The Ferrari P was a series of Italian sports prototype racing cars produced by Ferrari during the 1960s and early 1970s. Although Enzo Ferrari resisted the move with Cooper dominating F1, Ferrari began producing mid-engined racing cars in 1960 with the Ferrari Dino-V6-engine Formula Two 156, which would be turned into the Formula One-winner of 1961. Sports car racers followed in 1963. Although these cars shared their numerical designations with road models, they were entirely dissimilar; the first Ferrari mid-engine in a road car did not arrive until the 1967 Dino, it was 1971 before a Ferrari 12-cylinder engine was placed behind a road-going driver in the 365 GT4 BB. Ferrari produced the 250 P in 1963 in response to the FIA introducing a prototype class for the upcoming season of the World Sportscar Championship; this was a new design, with a chassis unrelated to existing 250-series Grand Touring cars. Designed by Mauro Forghieri, the 250 P was an open cockpit mid-engined rear wheel drive design, utilizing a tubular space-frame chassis, double wishbone suspension and pinion steering, four wheel disc brakes and a longitudinally-mounted V12 engine with a 5-speed gearbox and transaxle.
The 250 Testa Rossa-type single-cam 3.0-litre engine was supplied by six Weber 38 DCN carburetors and produced 310 bhp at 7,500 rpm. This was the first time; the 250 P achieved immediate success on the racetrack, winning the 1963 24 Hours of Le Mans, 12 Hours of Sebring, 1000 km Nürburgring, Canadian Grand Prix. The cars were raced by Scuderia Ferrari in NART in the Americas. Notable drivers included John Surtees, Ludovico Scarfioitti, Willy Mairesse, Lorenzo Bandini and Pedro Rodriguez. In total Ferrari produced four 250 P chassis and one development mule based on a Dino 246 SP chassis. All 250 P chassis were converted to 275 330 P specification following the 1963 racing season. For the 1964 season, Ferrari developed the 275 P and 330 P; these were improved versions of the 250 P with larger displacement engines and modified bodywork. The tubular space-frame chassis and most other components remained the same as in the 250 P; the 275 P used a bored-out 3.3L version of the 250 Testa Rossa-type engine utilized by the 250 P.
The 330 P used a different design, a 4.0L Colombo-designed V12 based on engines used in the 400 Superamerica road cars. The 330 P weighed more; some drivers preferred the extra power of the 330 P while others appreciated the more nimble feel of the 275 P and the two models were raced concurrently. Production of these types included three brand new chassis and conversions of all four 250 P chassis, it is not possible to determine the number of chassis produced with each engine type as 275 and 330 engines were swapped as needed between cars. 275 P and 330 P cars were and raced by Scuderia Ferrari, NART and Maranello Concessionaires during 1964 and 1965 seasons. The most notable result was a 1-2-3 sweep at the 1964 24 Hours of Le Mans; the Scuderia Ferrari-run 275 P driven by Guichet and Vaccarella took first, followed by a Maranello Concessionaires 330 P in second and a Scuderia Ferrari 330 P in third. At the November 1963 Paris Auto Show, Ferrari introduced the 250 LM, it was developed as a coupe version of the 250 P and was ostensibly a new production car intended to meet FIA homologation requirements for the Group 3 GT class.
The intention was for the 250 LM to replace the 250 GTO as Ferrari's premier GT-class racer. However, in April 1964 the FIA refused to homologate the model, as Ferrari had built fewer than the required 100 units; the 250 LM thus had to run in the prototype class until it was homologated as a Group 4 Sports Car for the 1966 season.32 total 250 LM chassis were built from 1963 to 1965, with all but the first chassis powered by 3.3-litre 320 bhp engines as used in the 275 P. According to Ferrari naming convention, the 3.3 litre cars should have been designated "275 LM", however Enzo Ferrari insisted that the name remain 250 LM in order to facilitate the homologation process. The 250 LM shared independent double wishbone suspension and pinion steering, four wheel disc brakes and 5-speed transaxle with the 250 P, however the tubular space frame chassis was strengthened with the roof structure, additional cross-bracing and heavier gauge tubing; the interior was trimmed out as a nod to the ostensible production status of the car, but it was little different from a prototype racer.
