A convertible or cabriolet is an automobile body style that can convert between an open-air mode and an enclosed one, varying in degree and means by model. Convertibles evolved from the phaeton, an open vehicle without glass side windows that sometimes had removable panels of fabric or other material for protection from the elements. Historically, a retractable roof consisted of a frame covered with a folding. A lesser seen detachable hardtop provided a more weatherproof and secure alternative, as technology improved, a retractable hardtop which removes and stows its own rigid roof in its trunk appeared, increasingly becoming the most popular form. A semiconvertible known as a coach has a retractable or removable top which retains fully framed windows on its doors. A landaulet is a convertible with a fully enclosed front cabin. Other common terms include cabriolet, soft top, and drop top, and where the roof is more than emergency weather protection, open two-seater, rag top, spider. The erected top secures to the frame header with manual latches, semimanual latches.
The folded convertible top is called the stack, a tonneau cover provides a solution. A range of materials is available for soft tops, automakers had problems in securing raw materials to fulfill orders after World War II, including canvas in various shades for convertible tops and limiting their manufacture. Polyvinyl chloride material was used for many convertible tops, the material consists of two layers, a top layer made of PVC, which has a specific structure depending on the vehicle model, and a lower layer made of fabric. Side windows were not existent in open cars, which may have detachable side screens, rear windows have evolved similarly, with plastic rear windows appearing as late as the first-generation Porsche Boxster. Plastic windows can degrade, fade and crack over time, a windblocker or wind deflector minimizes noise and rushing air reaching the occupants. Mazda pioneered a version on the RX7 convertible which featured an integral rigid opaque panel that folded up from behind the front seats, current convertibles feature windblockers of various designs including detachable fold-up designs, vertically retractable glass, minimal flaps – or other integrated wind controlling systems.
According to the responsible for the 2008 Chrysler Sebring, its windblocker reduces wind noise by roughly 11 to 12 dB. Mercedes and Audi currently offer a heating duct to the area of the seat on SLK, SL. Windblockers are available on the aftermarket for use on convertibles that do not have them, the Volvo C70 retractable hardtop includes a door-mounted side-impact protection inflatable curtain which inflates upward from the interior belt-line – vs. downward like the typical curtain airbag. The curtain has an extra stiff construction with double rows of slats that are offset from each other
Leopold III of Belgium
Leopold III reigned as King of the Belgians from 1934 until 1951, when he abdicated in favour of the heir apparent, his son Baudouin. From 1944 until 1950, Leopolds brother, served as regent while Leopold was declared unable to rule. In 1950, the debate about whether Leopold could resume his royal functions provoked a crisis known as the Royal Question. Leopold was born in Brussels and succeeded to the throne of Belgium on 23 February 1934 following the death of his father, King Albert I. He was invested as Knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece in Spain in 1923, Grand Cross of the Order of the Tower and Sword in 1927, Prince Leopold, Duke of Brabant, was sent by his father to Eton College in the United Kingdom in 1915. After the war, in 1919, the Duke visited the Old Mission and Saint Anthony Seminary in Santa Barbara and he married Princess Astrid of Sweden in a civil ceremony in Stockholm on 4 November 1926, followed by a religious ceremony in Brussels on 10 November. The marriage produced three children, Joséphine-Charlotte, Princess of Belgium, born at the Royal Palace of Brussels on 11 October 1927 and she was married on 9 April 1953 to Prince Jean, Grand-Duke of Luxembourg.
She died at Fischbach Castle on 10 January 2005, Prince of Liège, Prince of Belgium, who became the sixth King of the Belgians as Albert II, born at Stuyvenberg on 6 June 1934. Leopold married Lilian Baels on 11 September 1941 in a secret, religious ceremony, with no validity under Belgian law. They originally intended to wait until the end of the war for the marriage, but as the new Princesse de Réthy was soon expecting their first child. They had three children in total, Prince of Belgium, born in Brussels on 18 July 1942, in 1991, he married Lea Inga Dora Wohlman, a marriage revealed only seven years later. He died on 29 November 2009, marie-Christine, Princess of Belgium, born in Brussels on 6 February 1951. Her first marriage, to Paul Drucker in 1981, lasted 40 days, marie-Esméralda, Princess of Belgium, born in Brussels on 30 September 1956, a journalist, her professional name is Esmeralda de Réthy. She married Salvador Moncada, a noted pharmacologist, in 1998 and they have a son and a daughter.
