camrose, bought The Morning Post with the intention of publishing it alongside The Daily Telegraph, for some years the paper was retitled The Daily Telegraph and Morning Post before it reverted to just The Daily Telegraph. As an result, Gordon Lennox was monitored by MI5, in 1939, The Telegraph published Clare Hollingworths scoop that Germany was to invade Poland.
In November 1940, with Fleet Street subjected to almost daily bombing raids by the Luftwaffe, The Telegraph started printing in Manchester at Kemsley House, Manchester quite often printed the entire run of The Telegraph when its Fleet Street offices were under threat. The name Kemsley House was changed to Thomson House in 1959, in 1986 printing of Northern editions of the Daily and Sunday Telegraph moved to Trafford Park and in 2008 to Newsprinters at Knowsley, Liverpool. During the Second World War, The Daily Telegraph covertly helped in the recruitment of code-breakers for Bletchley Park, the ability to solve The Telegraphs crossword in under 12 minutes was considered to be a recruitment test. The competition itself was won by F. H. W. Hawes of Dagenham who finished the crossword in less than eight minutes, both the Camrose and Burnham families remained involved in management until Conrad Black took control in 1986
Geneva Motor Show
The International Geneva Motor Show is an annual auto show held in March in the Swiss city of Geneva. The show is hosted at the Geneva Palexpo, a centre located next to the Geneva Cointrin International Airport. The Salon is organised by the Organisation Internationale des Constructeurs dAutomobiles, exotic supercars often steal the spotlight during their debuts at the show. Prototypes, new equipment, technical breakthroughs, international partnerships, as well as political and social debates, have announced at the exhibition. The show is regarded as a playing field for the worlds automakers. Areas of the show, Motor cars 3 or 4 or more wheels, electric cars and alternative powered cars. Special bodywork for motor cars, car design, the International Advanced Mobility Forum is the Geneva Motor Show forum on the mobility of the future. The 87th Geneva Motor Show was held from 9 to 19 March 2017, the 86th Geneva Motor Show was held from 3 to 13 March 2016. The 85th Geneva Motor Show was held from 5 to 15 March 2015, the 84th Geneva Motor Show was held from 6 to 16 March 2014.
The 83rd Geneva Motor Show was held from 5 to 17 March 2013, the 82nd edition was held from 8 to 18 March 2012. The 2011 edition was held from 3 to 13 March 2011, the 80th edition of the Geneva Motor Show was held from 4–14 March 2010. Over 80 introductions were expected for the show, press days for the show started on 2 March 2010, when most of the major introductions occurred. The 2009 Geneva Motor Show was held from 5–15 March 2009, the following vehicles were introduced, The 2008 Geneva Motor Show was held from 4–16 March 2008. Bolloré Bluecar Fiat Panda, hybrid petrol -natural gas, ford Focus Turnier 2.0 Honda Small Hybrid Sports Honda FCX Clarity Opel Corsa D, with optimized 100HP1. 6l natural gas engine. Reva Greeny AC1 and AC1 Z Subaru R1e, small city car
Horsepower is a unit of measurement of power. There are many different standards and types of horsepower, two common definitions being used today are the mechanical horsepower, which is approximately 746 watts, and the metric horsepower, which is approximately 735.5 watts. The term was adopted in the late 18th century by Scottish engineer James Watt to compare the output of engines with the power of draft horses. It was expanded to include the power of other types of piston engines, as well as turbines, electric motors. The definition of the unit varied among geographical regions, most countries now use the SI unit watt for measurement of power. With the implementation of the EU Directive 80/181/EEC on January 1,2010, units called horsepower have differing definitions, The mechanical horsepower, known as imperial horsepower equals approximately 745.7 watts. It was defined originally as exactly 550 foot-pounds per second [745.7 N. m/s), the metric horsepower equals approximately 735.5 watts. It was defined originally as 75 kgf-m per second is approximately equivalent to 735.5 watts, the Pferdestärke PS is a name for a group of similar power measurements used in Germany around the end of the 19th century, all of about one metric horsepower in size.