The 250 LM was raced around the world by both factory-supported and privateer racers. Unlike the 250/275/330 P cars, new 250 LMs were sold to private customers and campaigned by privateer teams. From 1964 through 1967, 250 LMs were raced by Scuderia Ferrari, NART, Maranello Concessionaires, Ecurie Filipinetti, Ecurie Francorchamps and others when this model was no longer competitive with the latest factory prototypes. Notably, a 250 LM entered by the North American Racing Team won the 1965 24 Hours of Le Mans driven by Jochen Rindt and Masten Gregory; this remains Ferrari's last overall victory in the endurance classic. This car is now owned by the Indianapolis Motor Speedway Museum and was displayed at the 2004 Pebble Beach Concours d'Elegance and the 2013 Amelia Island Concours d'Elegance; the 250 LM is sought-after by serious auto collectors and individual cars are featured at auctions, car shows and historic racing events. 250 LMs sell for more than $10 milli
Italy the Italian Republic, is a country in Southern Europe. Located in the middle of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Austria and the enclaved microstates San Marino and Vatican City. Italy covers an area of 301,340 km2 and has a temperate seasonal and Mediterranean climate. With around 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth-most populous EU member state and the most populous country in Southern Europe. Due to its central geographic location in Southern Europe and the Mediterranean, Italy has been home to a myriad of peoples and cultures. In addition to the various ancient peoples dispersed throughout modern-day Italy, the most famous of which being the Indo-European Italics who gave the peninsula its name, beginning from the classical era and Carthaginians founded colonies in insular Italy and Genoa, Greeks established settlements in the so-called Magna Graecia, while Etruscans and Celts inhabited central and northern Italy respectively; the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom in the 8th century BC, which became a republic with a government of the Senate and the People.
The Roman Republic conquered and assimilated its neighbours on the peninsula, in some cases through the establishment of federations, the Republic expanded and conquered parts of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East. By the first century BC, the Roman Empire emerged as the dominant power in the Mediterranean Basin and became the leading cultural and religious centre of Western civilisation, inaugurating the Pax Romana, a period of more than 200 years during which Italy's technology, economy and literature flourished. Italy remained the metropole of the Roman Empire; the legacy of the Roman Empire endured its fall and can be observed in the global distribution of culture, governments and the Latin script. During the Early Middle Ages, Italy endured sociopolitical collapse and barbarian invasions, but by the 11th century, numerous rival city-states and maritime republics in the northern and central regions of Italy, rose to great prosperity through shipping and banking, laying the groundwork for modern capitalism.
These independent statelets served as Europe's main trading hubs with Asia and the Near East enjoying a greater degree of democracy than the larger feudal monarchies that were consolidating throughout Europe. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, science and art. Italian culture flourished, producing famous scholars and polymaths such as Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael and Machiavelli. During the Middle Ages, Italian explorers such as Marco Polo, Christopher Columbus, Amerigo Vespucci, John Cabot and Giovanni da Verrazzano discovered new routes to the Far East and the New World, helping to usher in the European Age of Discovery. Italy's commercial and political power waned with the opening of trade routes that bypassed the Mediterranean. Centuries of infighting between the Italian city-states, such as the Italian Wars of the 15th and 16th centuries, left the region fragmented, it was subsequently conquered and further divided by European powers such as France and Austria.
By the mid-19th century, rising Italian nationalism and calls for independence from foreign control led to a period of revolutionary political upheaval. After centuries of foreign domination and political division, Italy was entirely unified in 1871, establishing the Kingdom of Italy as a great power. From the late 19th century to the early 20th century, Italy industrialised, namely in the north, acquired a colonial empire, while the south remained impoverished and excluded from industrialisation, fuelling a large and influential diaspora. Despite being one of the main victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil, leading to the rise of a fascist dictatorship in 1922. Participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in military defeat, economic destruction and the Italian Civil War. Following the liberation of Italy and the rise of the resistance, the country abolished the monarchy, reinstated democracy, enjoyed a prolonged economic boom and, despite periods of sociopolitical turmoil became a developed country.
