Ghia initially made lightweight aluminum-bodied cars, achieving fame with the Alfa Romeo 6C1500, winning Mille Miglia. Between the world wars, Ghia designed special bodies for Alfa Romeo, the factory was rebuilt at Via Tomassi Grossi, after being demolished in an air raid during World War II. After Ghias death, the company was sold to Mario Boano, the Ghia-Aigle subsidiary was established in Aigle, Switzerland. Following differences between Boano and the companys Naples-born chief engineer and designer Luigi Segre, Boano left the company in 1953, the decade between 1953 and 1963 saw many foreign firms ordering Ghia designs, such as Ford and Volvo. Chrysler and its designer Virgil Exner became a partner for 15 years, resulting in eighteen Chrysler Ghia Specials, the K-310, the Chrysler Norseman, the Imperial Crown limousines. There are even a few Ghia-bodied Ferraris, Ghia participated in the short-lived Dual-Ghia venture. Production by Ghia was always in low numbers, giving the companys products even greater exclusivity than those of the other Italian coachbuilders.
In 1953, Boano left for Fiat, the moved to via Agostino da Montefeltro. Ghia brought in Pietro Frua, appointing Frua as head of Ghia Design, after Segres death, Ghia was sold to Ramfis Trujillo, who sold to Alejandro de Tomaso, owner of a rival design house, who took over, but had difficulty in running Ghia profitably. In 1970, he sold his shares to the Ford Motor Company, during this transition period, Ghia had partial involvement in the De Tomaso Pantera, a high-performance, mid-engine car utilizing a Ford V8. After the Dual-Ghia project had ended, the more up-to-date Ghia L6.4 appeared in 1961, fewer Mopar parts were used, but the cars bespoke nature meant an astronomically high price and when production ended in 1963 only 25 cars had been built. The cars 6,277 cc Chrysler V8 has 340 hp SAE, both the front and the rear seats consist of separate buckets. From 1973, the Ghia name became Fords top trim-level in its model range. The trend began in the US and Europe, but soon spread worldwide, in the British market, the practice of using the Ghia name in such a capacity was finally phased out in 2010.
The Titanium name has instead replaced Ghia as the trim level. The British Ford Fiesta retained the Ghia trim designation for the longest period of any model –31 years 8 months, over in the rest of Europe, the Ghia trim was discontinued as well. As of 2012, the Ghia studios produce many various concept cars under the Ford banner, however, it will forever be linked with Fords top-line models. Ghia L6.4 Ghia 1500 GT Ghia 450 Giacinto Ghia Mario Boano Luigi Segre Sergio Sartorelli Giovanni Savonuzzi Giorgetto Giugiaro Tom Tjaarda Pietro Frua An enthusiast site on Ghia history
By using split crankpins or ignoring minor vibrations, any V angle is possible. The 180° configuration is referred to as a flat-twelve engine or a boxer although it is in reality a 180° V since the pistons can. This is not important in a car if all-out performance is the only goal. Since cost and fuel economy are usually important even in luxury and racing cars and it is often used in marine engines where great power is required, and the hull width is limited, but a longer vessel allows faster hull speed. In twin-propeller boats, two V12 engines can be enough to sit side-by-side, while three V12 engines are sometimes used in high-speed three-propeller configurations. Large, fast cruise ships can have six or more V12 engines, after World War II, the compact, more powerful, and vibration-free turboprop and turbojet engines replaced the V12 in aircraft applications. The first V-type engine was built in 1889 by Daimler, to a design by Wilhelm Maybach, by 1903 V8 engines were being produced for motor boat racing by the Société Antoinette to designs by Léon Levavasseur, building on experience gained with in-line four-cylinder engines.
In 1904, the Putney Motor Works completed a new V12 marine racing engine—the first V12 engine produced for any purpose, a single camshaft mounted in the central V operated the valves directly. As in many engines, the camshaft could be slid longitudinally to engage a second set of cams. Starting is by pumping a charge into each cylinder and switching on the trembler coils, a sliding camshaft gave direct reversing. The camshaft has fluted webs and main bearings in graduated thickness from the largest at the flywheel end, displacing 1,120 cu in, the engine weighed 950 pounds and developed 150 bhp. Little is known of the achievements in the 40-foot hull for which it was intended. One V12 Dörwald marine engine was still running in a Hong Kong junk in the late-1960s. Two more V12s appeared in the 1909-1910 motor boat racing season, the Lamb Boat & Engine Company of Clinton, Iowa built a 1,559 cu in engine for the companys 32-foot Lamb IV. It weighed in at 2,114 pounds, no weight is known for the massive 3,464 cu in F-head engine built by the Orleans Motor Company.