The boiler horsepower equals 9809.5 watts and it was used for rating steam boilers and is equivalent to 34.5 pounds of water evaporated per hour at 212 degrees Fahrenheit. One horsepower for rating electric motors is equal to 746 watts, one horsepower for rating Continental European electric motors is equal to 735 watts. Continental European electric motors used to have dual ratings, one British Royal Automobile Club horsepower can equal a range of values based on estimates of several engine dimensions. It is one of the tax horsepower systems adopted around Europe, the development of the steam engine provided a reason to compare the output of horses with that of the engines that could replace them. He had previously agreed to take royalties of one third of the savings in coal from the older Newcomen steam engines and this royalty scheme did not work with customers who did not have existing steam engines but used horses instead. Watt determined that a horse could turn a mill wheel 144 times in an hour, the wheel was 12 feet in radius, the horse travelled 2.4 × 2π ×12 feet in one minute.
Watt judged that the horse could pull with a force of 180 pounds-force. So, P = W t = F d t =180 l b f ×2.4 ×2 π ×12 f t 1 m i n =32,572 f t ⋅ l b f m i n. Watt defined and calculated the horsepower as 32,572 ft·lbf/min, Watt determined that a pony could lift an average 220 lbf 100 ft per minute over a four-hour working shift. Watt judged a horse was 50% more powerful than a pony, engineering in History recounts that John Smeaton initially estimated that a horse could produce 22,916 foot-pounds per minute
The Ferrari F12berlinetta is a front mid-engine, rear-wheel-drive grand tourer produced by Italian sports car manufacturer Ferrari. The F12berlinetta, debuted at the 2012 Geneva Motor Show, replaces the 599 series grand tourers. The naturally aspirated 6.3 litre Ferrari V12 engine in the F12berlinetta has won the International Engine of the Year Awards 2013 in the Best Performance category, the F12berlinetta was named The Supercar of the Year 2012 by car magazine Top Gear. In 2014 it was awarded the XXIII Premio Compasso doro ADI, accepting the award was Ferrari’s Senior Vice President of Design, Flavio Manzoni. The F12berlinetta uses a 6,262 cc, naturally aspirated 65° V12 engine of the Ferrari F140 engine family. This allows the F12berlinetta to accelerate from 0 to 100 km/h in an officially reported 3.1 seconds,0 to 200 km/h in 8.5 seconds and a top speed of 211 mph. The engine of the F12berlinetta has been designed to be more efficient than that of the 599, the engine management system is fitted with Ferraris HELE start-stop system to reduce fuel consumption when idling.
Ferrari reports that the F12berlinetta can achieve 18 mpg‑imp – a 30% improvement over the 599 –, compared to similar models, the F12berlinetta uses shortened gear ratios to match the power of the engine. The F12berlinetta is built around a space frame chassis co-developed with Scaglietti. The chassis is made up of 12 different aluminium alloys and improves structural rigidity by 20% over the 599, the centre of gravity has been lowered by around 25 mm. The F12berlinettas weight distribution is 48% front, 52% rear, the cars stability and traction control and other settings are controlled by the Manettino dial mounted on the steering wheel. The F12berlinetta is fitted with Michelin Pilot Super Sport tyres, with the tyre codes 255/35 ZR20 at the front, the F12berlinetta makes use of aerodynamic techniques based on Ferraris 599XX and Formula One programmes, developed with wind tunnel and CFD testing. A notable feature is the Aero Bridge, an air channel running from the bonnet, through the flanks and along the sides of the vehicle, creating an effect that increases downforce.