Today, Italy is considered to be one of the world's most culturally and economically advanced countries, with the sixth-largest worldwide national wealth. Its advanced economy ranks eighth-largest in the world and third in the Eurozone by nominal GDP. Italy owns the third-largest central bank gold reserve, it has a high level of human development, it stands among the top countries for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military and diplomatic affairs. Italy is a founding and leading member of the European Union and a member of numerous international institutions, including the UN, NATO, the OECD, the OSCE, the WTO, the G7, the G20, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Council of Europe, Uniting for Consensus, the Schengen Area and many more; as a reflection
United States Environmental Protection Agency
The Environmental Protection Agency is an independent agency of the United States federal government for environmental protection. President Richard Nixon proposed the establishment of EPA on July 9, 1970 and it began operation on December 2, 1970, after Nixon signed an executive order; the order establishing the EPA was ratified by committee hearings in the Senate. The agency is led by its Administrator, appointed by the President and approved by Congress; the current Administrator is former Deputy Administrator Andrew R. Wheeler, acting administrator since July 2018; the EPA is not a Cabinet department, but the Administrator is given cabinet rank. The EPA has its headquarters in Washington, D. C. regional offices for each of the agency's ten regions, 27 laboratories. The agency conducts environmental assessment and education, it has the responsibility of maintaining and enforcing national standards under a variety of environmental laws, in consultation with state and local governments. It delegates some permitting and enforcement responsibility to U.
S. states and the federally recognized tribes. EPA enforcement powers include fines and other measures; the agency works with industries and all levels of government in a wide variety of voluntary pollution prevention programs and energy conservation efforts. In 2018, the agency had 14,172 full-time employees. More than half of EPA's employees are engineers and environmental protection specialists; the Environmental Protection Agency can only act under statutes, which are the authority of laws passed by Congress. Congress must approve the statute and they have the power to authorize or prohibit certain actions, which the EPA has to implement and enforce. Appropriations statutes authorize how much money the agency can spend each year to carry out the approved statutes; the Environmental Protection Agency has the power to issue regulations. A regulation is a standard or rule written by the agency to interpret the statute, apply it in situations and enforce it. Congress allows the EPA to write regulations in order to solve a problem, but the agency must include a rationale of why the regulations need to be implemented.
The regulations can be challenged by the Courts, where the regulation is confirmed. Many public health and environmental groups advocate for the agency and believe that it is creating a better world. Other critics believe that the agency commits government overreach by adding unnecessary regulations on business and property owners. Beginning in the late 1950s and through the 1960s, Congress reacted to increasing public concern about the impact that human activity could have on the environment. Senator James E. Murray introduced a bill, the Resources and Conservation Act of 1959, in the 86th Congress; the 1962 publication of Silent Spring by Rachel Carson alerted the public about the detrimental effects on the environment of the indiscriminate use of pesticides. In the years following, similar bills were introduced and hearings were held to discuss the state of the environment and Congress's potential responses. In 1968, a joint House–Senate colloquium was convened by the chairmen of the Senate Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs, Senator Henry M. Jackson, the House Committee on Science and Astronautics, Representative George P. Miller, to discuss the need for and means of implementing a national environmental policy.
In the colloquium, some members of Congress expressed a continuing concern over federal agency actions affecting the environment. The National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 was modeled on the Resources and Conservation Act of 1959. RCA would have established a Council on Environmental Quality in the office of the President, declared a national environmental policy, required the preparation of an annual environmental report. President Nixon signed NEPA into law on January 1, 1970; the law created the Council on Environmental Quality in the Executive Office of the President. NEPA required that a detailed statement of environmental impacts be prepared for all major federal actions affecting the environment; the "detailed statement" would be referred to as an environmental impact statement. On July 9, 1970, Nixon proposed an executive reorganization that consolidated many environmental responsibilities of the federal government under one agency, a new Environmental Protection Agency; this proposal included merging antipollution programs from a number of departments, such as the combination of pesticide programs from the United States Department of Agriculture, Department of Interior, U.