When World War II broke out in September 1939, the French and his government refused, maintaining Belgiums neutrality. On 10 May 1940, the Wehrmacht invaded Belgium, after a short running battle that eventually involved the armies of all four belligerents, Belgium was overwhelmed by the numerically superior and better-prepared Germans. Nevertheless, the Belgian perseverance prevented the British Expeditionary Force from being outflanked and cut off from the coast, after his military surrender, Leopold remained in Brussels to surrender to the victorious invaders, while his entire civil government fled to Paris and to London. On 24 May 1940, having assumed command of the Belgian Army, the ministers urged the king to leave the country with the government
Ferrari 375 F1
The first outcome of Lampredis work was the experimental 275 S. Just two of these racing barchettas were built, based on the 166 MM but using the experimental 3. 3-litre V12 and these were raced at the Mille Miglia of 1950 on April 23. Although one car held the lead for a time, both were forced to retire with mechanical failure before the end. The 275 F1 made its debut at the Grand Prix of Belgium on June 18, with three Weber 42DCF carburetors, a single overhead camshaft for each bank of cylinders, and two valves per cylinder, the engine produced a capable 300 hp at 7200 rpm. Alberto Ascari drove the car to place, marking the end of the 3. 3-litre engine. The 275 was replaced at the Grand Prix of Nations at Geneva on July 30,1950 by the 340 F1, as the name suggests, the car sported a larger 4. 1-litre version of Lampredis V12. Other changes included a new de Dion tube rear suspension based on that in the 166 F2 car and it had a longer 2,420 mm wheelbase, but other dimensions remained the same.
With 335 hp, Ascari was able to keep up with the Alfa Romeo 158 of Juan Manuel Fangio, although the 340 proved itself capable, it was only the middle step in Ferraris 1950 car development. Ferrari achieved the 4. 5-litre goal of the formula with the 375 F1 and this 4. 5-litre engine produced roughly the same power as its 4. 1-litre predecessor, but its tractability earned Ascari second place in that debut race. Ascaris wins at the Nürburgring and Monza and strong throughout the season cemented the companys position as a Formula One contender. Changes in the Formula One regulations led the company to shift the big engine to an Indy car, three new Weber 40IF4C carburettors brought power output to 400 hp, the wheelbase was lengthened, and the chassis and suspension were strengthened. Although the car performed well in European testing, it was not able to meet the American challenge, Ascari was the driver who did qualify the car for the race, starting 25th with a qualifying speed of 134.3 mp/h.
The big V12 was scrapped for 1954, as Formula One required a 2. 5-litre engine, the new 553 F1 adopted Lampredis four cylinder engine, leaving the V12 for sports car use. Ferrari, A Complete Guide to All Models
A transmission is a machine in a power transmission system, which provides controlled application of the power. Often the term refers simply to the gearbox that uses gears and gear trains to provide speed. In British English, the term refers to the whole drivetrain, including clutch, prop shaft, differential. In American English, the term more specifically to the gearbox alone. The most common use is in vehicles, where the transmission adapts the output of the internal combustion engine to the drive wheels. Such engines need to operate at a high rotational speed, which is inappropriate for starting, stopping. The transmission reduces the engine speed to the slower wheel speed. Transmissions are used on bicycles, fixed machines. Often, a transmission has multiple gear ratios with the ability to switch between them as speed varies and this switching may be done manually or automatically. Directional control may be provided, single-ratio transmissions exist, which simply change the speed and torque of motor output.