Output is quoted as nearly 400 bhp, by 1914, when Panhard built two 2,356 cu in engines with four-valve cylinder heads the V12 was well established in motor boat racing. In October 1913, Louis Coatalen, chief engineer of the Sunbeam Motor Car Company entered a V12 powered car in the Brooklands short, the engine displaced 9 L, with bore and stroke of 80 x 150 mm. An aluminum crankcase carried two blocks of three cylinders each along each side, with a 60 degree included angle, the cylinders were of iron, with integral cylinder heads with L-shaped combustion chambers
A manual transmission, known as a manual gearbox, stick shift, n-speed manual, standard, MT, or in colloquial U. S. English, a stick, is a type of transmission used in motor vehicle applications. The number of gear ratios is often expressed for automatic transmissions as well. Manual transmissions often feature a clutch and a movable gear stick. This type of transmission is called a sequential manual transmission. In a manual transmission, the flywheel is attached to the engines crankshaft, the clutch disk is in between the pressure plate and the flywheel, and is held against the flywheel under pressure from the pressure plate. When the engine is running and the clutch is engaged, the flywheel spins the clutch plate, as the clutch pedal is depressed, the throw out bearing is activated, which causes the pressure plate to stop applying pressure to the clutch disk. This makes the clutch plate stop receiving power from the engine, when the clutch pedal is released, the throw out bearing is deactivated, and the clutch disk is again held against the flywheel, allowing it to start receiving power from the engine.
Manual transmissions are characterized by gear ratios that are selectable by locking selected gear pairs to the shaft inside the transmission. Conversely, most automatic transmissions feature epicyclic gearing controlled by brake bands and/or clutch packs to select gear ratio, automatic transmissions that allow the driver to manually select the current gear are called manumatics. A manual-style transmission operated by computer is called an automated transmission rather than an automatic. Operating aforementioned transmissions often use the pattern of shifter movement with a single or multiple switches to engage the next sequence of gear selection. The earliest form of a transmission is thought to have been invented by Louis-René Panhard. This type of transmission offered multiple gear ratios and, in most cases and these transmissions are called sliding mesh transmissions or sometimes crash boxes, because of the difficulty in changing gears and the loud grinding sound that often accompanied.
Newer manual transmissions on cars have all gears mesh at all times and are referred to as constant-mesh transmissions, in both types, a particular gear combination can only be engaged when the two parts to engage are at the same speed. To shift to a gear, the transmission is put in neutral. The vehicle slows while in neutral and that slows other transmission parts, so the time in neutral depends on the grade, for both upshifts and downshifts, the clutch is released while in neutral. Some drivers use the only for starting from a stop. Even though automobile and light truck transmissions are now almost universally synchronized, transmissions for trucks and machinery, motorcycles
An engine or motor is a machine designed to convert one form of energy into mechanical energy. Heat engines burn a fuel to heat, which is used to create a force. Electric motors convert electrical energy into motion, pneumatic motors use compressed air. In biological systems, molecular motors, like myosins in muscles, use energy to create forces. The word engine derives from Old French engin, from the Latin ingenium–the root of the word ingenious. Pre-industrial weapons of war, such as catapults and battering rams, were called siege engines, the word gin, as in cotton gin, is short for engine. Most mechanical devices invented during the revolution were described as engines—the steam engine being a notable example. However, the steam engines, such as those by Thomas Savery, were not mechanical engines. In this manner, an engine in its original form was merely a water pump. Devices converting heat energy into motion are commonly referred to simply as engines, examples of engines which exert a torque include the familiar automobile gasoline and diesel engines, as well as turboshafts.