S. Department of Interior. After conducting hearings during that summer, the House and Senate approved the proposal; the EPA was created 90 days before it had to operate, opened its doors on December 2, 1970. The agency's first Administrator, William Ruckelshaus, took the oath of office on December 4, 1970. In its first year, the EPA had 5,800 employees. At its start, the EPA was a technical assistance agency that set goals and standards. Soon, new acts and amendments passed by Congress gave the agency its regulatory authority. EPA staff recall that in the early days there was "an enormous sense of purpose and excitement" and the expectation that "there was this agency, going to do something about a problem, on the minds of a lot of people in this country," leading to tens of thousands of resumes from those eager to participate in the mighty effort to clean up America's environment; when EPA first began operation, members of the private sector felt that the environ
A transmission is a machine in a power transmission system, which provides controlled application of the power. The term transmission refers to the gearbox that uses gears and gear trains to provide speed and torque conversions from a rotating power source to another device. In British English, the term transmission refers to the whole drivetrain, including clutch, prop shaft and final drive shafts. In American English, the term refers more to the gearbox alone, detailed usage differs; the most common use is in motor vehicles, where the transmission adapts the output of the internal combustion engine to the drive wheels. Such engines need to operate at a high rotational speed, inappropriate for starting and slower travel; the transmission reduces the higher engine speed to the slower wheel speed, increasing torque in the process. Transmissions are used on pedal bicycles, fixed machines, where different rotational speeds and torques are adapted. A transmission has multiple gear ratios with the ability to switch between them as speed varies.
This switching may be done automatically. Directional control may be provided. Single-ratio transmissions exist, which change the speed and torque of motor output. In motor vehicles, the transmission is connected to the engine crankshaft via a flywheel or clutch or fluid coupling because internal combustion engines cannot run below a particular speed; the output of the transmission is transmitted via the driveshaft to one or more differentials, which drives the wheels. While a differential may provide gear reduction, its primary purpose is to permit the wheels at either end of an axle to rotate at different speeds as it changes the direction of rotation. Conventional gear/belt transmissions are not the only mechanism for speed/torque adaptation. Alternative mechanisms include power transformation. Hybrid configurations exist. Automatic transmissions use a valve body to shift gears using fluid pressures in response to speed and throttle input. Early transmissions included the right-angle drives and other gearing in windmills, horse-powered devices, steam engines, in support of pumping and hoisting.
Most modern gearboxes are used to increase torque while reducing the speed of a prime mover output shaft. This means that the output shaft of a gearbox rotates at a slower rate than the input shaft, this reduction in speed produces a mechanical advantage, increasing torque. A gearbox can be set up to do the opposite and provide an increase in shaft speed with a reduction of torque; some of the simplest gearboxes change the physical rotational direction of power transmission. Many typical automobile transmissions include the ability to select one of several gear ratios. In this case, most of the gear ratios are used to slow down the output speed of the engine and increase torque. However, the highest gears may be "overdrive" types. Gearboxes have found use in a wide variety of different—often stationary—applications, such as wind turbines. Transmissions are used in agricultural, construction and automotive equipment. In addition to ordinary transmission equipped with gears, such equipment makes extensive use of the hydrostatic drive and electrical adjustable-speed drives.
The simplest transmissions called gearboxes to reflect their simplicity, provide gear reduction, sometimes in conjunction with a right-angle change in direction of the shaft. These are used on PTO-powered agricultural equipment, since the axial PTO shaft is at odds with the usual need for the driven shaft, either vertical, or horizontally extending from one side of the implement to another. More complex equipment, such as silage choppers and snowblowers, have drives with outputs in more than one direction; the gearbox in a wind turbine converts the slow, high-torque rotation of the turbine into much faster rotation of the electrical generator. These are more complicated than the PTO gearboxes in farm equipment, they weigh several tons and contain three stages to achieve an overall gear ratio from 40:1 to over 100:1, depending on the size of the turbine. The first stage of the gearbox is a planetary gear, for compactness, to distribute the enormous torque of the turbine over more teeth of the low-speed shaft.