The output of the transmission is transmitted via the driveshaft to one or more differentials, while a differential may provide gear reduction, its primary purpose is to permit the wheels at either end of an axle to rotate at different speeds as it changes the direction of rotation. Conventional gear/belt transmissions are not the mechanism for speed/torque adaptation. Alternative mechanisms include torque converters and power transformation, automatic transmissions use a valve body to shift gears using fluid pressures in conjunction with an ecm. Early transmissions included the right-angle drives and other gearing in windmills, horse-powered devices, and steam engines, in support of pumping, most modern gearboxes are used to increase torque while reducing the speed of a prime mover output shaft. This means that the shaft of a gearbox rotates at a slower rate than the input shaft. A gearbox can be set up to do the opposite and provide an increase in speed with a reduction of torque. Some of the simplest gearboxes merely change the rotational direction of power transmission.
Many typical automobile transmissions include the ability to select one of several gear ratios, in this case, most of the gear ratios are used to slow down the output speed of the engine and increase torque
A grand tourer is a performance and luxury automobile capable of high speed and long-distance driving. The most common format is a two-door coupé with either a two-seat or a 2+2 arrangement, the grand touring concept is eurocentric, the definition implies material differences in performance at speed and amenities between elite automobiles and those of ordinary motorists. In post-war United States, the Interstate Highway System and wide availability of powerful Straight-six, European GTs did find success penetrating the American personal luxury car market, notably the Mercedes-Benz SL-Class. Grand touring car design evolved from vintage and pre-World War II fast touring cars, italy developed the first gran turismo cars. The small, light-weight and aerodynamic coupé, named the Berlinetta, independent carrozzeria provided light and flexible fabric coachwork for powerful short-wheelbase fast-touring chassis by manufacturers such as Alfa Romeo. Later, Carrozzeria Touring of Milan would pioneer sophisticated Superleggera aluminium bodywork, the additional comfort of an enclosed cabin was beneficial for the Mille Miglia road-race held in Italys often wintry north.
An improved and supercharged version, the 6C1750 GTC Gran Turismo Compressore, from the basic Fiat 508 Balilla touring chassis came the SIATA and Fiat aerodynamic gran turismo-style Berlinetta Mille Miglias of 1933 and 1935. The first recognised motor race for gran turismo cars was the 1949 Coppa Inter-Europa held at Monza, the Fiat based 1100 cc four-cylinder Cisitaila was no match on the race track for Ferraris new hand-built 2000 cc V12, and Ferrari dominated, taking the first three places. An 1100 cc class was created, but not in time to save Cisitalias business fortunes—the companys bankrupt owner Piero Dusio had already decamped to Argentina. The Maserati A61500 won the 1500 cc class at the 1949 Coppa-Europa and it was driven by Franco Bordoni, former fighter ace of the Regia Aeronautica who had debuted as a pilota da corsa at the 1949 Mille Miglia. The body of the A61500 was an elegant two-door fast-back coupe body, the first car constructed in Ferraris name, the V12125 S, a racing sports car, debuted in 1947 at the Piacenza racing circuit.