Examples of engines which produce thrust include turbofans and rockets, the term motor derives from the Latin verb moto which means to set in motion, or maintain motion. Thus a motor is a device that imparts motion and engine came to be used largely interchangeably in casual discourse. However, the two words have different meanings, rocketry uses the term rocket motor, even though they consume fuel. A heat engine may serve as a prime mover—a component that transforms the flow or changes in pressure of a fluid into mechanical energy. An automobile powered by a combustion engine may make use of various motors and pumps. Another way of looking at it is that a motor receives power from an external source, simple machines, such as the club and oar, are prehistoric. More complex engines using human power, animal power, water power, wind power and these were used in cranes and aboard ships in Ancient Greece, as well as in mines, water pumps and siege engines in Ancient Rome. The writers of those times, including Vitruvius and Pliny the Elder, treat these engines as commonplace, by the 1st century AD, cattle and horses were used in mills, driving machines similar to those powered by humans in earlier times
Pininfarina S. p. A. is an Italian car design firm and coachbuilder in Cambiano, Italy. It was founded by Battista Pinin Farina in 1930. On December 14,2015, Mahindra Group, Pininfarina is employed by a wide variety of automobile manufactures to design vehicles. Since the 1980s Pininfarina has designed high-speed trains, trams, rolling stocks, automated light rail cars, people movers, airplanes, with the 1986 creation of Pininfarina Extra they have consulted on industrial design, interior design and graphic design. Pininfarina was run by Battistas son Sergio Pininfarina until 2001, his grandson Andrea Pininfarina until his death in 2008, after Andreas death his younger brother Paolo Pininfarina was appointed as CEO. At its height in 2006 the Pininfarina Group employed 2,768 with subsidiary company offices throughout Europe, as well as in Morocco, as of 2012 with the end of series automotive production, employment has shrunk to 821. Pininfarina is registered and publicly traded on the Borsa Italiana, on December 14,2015, Mahindra Group, announced a deal to acquire Pininfarina S. p. A. in a deal worth about 168 million euros.
That first year the firm employed eighteen and built 50 automobile bodies, on May 22,1930 papers were filed to become a corporation, Società anonima Carrozzeria Pinin Farina headquartered in Turin, Italy, at 107 Corso Trapani. During the 1930s, the company built bodies for Lancia, Alfa Romeo, Isotta-Fraschini, Hispano Suiza, Fiat and this development happened in the mid-1930s when others saw the frameless construction as the end of the independent coachbilder. In 1939, World War II ended automobile production, but the company had 400 employees building 150 bodies a month, the war effort against the Allies brought work making ambulances and searchlight carriages. The Pininfarina factory was destroyed by Allied bombers ending the firms operations, after the war, Italy was banned from the 1946 Paris Motor Show. The Paris show was attended by 809,000 visitors, lines of people stretched from the gate all the way to the Seine. The managers of the Grand Palais said of the display, the devil Pininfarina, but to the press, at the end of 1945 the Cisitalia 202 Coupé was designed.
An elegantly proportioned design with a low hood, it is the car that usually is given credit for establishing Pininfarinas reputation, the Pininfarina design was honored in the Museum of Modern Arts landmark presentation Eight Automobiles in 1951. A total of 170 Coupés where produced by Pininfarina, the publicity of the Museum of Modern Art exhibit brought Pininfarina to the attention of Nash-Kelvinator managers. The subsequent cooperation with Nash Motors resulted in production of Pininfarina designs. In 1952, Mr. Farina visited the U. S, the Nash-Healey sports car body was, completely designed and assembled in limited numbers from 1952 to 1954 at Pininfarinas Turin facilities. Nash heavily advertised its link to the famous Italian designer, much as Studebaker promoted its longtime association with Raymond Loewy, there were 99 Broughams built in 1959 and 101 in 1960. A similar arrangement was repeated in the late 1980s when Pininfarina designed the Cadillac Allanté at the San Giusto Canavese factory, the car bodies were assembled and painted in Italy before being flown from the Turin International Airport to Detroit for final vehicle assembly
A grand tourer is a performance and luxury automobile capable of high speed and long-distance driving. The most common format is a two-door coupé with either a two-seat or a 2+2 arrangement, the grand touring concept is eurocentric, the definition implies material differences in performance at speed and amenities between elite automobiles and those of ordinary motorists. In post-war United States, the Interstate Highway System and wide availability of powerful Straight-six, European GTs did find success penetrating the American personal luxury car market, notably the Mercedes-Benz SL-Class. Grand touring car design evolved from vintage and pre-World War II fast touring cars, italy developed the first gran turismo cars. The small, light-weight and aerodynamic coupé, named the Berlinetta, independent carrozzeria provided light and flexible fabric coachwork for powerful short-wheelbase fast-touring chassis by manufacturers such as Alfa Romeo. Later, Carrozzeria Touring of Milan would pioneer sophisticated Superleggera aluminium bodywork, the additional comfort of an enclosed cabin was beneficial for the Mille Miglia road-race held in Italys often wintry north.