Another feature is Active Brake Cooling ducts, which open to cooling air only when the brakes are hot. The F12berlinetta produces 123 kg of downforce at 200 km/h – an increase of 76% over the 599 GTB – and has a coefficient of 0.299. Ferrari F12berlinetta has a power to weight ratio of 2.06 kg per horsepower, the body of the F12berlinetta is designed by the Ferrari Styling Centre and Pininfarina, and shares some styling elements with other recent Ferrari models. This includes a front grille similar to the FF and headlights shared with the FF and 458 Italia, the interior, based on the FF, features new Frau leather upholstery with aluminium and carbon fibre trim, and has increased luggage space compared to the 599. The body computer system is developed by Magneti Marelli Automotive Lighting, Ferrari revealed a lightweight, track-focused version of the F12berlinetta in October 2015
An engine or motor is a machine designed to convert one form of energy into mechanical energy. Heat engines burn a fuel to heat, which is used to create a force. Electric motors convert electrical energy into motion, pneumatic motors use compressed air. In biological systems, molecular motors, like myosins in muscles, use energy to create forces. The word engine derives from Old French engin, from the Latin ingenium–the root of the word ingenious. Pre-industrial weapons of war, such as catapults and battering rams, were called siege engines, the word gin, as in cotton gin, is short for engine. Most mechanical devices invented during the revolution were described as engines—the steam engine being a notable example. However, the steam engines, such as those by Thomas Savery, were not mechanical engines. In this manner, an engine in its original form was merely a water pump. Devices converting heat energy into motion are commonly referred to simply as engines, examples of engines which exert a torque include the familiar automobile gasoline and diesel engines, as well as turboshafts.
Examples of engines which produce thrust include turbofans and rockets, the term motor derives from the Latin verb moto which means to set in motion, or maintain motion. Thus a motor is a device that imparts motion and engine came to be used largely interchangeably in casual discourse. However, the two words have different meanings, rocketry uses the term rocket motor, even though they consume fuel. A heat engine may serve as a prime mover—a component that transforms the flow or changes in pressure of a fluid into mechanical energy. An automobile powered by a combustion engine may make use of various motors and pumps. Another way of looking at it is that a motor receives power from an external source, simple machines, such as the club and oar, are prehistoric. More complex engines using human power, animal power, water power, wind power and these were used in cranes and aboard ships in Ancient Greece, as well as in mines, water pumps and siege engines in Ancient Rome. The writers of those times, including Vitruvius and Pliny the Elder, treat these engines as commonplace, by the 1st century AD, cattle and horses were used in mills, driving machines similar to those powered by humans in earlier times
Ferrari America is a series of top-end Ferrari models built in the 1950s and 1960s. They were large grand touring cars with the largest V12 engines, all America models used a live axle in the rear, were front-engined, and had worm and sector steering. Two of the series, the 400 and the 410, were called Superamerica, the final member of the America production family was called the 500 Superfast. The series includes the 365 California, the first America cars were the 340, produced between 1950 and 1952. Using the new Lampredi V12 developed for Formula One racing, the 340 America could produce over 200 PS, only 23 copies were built,11 by Vignale, eight by Touring, and four by Ghia. Giovanni Michelotti designed Coupé and 2+2 Coupé for Ghia and Coupé, the 340 America was replaced by its larger-engined brother, the 375 America. Only 6 made, Vignale Cabriolet,2 Pinin Farina Cabriolets and 3 Pinin Farina Coupes, using same Lampredi-designed engine as in 340 America with different carburettor air filter arrangement.
Both 340/342 Americas used even chassis numbering of a race cars, while 375 America, black Pinin Farina Cabriolet was owned by King Leopold III of Belgium. Another Pinin Farina and Vignale bodied Americas, the 375 used the new 4.5 L Lampredi engine with up to 300 PS, the 375 were expensive and exclusive—only about 11 were built from late 1953 through 1954. Three Vignale Coupés were designed by Giovanni Michelotti, Ferrari produced another line of America cars, beginning with the 1955410 Superamerica. The engine was now up to 5.0 L with 340 PS available, a 1957 Superamerica III had triple Weber carburetors for even more power. Each 410 Superamerica had custom bodywork, with a few by Boano and Ghia but most by Ferrari stalwart, just 35 were built when the series ended in 1959. While most 3rd series PF coupés had 3 louvres behind side-windows, series III cars were introduced in 1958. Also known as Superfast I, made on 410 Superamerica chassis with 24-plug racing engine, prominent tailfins and it was unveiled at the 1956 Paris Auto Show.