The Ferrari 166 Inter S coupé model won the 1949 Coppa Inter-Europa, regulations stipulated body form and dimensions but did not at this time specify a minimum production quantity. The car was driven by Bruno Sterzi, and is recognized as the first Ferrari gran turismo, Ferraris response for the new Gran Tursimo championship was the road/race Ferrari 212. All versions came with the standard Ferrari five-speed non-synchromesh gearbox and hydraulic drum brakes, all 1951 Ferraris shared a double tube frame chassis design evolved from the 166. Double-wishbone front suspension with leaf spring, and live rear axle with semi-elliptic leaf springs. Even more impressive than the new Ferrari in 1951 was the debut of Lancias Aurelia B20 GT. Lancia had begun production in 1950 of their technically advanced Aurelia sedan, at the 1951 Turin Motor Show, the Pinin Farina-bodied Gran Tursimo B20 Coupé version was unveiled to an enthusiastic motoring public. In the B20 are elements of the Cistalia of 1947, coupés which Pinin undertook on a 6C Alfa Romeo and Maserati in 1948, in addition the B20 had a shorter wheelbase and a higher rear axle ratio, making it a 100 mph car
Battista Pinin Farina was an Italian automobile designer, the founder of the Carrozzeria Pininfarina coachbuilding company, a name associated with many of the best-known postwar sports cars. Battista Farina was born in Cortanze, the tenth of eleven children, his nickname, referred to his being the baby of the family. Pinin started working in his brother Giovannis body shop at the age of 12 and he stayed at Giovannis Stabilimenti Industriali Farina for decades, learning bodywork and beginning to design his own cars. Battista formed Carrozzeria Pinin Farina in 1930 to focus on design and construction of new car bodies, only Carrozzeria Touring was more sought-after in the 1930s. Battistas work for Ferrari, starting in 1952, would become his most famous, though much of it was managed by his son, some time in the early 1950s Stabilimenti Farina was absorbed into the by now much larger Carrozzeria Pininfarina. He was inducted into the Automotive Hall of Fame in 2004, Farina officially changed his name to Battista Pininfarina in 1961.
The change was authorized by President of the Italian Republic, acting on a made by the Minister of Justice. The last design personally attributed to Battista Farina was the 1600 Duetto for Alfa Romeo and this was first seen by the public at the Geneva Motor Show in March 1966. He died less than a later, on 3 April. His nephew, Nino Farina, was the first Formula One world champion, Pininfarina Biography at Companys Official Website European Automotive Hall of Fame Inductee
Governments and private organizations have developed car classification schemes that are used for innumerable purposes including regulation and categorization, among others. This article details commonly used classification schemes in use worldwide, vehicles can be categorized in numerous ways. Regulatory agencies may establish a vehicle classification system for determining a tax amount, in the United Kingdom, a vehicle is taxed according to the vehicles construction, weight, type of fuel and emissions, as well as the purpose for which it is used. Other jurisdictions may determine vehicle tax based upon environmental principles, such as the user pays principle, another standard for road vehicles of all types that is used internationally, is ISO 3833-1977. In the United States, since 2010 the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety uses a scheme it has developed that takes into account a combination of both shadow and weight. The United States Federal Highway Administration has developed a scheme used for automatically calculating road use tolls.
There are two categories depending on whether the vehicle carries passengers or commodities. Vehicles that carry commodities are further subdivided by number of axles and number of units, the United States Environmental Protection Agency has developed a classification scheme used to compare fuel economy among similar vehicles. Passenger vehicles are classified based on a total interior passenger. Trucks are classified based upon their gross vehicle weight rating, heavy duty vehicles are not included within the EPA scheme. A similar set of classes is used by the Canadian EPA, in Australia, the Federal Chamber of Automotive Industries publishes its own classifications. This is a table listing several different methods of vehicle classification. Straddling the boundary between car and motorbike, these vehicles have engines under 1.0 litre, typically only two passengers, and are sometimes unorthodox in construction. Some microcars are three-wheelers, while the majority have four wheels, microcars were popular in post-war Europe, where their appearance led them to be called Bubble cars.