An improved and supercharged version, the 6C1750 GTC Gran Turismo Compressore, from the basic Fiat 508 Balilla touring chassis came the SIATA and Fiat aerodynamic gran turismo-style Berlinetta Mille Miglias of 1933 and 1935. The first recognised motor race for gran turismo cars was the 1949 Coppa Inter-Europa held at Monza, the Fiat based 1100 cc four-cylinder Cisitaila was no match on the race track for Ferraris new hand-built 2000 cc V12, and Ferrari dominated, taking the first three places. An 1100 cc class was created, but not in time to save Cisitalias business fortunes—the companys bankrupt owner Piero Dusio had already decamped to Argentina. The Maserati A61500 won the 1500 cc class at the 1949 Coppa-Europa and it was driven by Franco Bordoni, former fighter ace of the Regia Aeronautica who had debuted as a pilota da corsa at the 1949 Mille Miglia. The body of the A61500 was an elegant two-door fast-back coupe body, the first car constructed in Ferraris name, the V12125 S, a racing sports car, debuted in 1947 at the Piacenza racing circuit.
The Ferrari 166 Inter S coupé model won the 1949 Coppa Inter-Europa, regulations stipulated body form and dimensions but did not at this time specify a minimum production quantity. The car was driven by Bruno Sterzi, and is recognized as the first Ferrari gran turismo, Ferraris response for the new Gran Tursimo championship was the road/race Ferrari 212. All versions came with the standard Ferrari five-speed non-synchromesh gearbox and hydraulic drum brakes, all 1951 Ferraris shared a double tube frame chassis design evolved from the 166. Double-wishbone front suspension with leaf spring, and live rear axle with semi-elliptic leaf springs. Even more impressive than the new Ferrari in 1951 was the debut of Lancias Aurelia B20 GT. Lancia had begun production in 1950 of their technically advanced Aurelia sedan, at the 1951 Turin Motor Show, the Pinin Farina-bodied Gran Tursimo B20 Coupé version was unveiled to an enthusiastic motoring public. In the B20 are elements of the Cistalia of 1947, coupés which Pinin undertook on a 6C Alfa Romeo and Maserati in 1948, in addition the B20 had a shorter wheelbase and a higher rear axle ratio, making it a 100 mph car
Ferrari Lampredi engine
Aurelio Lampredi designed a number of racing engines for Ferrari. He was brought on to hedge the companys bets with a different engine family than the small V12s designed by Gioacchino Colombo. Lampredi went on to design a number of different Inline-4, Inline-6, and V12 engines through the 1950s, and it was these that would power the companys string of world championships that decade. All were quickly abandoned, with the Dino V6 and V8 taking the place of the fours and sixes, enzo Ferrari and Lampredi were interested in creating extremely reliable engines for racing use. In 1955, after seeing the success of Lampredis Inline-4 engines, Lampredi built a prototype with 4 valves per cylinder and 2.5 L of displacement. It produced 175 hp on the test bench, but broke the crankshaft due to poor balance, the project was shortly abandoned in favor of more-conventional I4 engines. Lampredi designed an Inline-4 engine for Formula Two use and this was adopted for Formula One and sports car racing cars through the 1950s.
The original 2.0 L engine of 1951 would prove to be the longest-lived, the initial engine was a 2.0 L unit with a 90 mm bore and 78 mm stroke. This engine was the first Ferrari four-cylinder, appearing in 1951 in the Ferrari 500 F2 entrant in Formula Two, the aluminium engine produced 165 hp with two Weber 45DOE carburettors, with power growing in 1953 to 185 hp with two 50DCOA carbs. It was a marvel for the time with dual overhead camshafts pushing 2 valves per cylinder. An entirely different 500 four-cylinder appeared in 1953 in the 553 F2 car and this time, bore was 93 mm and stroke was 73.5 mm for a total of 1997 cc. Two Weber 52DCOA3 carbs produced 190 hp, the original 1951 Formula Two engine was resurrected for the World Sportscar Championship in 1953 and the 500 Mondial. With lower compression and two Weber 45DCOA3 carbs, it produced 170 hp, the same engine, now at 190 hp, was used in the famous 500 TR. The red head cylinder head lent its name to the car, another TR with this engine, the 1956/1957500 TRC, was produced for customers to race.