Durability of these gearboxes has been a serious problem for a long time. Regardless of where they are used, these simple transmissions all share an important feature: the gear ratio cannot be changed during use, it is fixed at the time. For transmission types that overcome this issue, see Continuously variable transmission known as CVT. Many applications require the availability of multiple gear ratios; this is to ease the starting and stopping of a mechanical system, though another important need is that of maintaining good fuel efficiency. The need for a transmission in an automobile is a consequence of the characteristics of the internal combustion engine. Eng
Dino was a marque for mid-engined, rear-drive sports cars produced by Ferrari from 1968 to 1976. Used for models with engines with fewer than 12 cylinders, it was an attempt by the company to offer a low-cost sports car; the Ferrari name remained reserved for its premium V-12 and flat 12 models until 1976, when "Dino" was retired in favour of full Ferrari branding. Named to honour Ferrari founder Enzo Ferrari's son and heir Dino Ferrari, the Dino models used Ferrari racing naming designation of displacement and cylinder count with two digits for the size of the engine in deciliters and the third digit to represent the number of cylinders, i.e. 246 being a 2.4-litre 6-cylinder and 308 being a 3.0-litre 8-cylinder. Ferrari street models of the time used a three-digit representation of the displacement in cubic centimeters of one of the 12 cylinders, which would have been meaningless in a brand with differing numbers of cylinders; the "Dino" marque was created to market a lower priced, "affordable" sports car capable of taking on the Porsche 911.
Ferrari's expensive V12s well exceeded the 911 in both price. Enzo Ferrari did not want to diminish his exclusive brand with a cheaper car, so the "Dino" was created; the name "Dino" honors the founder's late son, Alfredo "Dino" Ferrari, credited with designing the V6 engine used in the car. Along with engineer Vittorio Jano, Dino persuaded his father to produce a line of racing cars in the 1950s with V6 and V8 engines. Ferrari wished to race in the new Formula Two category in 1967 with the Dino V6 engine. However, the company could not meet the homologation rules, which called for 500 production vehicles using the engine to be produced. Enzo Ferrari therefore asked Fiat to co-produce a sports car using the V6, the front-engined, rear-drive Fiat Dino was born, it used a 1,987 cc version of the Dino V6. Although a mid-engine layout was common in the world of sports car racing at the time, adapting it to a production car was quite daring; such a design placed more of the car's weight over the driven wheels, allowed for a streamlined nose, but led to a cramped passenger compartment and more challenging handling.
Lamborghini created a stir in 1966 with its mid-engined Miura, but Enzo Ferrari felt a mid-engine Ferrari would be unsafe in the hands of his customers. He relented, allowed designer Sergio Pininfarina to build a mid-engined concept car for the 1965 Paris Motor Show under the Dino badge alone; the 206S, shown at Turin in 1966, bore an closer resemblance to the production version. Response to the radically styled car was positive, so Ferrari allowed it to go into production, rationalizing the lower power of the V6 engine would result in a more manageable car; the first road-going Dino as well as the first Ferrari-built road car was the 1968 Dino 206 GT, designed by Leonardo Fioravanti at Pininfarina. The 206 GT used a transverse-mounted 2.0 L all-aluminium 65-degree V6 engine, with 180 PS at 8,000 rpm, the same used in the Fiat Dino. The 206 GT frame featured an aluminium body, full independent suspension, all round disc brakes. 152 were built in total in left hand drive only. In 1969 the 206 GT was superseded by the more powerful Dino 246 GT.
The 246 GT was powered by an enlarged 2418 cc V6 engine, producing with 195 PS at 7,600 rpm in European specification. Available as a fixed-top GT coupé, a targa topped GTS was offered after 1971. Other notable changes from the 206 were the body, now made of steel instead of aluminium, a 60 mm longer wheelbase than the 206. Three series of the Dino 246 GT were built, with differences in wheels, windshield wiper coverage, engine ventilation. Dino 246 production numbered 2,295 GTs and 1,274 GTSs, for a total production run of 3,569; the 308 GT4 was produced from 1973 to April 1980. Branded "Dino", the 308 GT4 was Ferrari's first V-8 production automobile; the 308 was a 2+2 with a wheelbase of 100.4 inches. The 308 was designed by Bertone; the 308 GT4 V-8 had a 90-degree, dual-overhead-camshaft, 2927 cc motor with 4 Weber carburetors which produced 250 hp. The V-8 block and heads were made of an aluminum alloy; the compression ratio was 8.8:1. The American version had an air-pump; the GT4 weighed 2535 pounds.