More recent microcars are often electric powered, the size of ultracompact cars will be less than minicars, but have engine greater than 50cc displacement and able to transport 1 or 2 persons. Ultracompact cars cannot use standard, because of strict safety standards for minicars. The regulation about running capacity and safety performance of cars will be published in early autumn. Today, there are smaller than ultracompact cars, called category-1 motorized vehicles which it has 50cc displacement or less
Ferrari 375 MM
See Ferrari 375 F1 for the 375 used in Formula 1 racing Ferrari 375 MM, was a race car produced by Ferrari in 1953 and 1954. It was named 375 for the displacement in the 4. 5L V12 engine. The engine was based on its Ferrari 375 F1 counterpart, but with smaller stroke, the first prototype was a Vignale Spyder and 3 next cars were Pinin Farina Berlinettas, all converted from Ferrari 340 MM. Perhaps the most known 375 MM is the Ingrid Bergman version, commissioned in 1954 by director Roberto Rossellini for his wife, the Bergman 375 MM was subsequently bought and restored by the Microsoft executive Jon Shirley and the restoration specialist Butch Dennison. It became the first postwar Ferrari to win Best of Show at the Pebble Beach Concours dElegance
Ferrari Lampredi engine
Aurelio Lampredi designed a number of racing engines for Ferrari. He was brought on to hedge the companys bets with a different engine family than the small V12s designed by Gioacchino Colombo. Lampredi went on to design a number of different Inline-4, Inline-6, and V12 engines through the 1950s, and it was these that would power the companys string of world championships that decade. All were quickly abandoned, with the Dino V6 and V8 taking the place of the fours and sixes, enzo Ferrari and Lampredi were interested in creating extremely reliable engines for racing use. In 1955, after seeing the success of Lampredis Inline-4 engines, Lampredi built a prototype with 4 valves per cylinder and 2.5 L of displacement. It produced 175 hp on the test bench, but broke the crankshaft due to poor balance, the project was shortly abandoned in favor of more-conventional I4 engines. Lampredi designed an Inline-4 engine for Formula Two use and this was adopted for Formula One and sports car racing cars through the 1950s.
The original 2.0 L engine of 1951 would prove to be the longest-lived, the initial engine was a 2.0 L unit with a 90 mm bore and 78 mm stroke. This engine was the first Ferrari four-cylinder, appearing in 1951 in the Ferrari 500 F2 entrant in Formula Two, the aluminium engine produced 165 hp with two Weber 45DOE carburettors, with power growing in 1953 to 185 hp with two 50DCOA carbs. It was a marvel for the time with dual overhead camshafts pushing 2 valves per cylinder. An entirely different 500 four-cylinder appeared in 1953 in the 553 F2 car and this time, bore was 93 mm and stroke was 73.5 mm for a total of 1997 cc. Two Weber 52DCOA3 carbs produced 190 hp, the original 1951 Formula Two engine was resurrected for the World Sportscar Championship in 1953 and the 500 Mondial. With lower compression and two Weber 45DCOA3 carbs, it produced 170 hp, the same engine, now at 190 hp, was used in the famous 500 TR. The red head cylinder head lent its name to the car, another TR with this engine, the 1956/1957500 TRC, was produced for customers to race.
The engine was bored and stroked to 100 mm by 79.5 mm for a total of 2498 cc of displacement, the F1 car, with 13.1,1 compression and two Weber 50DCOA3 carbs, pumped 260 hp from this powerplant. The oversquare 200 F2 engine reappeared again in the 1955555 F1 and this car would quickly evolve into the 1954625 F1, though with a much-changed engine. This time,94 mm by 90 mm dimensions were selected, the first application of Lampredis four-cylinder engine outside Formula One and Formula Two was this same 2.5 L unit in the 1953625 TF. The aluminium engine produced 220 hp with 2 Weber 50DCOA3 carburettors and this version was used in the 1953625 TF
Front-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout
In automotive design, an FR, or front-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout is one where the engine is located at the front of the vehicle and driven wheels are located at the rear. This was the automobile layout for most of the 20th century. Modern designs commonly use the front-engine, front-wheel-drive layout, the first FR car was an 1895 Panhard model, so this layout was known as the Système Panhard in the early years. The layout has the advantage of minimizing mechanical complexity, as it allows the transmission to be placed in-line with the output shaft. In comparison, a vehicle with the engine over the driven wheels eliminates the need for the drive shaft, in order to reduce the relative weight of the drive shaft, the transmission was normally split into two parts, the gearbox and the final drive. The gearbox was produced with its highest gear being 1,1. The final drive, in the axle, would reduce this to the most appropriate speed for the wheels. As power is the product of torque and angular velocity, spinning the shaft faster for any given power reduces the torque, in an era when gasoline was cheap and cars were heavy, the mechanical advantages of the FR drivetrain layout made up for any disadvantage in weight terms.