Wheelbase was shorter at 2,600 mm, the 400 Superamerica had a smaller 4.0 L Colombo engine, but produced as much power as its predecessor. It debuted in 1959 as 410 production ended, and was available as a coupe, four-wheel disc brakes were a new addition. 47 Ferrari 400s had been built, along 2 series, when the 400 stepped aside in 1964, series I coupés aerodinamico had open hood air scoop while series II cars had covered scoop and slightly longer wheelbase. Special one-off version of 400 Superamerica built in 1959 for Gianni Agnelli and this car was the very first of 400 Superamericas
A light-emitting diode is a two-lead semiconductor light source. It is a p–n junction diode, which emits light when activated, when a suitable voltage is applied to the leads, electrons are able to recombine with electron holes within the device, releasing energy in the form of photons. This effect is called electroluminescence, and the color of the light is determined by the band gap of the semiconductor. LEDs are typically small and integrated optical components may be used to shape the radiation pattern, appearing as practical electronic components in 1962, the earliest LEDs emitted low-intensity infrared light. Infrared LEDs are still used as transmitting elements in remote-control circuits. The first visible-light LEDs were of low intensity and limited to red, modern LEDs are available across the visible and infrared wavelengths, with very high brightness. Early LEDs were often used as indicator lamps for electronic devices and they were soon packaged into numeric readouts in the form of seven-segment displays and were commonly seen in digital clocks.
Recent developments in LEDs permit them to be used in environmental, LEDs have allowed new displays and sensors to be developed, while their high switching rates are used in advanced communications technology. LEDs have many advantages over incandescent light sources including lower energy consumption, longer lifetime, improved physical robustness, smaller size, and faster switching. Light-emitting diodes are now used in applications as diverse as aviation lighting, automotive headlamps, general lighting, traffic signals, camera flashes, as of 2017, LED lights home room lighting are as cheap or cheaper than compact fluorescent lamp sources of comparable output. They are more energy efficient and, have fewer environmental concerns linked to their disposal. Electroluminescence as a phenomenon was discovered in 1907 by the British experimenter H. J. Round of Marconi Labs, using a crystal of silicon carbide, russian inventor Oleg Losev reported creation of the first LED in 1927. His research was distributed in Soviet and British scientific journals, rubin Braunstein of the Radio Corporation of America reported on infrared emission from gallium arsenide and other semiconductor alloys in 1955.
Braunstein observed infrared emission generated by simple diode structures using gallium antimonide, GaAs, indium phosphide, in 1957, Braunstein further demonstrated that the rudimentary devices could be used for non-radio communication across a short distance. As noted by Kroemer Braunstein …had set up a simple optical communications link, the emitted light was detected by a PbS diode some distance away. This signal was fed into an amplifier and played back by a loudspeaker. Intercepting the beam stopped the music and we had a great deal of fun playing with this setup. This setup presaged the use of LEDs for optical communication applications, by October 1961, they had demonstrated efficient light emission and signal coupling between a GaAs p-n junction light emitter and an electrically-isolated semiconductor photodetector
A grand tourer is a performance and luxury automobile capable of high speed and long-distance driving. The most common format is a two-door coupé with either a two-seat or a 2+2 arrangement, the grand touring concept is eurocentric, the definition implies material differences in performance at speed and amenities between elite automobiles and those of ordinary motorists. In post-war United States, the Interstate Highway System and wide availability of powerful Straight-six, European GTs did find success penetrating the American personal luxury car market, notably the Mercedes-Benz SL-Class. Grand touring car design evolved from vintage and pre-World War II fast touring cars, italy developed the first gran turismo cars. The small, light-weight and aerodynamic coupé, named the Berlinetta, independent carrozzeria provided light and flexible fabric coachwork for powerful short-wheelbase fast-touring chassis by manufacturers such as Alfa Romeo. Later, Carrozzeria Touring of Milan would pioneer sophisticated Superleggera aluminium bodywork, the additional comfort of an enclosed cabin was beneficial for the Mille Miglia road-race held in Italys often wintry north.
An improved and supercharged version, the 6C1750 GTC Gran Turismo Compressore, from the basic Fiat 508 Balilla touring chassis came the SIATA and Fiat aerodynamic gran turismo-style Berlinetta Mille Miglias of 1933 and 1935. The first recognised motor race for gran turismo cars was the 1949 Coppa Inter-Europa held at Monza, the Fiat based 1100 cc four-cylinder Cisitaila was no match on the race track for Ferraris new hand-built 2000 cc V12, and Ferrari dominated, taking the first three places. An 1100 cc class was created, but not in time to save Cisitalias business fortunes—the companys bankrupt owner Piero Dusio had already decamped to Argentina. The Maserati A61500 won the 1500 cc class at the 1949 Coppa-Europa and it was driven by Franco Bordoni, former fighter ace of the Regia Aeronautica who had debuted as a pilota da corsa at the 1949 Mille Miglia. The body of the A61500 was an elegant two-door fast-back coupe body, the first car constructed in Ferraris name, the V12125 S, a racing sports car, debuted in 1947 at the Piacenza racing circuit.