The engine was bored and stroked to 100 mm by 79.5 mm for a total of 2498 cc of displacement, the F1 car, with 13.1,1 compression and two Weber 50DCOA3 carbs, pumped 260 hp from this powerplant. The oversquare 200 F2 engine reappeared again in the 1955555 F1 and this car would quickly evolve into the 1954625 F1, though with a much-changed engine. This time,94 mm by 90 mm dimensions were selected, the first application of Lampredis four-cylinder engine outside Formula One and Formula Two was this same 2.5 L unit in the 1953625 TF. The aluminium engine produced 220 hp with 2 Weber 50DCOA3 carburettors and this version was used in the 1953625 TF
Governments and private organizations have developed car classification schemes that are used for innumerable purposes including regulation and categorization, among others. This article details commonly used classification schemes in use worldwide, vehicles can be categorized in numerous ways. Regulatory agencies may establish a vehicle classification system for determining a tax amount, in the United Kingdom, a vehicle is taxed according to the vehicles construction, weight, type of fuel and emissions, as well as the purpose for which it is used. Other jurisdictions may determine vehicle tax based upon environmental principles, such as the user pays principle, another standard for road vehicles of all types that is used internationally, is ISO 3833-1977. In the United States, since 2010 the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety uses a scheme it has developed that takes into account a combination of both shadow and weight. The United States Federal Highway Administration has developed a scheme used for automatically calculating road use tolls.
There are two categories depending on whether the vehicle carries passengers or commodities. Vehicles that carry commodities are further subdivided by number of axles and number of units, the United States Environmental Protection Agency has developed a classification scheme used to compare fuel economy among similar vehicles. Passenger vehicles are classified based on a total interior passenger. Trucks are classified based upon their gross vehicle weight rating, heavy duty vehicles are not included within the EPA scheme. A similar set of classes is used by the Canadian EPA, in Australia, the Federal Chamber of Automotive Industries publishes its own classifications. This is a table listing several different methods of vehicle classification. Straddling the boundary between car and motorbike, these vehicles have engines under 1.0 litre, typically only two passengers, and are sometimes unorthodox in construction. Some microcars are three-wheelers, while the majority have four wheels, microcars were popular in post-war Europe, where their appearance led them to be called Bubble cars.
More recent microcars are often electric powered, the size of ultracompact cars will be less than minicars, but have engine greater than 50cc displacement and able to transport 1 or 2 persons. Ultracompact cars cannot use standard, because of strict safety standards for minicars. The regulation about running capacity and safety performance of cars will be published in early autumn. Today, there are smaller than ultracompact cars, called category-1 motorized vehicles which it has 50cc displacement or less
Giovanni Michelotti was one of the most prolific designers of sports cars in the 20th century. His notable contributions were for Ferrari, Lancia and Triumph marques and he was associated with truck designs for Leyland Motors, and with designs for British Leyland after the merger of Leyland and BMC. Born in Turin, Michelotti worked for coachbuilders, including Stabilimenti Farina and Carrozzeria Allemano and he created a number of prototypes which did not go into production, such as the Fury. The only Triumphs after 1960 that were not his work were the TR6 and he designed the Leyland National bus and the Australian-made Leyland P76. In the 1960s, Michelotti designed a glass-reinforced plastic cab for certain lorries made by Scammell, the cab was used for the Routeman and Trunker models. Giovanni Michelottis BMW association started with the BMW700 and the successful BMW New Class series of designs of which the most notable is the BMW2002. His sport sedan designs became the BMW design language, that was continued and refined by Ercole Spada well into the 1980s, Michelotti worked with the Dutch firm DAF, starting in 1963 with redesigning the ageing Daffodil 31 model into the Daffodil 32.
The Shellette beach car was originally developed to use DAF underpinnings. The DAF44 was a new design from his hand and he helped form its derivatives. Michelotti did present a few cars under its own name, the Shellette was a beach car with wicker seats and dashboard, in the spirit of Ghias Fiat 500 and 600 Jollys, but designed in a collaboration with yacht designer Philip Schell. Originally constructed with DAF underpinnings, it was built with Fiat 850 mechanicals. Unlike the Ghia Jolly, the 47 PS Shellette was a reasonably useful car capable of a 60 mph cruising speed and had a heater, only about 80 were built, with around ten still extant. Around 1980, the Fiat 127-based Every appeared, a light buggy-styled vehicle, Michelotti marketed a luxurious version of the Daihatsu Taft. In 1985 the Michelotti PAC was presented, a one-off citycar prototype based on the Daihatsu Cuore, reliant Scimitar SS1 which was his last design to reach production, four years after his death. Registry for Fiat Shellette and Fiat Jolly MicroCars Lancia Aurelia B52 Vignale designed by Giovanni Michelotti
A beam axle, rigid axle or solid axle is a dependent suspension design, in which a set of wheels is connected laterally by a single beam or shaft. Beam axles were commonly used at the rear wheels of a vehicle. In most automobiles, beam axles have been replaced by front, with a beam axle the camber angle between the wheels is the same no matter where it is in the travel of the suspension. A beam axles fore and aft location is constrained by either, trailing arms, semi-trailing arms, radius rods, the lateral location is constrained by either, a Panhard rod, a Scott Russell linkage or a Watts linkage. While shock absorbers and either leaf springs, coil springs, or air bags are used to control vertical movement. A live axle is a type of beam axle in which the shaft transmits power to the wheels, while typically used in vehicles with Hotchkiss drive, this suspension system can be used with other types of power transmission. The principal advantage of the axle is its simplicity. This simplicity makes it very space-efficient and relatively cheap to manufacture and they are nearly universally used in buses and heavy-duty trucks.