It remained almost universal among car designs until the 1970s, after the Arab oil embargo of 1973 and the 1979 fuel crises, a majority of American FR vehicles were phased out for the FF layout – this trend would spawn the SUV-van conversion market. Throughout the 1980s and 1990s, most American companies set as a priority the eventual removal of rear-wheel drive from their mainstream, chrysler went 100% FF by 1990 and GMs American production went entirely FF by 1997 except the Corvette and Camaro. This configuration is referred to as a transaxle since the transmission. In Europe, front-wheel drive was popularized by small cars like the Mini, Renault 5 and Volkswagen Golf, upscale marques like Mercedes-Benz, BMW, and Jaguar remained mostly independent of this trend, and retained a lineup mostly or entirely made up of FR cars. Japanese mainstream marques such as Toyota were almost exclusively FR until the late 1970s, toyotas first FF vehicle was the Toyota Tercel, with the Corolla and Celica becoming FF while the Camry was designed as an FF from the beginning.
The Supra, Cressida and Century remained FR, luxury division Lexus has a mostly FR lineup. Subarus BRZ is an FR car, currently most cars are FF, including all front-engined economy cars, though FR cars are making a return as an alternative to large sport-utility vehicles. In North America, GM returned to production of FR-based luxury vehicles with the 2003 Cadillac CTS, as of 2012, all but the SRX and XTS are FR-based vehicles. Chevrolet reintroduced the FR-based Camaro in 2009, and the Caprice PPV in 2011, Pontiac had a short run with the FR-based G8 and Pontiac Solstice. A Chevrolet replacement for the G8 called the Chevrolet SS was released in 2013, chrysler and Dodge reintroduced the 300 and Charger on a FR platform
A manual transmission, known as a manual gearbox, stick shift, n-speed manual, standard, MT, or in colloquial U. S. English, a stick, is a type of transmission used in motor vehicle applications. The number of gear ratios is often expressed for automatic transmissions as well. Manual transmissions often feature a clutch and a movable gear stick. This type of transmission is called a sequential manual transmission. In a manual transmission, the flywheel is attached to the engines crankshaft, the clutch disk is in between the pressure plate and the flywheel, and is held against the flywheel under pressure from the pressure plate. When the engine is running and the clutch is engaged, the flywheel spins the clutch plate, as the clutch pedal is depressed, the throw out bearing is activated, which causes the pressure plate to stop applying pressure to the clutch disk. This makes the clutch plate stop receiving power from the engine, when the clutch pedal is released, the throw out bearing is deactivated, and the clutch disk is again held against the flywheel, allowing it to start receiving power from the engine.
Manual transmissions are characterized by gear ratios that are selectable by locking selected gear pairs to the shaft inside the transmission. Conversely, most automatic transmissions feature epicyclic gearing controlled by brake bands and/or clutch packs to select gear ratio, automatic transmissions that allow the driver to manually select the current gear are called manumatics. A manual-style transmission operated by computer is called an automated transmission rather than an automatic. Operating aforementioned transmissions often use the pattern of shifter movement with a single or multiple switches to engage the next sequence of gear selection. The earliest form of a transmission is thought to have been invented by Louis-René Panhard. This type of transmission offered multiple gear ratios and, in most cases and these transmissions are called sliding mesh transmissions or sometimes crash boxes, because of the difficulty in changing gears and the loud grinding sound that often accompanied.
Newer manual transmissions on cars have all gears mesh at all times and are referred to as constant-mesh transmissions, in both types, a particular gear combination can only be engaged when the two parts to engage are at the same speed. To shift to a gear, the transmission is put in neutral. The vehicle slows while in neutral and that slows other transmission parts, so the time in neutral depends on the grade, for both upshifts and downshifts, the clutch is released while in neutral. Some drivers use the only for starting from a stop. Even though automobile and light truck transmissions are now almost universally synchronized, transmissions for trucks and machinery, motorcycles