The Ferrari 166 Inter S coupé model won the 1949 Coppa Inter-Europa, regulations stipulated body form and dimensions but did not at this time specify a minimum production quantity. The car was driven by Bruno Sterzi, and is recognized as the first Ferrari gran turismo, Ferraris response for the new Gran Tursimo championship was the road/race Ferrari 212. All versions came with the standard Ferrari five-speed non-synchromesh gearbox and hydraulic drum brakes, all 1951 Ferraris shared a double tube frame chassis design evolved from the 166. Double-wishbone front suspension with leaf spring, and live rear axle with semi-elliptic leaf springs. Even more impressive than the new Ferrari in 1951 was the debut of Lancias Aurelia B20 GT. Lancia had begun production in 1950 of their technically advanced Aurelia sedan, at the 1951 Turin Motor Show, the Pinin Farina-bodied Gran Tursimo B20 Coupé version was unveiled to an enthusiastic motoring public. In the B20 are elements of the Cistalia of 1947, coupés which Pinin undertook on a 6C Alfa Romeo and Maserati in 1948, in addition the B20 had a shorter wheelbase and a higher rear axle ratio, making it a 100 mph car
By using split crankpins or ignoring minor vibrations, any V angle is possible. The 180° configuration is referred to as a flat-twelve engine or a boxer although it is in reality a 180° V since the pistons can. This is not important in a car if all-out performance is the only goal. Since cost and fuel economy are usually important even in luxury and racing cars and it is often used in marine engines where great power is required, and the hull width is limited, but a longer vessel allows faster hull speed. In twin-propeller boats, two V12 engines can be enough to sit side-by-side, while three V12 engines are sometimes used in high-speed three-propeller configurations. Large, fast cruise ships can have six or more V12 engines, after World War II, the compact, more powerful, and vibration-free turboprop and turbojet engines replaced the V12 in aircraft applications. The first V-type engine was built in 1889 by Daimler, to a design by Wilhelm Maybach, by 1903 V8 engines were being produced for motor boat racing by the Société Antoinette to designs by Léon Levavasseur, building on experience gained with in-line four-cylinder engines.
In 1904, the Putney Motor Works completed a new V12 marine racing engine—the first V12 engine produced for any purpose, a single camshaft mounted in the central V operated the valves directly. As in many engines, the camshaft could be slid longitudinally to engage a second set of cams. Starting is by pumping a charge into each cylinder and switching on the trembler coils, a sliding camshaft gave direct reversing. The camshaft has fluted webs and main bearings in graduated thickness from the largest at the flywheel end, displacing 1,120 cu in, the engine weighed 950 pounds and developed 150 bhp. Little is known of the achievements in the 40-foot hull for which it was intended. One V12 Dörwald marine engine was still running in a Hong Kong junk in the late-1960s. Two more V12s appeared in the 1909-1910 motor boat racing season, the Lamb Boat & Engine Company of Clinton, Iowa built a 1,559 cu in engine for the companys 32-foot Lamb IV. It weighed in at 2,114 pounds, no weight is known for the massive 3,464 cu in F-head engine built by the Orleans Motor Company.
Output is quoted as nearly 400 bhp, by 1914, when Panhard built two 2,356 cu in engines with four-valve cylinder heads the V12 was well established in motor boat racing. In October 1913, Louis Coatalen, chief engineer of the Sunbeam Motor Car Company entered a V12 powered car in the Brooklands short, the engine displaced 9 L, with bore and stroke of 80 x 150 mm. An aluminum crankcase carried two blocks of three cylinders each along each side, with a 60 degree included angle, the cylinders were of iron, with integral cylinder heads with L-shaped combustion chambers