Most light and medium duty trucks, SUVs, and vans use a beam axle. Beam axles have an important advantage for off-road applications, as they provide better vehicle articulation and this simplicity makes it relatively easy to lift a vehicle. Also the cornering ability is typically worse than other designs because the wheels have zero camber angle gain during body roll. Front beam axle suspension is sensitive to any lack of concentricity in the hub. This is addressed on some vehicles with steering dampers although removal and careful refitting of the front wheels often cures the problem
In both road and rail vehicles, the wheelbase is the distance between the centers of the front and rear wheels. For road vehicles with more than two axles, the wheelbase is defined as the distance between the axle and the centerpoint of the driving axle group. In the case of a truck, the wheelbase would be the distance between the steering axle and a point midway between the two rear axles. The wheelbase of a vehicle equals the distance between its front and rear wheels, at equilibrium, the total torque of the forces acting on a vehicle is zero. So, for example, when a truck is loaded, its center of gravity shifts rearward, the amount the vehicle sinks will depend on counter acting forces like the size of the tires, tire pressure, and the stiffness of the suspension. If the vehicle is accelerating or decelerating, extra torque is placed on the rear or front tire respectively, so, as is common experience, when the vehicle accelerates, the rear usually sinks and the front rises depending on the suspension.
Likewise, when braking the front noses down and the rear rises, because of the effect the wheelbase has on the weight distribution of the vehicle, wheelbase dimensions are crucial to the balance and steering. For example, a car with a greater weight load on the rear tends to understeer due to the lack of the load on the front tires. This is why it is crucial, when towing a single-axle caravan, likewise, a car may oversteer or even spin out if there is too much force on the front tires and not enough on the rear tires. Also, when turning there is lateral torque placed upon the tires which imparts a turning force that depends upon the length of the distances from the CM. Wheelbases provide the basis for one of the most common vehicle size class systems, some luxury vehicles are offered with long-wheelbase variants to increase the spaciousness and therefore the luxury of the vehicle. Prime Minister of the United Kingdom Tony Blair was given a version of the Rover 75 for official use. In contrast, coupé varieties of vehicles such as the Honda Accord are usually built on shorter wheelbases than the sedans they are derived from.
The wheelbase on many commercially available bicycles and motorcycles is so short, relative to the height of their centers of mass, in skateboarding the word wheelbase is used for the distance between the two inner pairs of mounting holes on the deck. This is different from the distance between the centers of the two wheel pairs. A reason for this use is that decks are sold with prefabricated holes. It is therefore easier to use the holes for measuring and describing this characteristic of the deck. A common misconception is that the choice of wheelbase is influenced by the height of the skateboarder, the length of the deck would be a better candidate, because the wheelbase affects characteristics useful in different speeds or terrains regardless of the height of the skateboarder
Ferrari 375 MM
See Ferrari 375 F1 for the 375 used in Formula 1 racing Ferrari 375 MM, was a race car produced by Ferrari in 1953 and 1954. It was named 375 for the displacement in the 4. 5L V12 engine. The engine was based on its Ferrari 375 F1 counterpart, but with smaller stroke, the first prototype was a Vignale Spyder and 3 next cars were Pinin Farina Berlinettas, all converted from Ferrari 340 MM. Perhaps the most known 375 MM is the Ingrid Bergman version, commissioned in 1954 by director Roberto Rossellini for his wife, the Bergman 375 MM was subsequently bought and restored by the Microsoft executive Jon Shirley and the restoration specialist Butch Dennison. It became the first postwar Ferrari to win Best of Show at the Pebble Beach Concours dElegance