The 308 GT4 wore the Dino badge until May 1976, when it got the Ferrari "Prancing Horse" badge on the hood and the steering wheel. Buckley, Martin. World Encyclopedia of Cars. London: Anness Publishing. ISBN 1-84038-083-7. Gabriel, Jean-Pierre. Les Ferrari de Turin. Nîmes: Editions du Palmier. ISBN 2-914920-25-3. Dino Register Club Dino Italia Ferrari, Lancia Stratos Dino UK Ferrari, Lancia Stratos
Formula One is the highest class of single-seater auto racing sanctioned by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile and owned by the Formula One Group. The FIA Formula One World Championship has been one of the premier forms of racing around the world since its inaugural season in 1950; the word "formula" in the name refers to the set of rules to which all participants' cars must conform. A Formula One season consists of a series of races, known as Grands Prix, which take place worldwide on purpose-built circuits and on public roads; the results of each race are evaluated using a points system to determine two annual World Championships: one for drivers, the other for constructors. Drivers must hold valid Super Licences, the highest class of racing licence issued by the FIA; the races must run on tracks graded "1", the highest grade-rating issued by the FIA. Most events occur in rural locations on purpose-built tracks, but several events take place on city streets. Formula One cars are the fastest regulated road-course racing cars in the world, owing to high cornering speeds achieved through the generation of large amounts of aerodynamic downforce.
The cars underwent major changes in 2017, allowing wider front and rear wings, wider tyres, resulting in cornering forces closing in on 6.5g and top speeds of up to 375 km/h. As of 2019 the hybrid engines are limited in performance to a maximum of 15,000 rpm and the cars are dependent on electronics—although traction control and other driving aids have been banned since 2008—and on aerodynamics and tyres. While Europe is the sport's traditional base, the championship operates globally, with 11 of the 21 races in the 2018 season taking place outside Europe. With the annual cost of running a mid-tier team—designing and maintaining cars, transport—being US$120 million, Formula One has a significant economic and job-creation effect, its financial and political battles are reported, its high profile and popularity have created a major merchandising environment, which has resulted in large investments from sponsors and budgets. On 8 September 2016 Bloomberg reported that Liberty Media had agreed to buy Delta Topco, the company that controls Formula One, from private-equity firm CVC Capital Partners for $4.4 billion in cash and convertible debt.
On 23 January 2017 Liberty Media confirmed the completion of the acquisition for $8 billion. The Formula One series originated with the European Grand Prix Motor Racing of the 1930s; the formula is a set of rules. Formula One was a new formula agreed upon after World War II during 1946, with the first non-championship races being held that year. A number of Grand Prix racing organisations had laid out rules for a world championship before the war, but due to the suspension of racing during the conflict, the World Drivers' Championship was not formalised until 1947; the first world championship race was held at Silverstone, United Kingdom in 1950. A championship for constructors followed in 1958. National championships existed in the UK in the 1960s and 1970s. Non-championship Formula One events were held for many years, but due to the increasing cost of competition, the last of these occurred in 1983. On 26 November 2017, Formula One unveiled its new logo, following the 2017 season finale in Abu Dhabi during the Abu Dhabi Grand Prix at Yas Marina Circuit.
The new logo replaced F1's iconic'flying one', the sport's trademark since 1993. After a hiatus in European motor racing brought about by the outbreak of World War II in 1939, the first World Championship for Drivers was won by Italian Giuseppe Farina in his Alfa Romeo in 1950, narrowly defeating his Argentine teammate Juan Manuel Fangio. However, Fangio won the title in 1951, 1954, 1955, 1956, 1957, his streak interrupted by two-time champion Alberto Ascari of Ferrari. Although the UK's Stirling Moss was able to compete he was never able to win the world championship, is now considered to be the greatest driver never to have won the title. Fangio, however, is remembered for dominating Formula One's first decade and has long been considered the "Grand Master" of Formula One; this period featured teams managed by road car manufacturers Alfa Romeo, Mercedes-Benz, Maserati. The first seasons were run using pre-war cars like Alfa's 158, they were front-engined, with narrow tyres and 1.5-litre supercharged or 4.5-litre aspirated engines.
The 1952 and 1953 World Championships were run to Formula Two regulations, for smaller, less powerful cars, due to concerns over the paucity of Formula One cars available. When a new Formula One, for engines limited to 2.5 litres, was reinstated to the world championship for 1954, Mercedes-Benz introduced the advanced W196, which featured innovations such as desmodromic valves and fuel injection as well as enclosed streamlined bodywork. Mercedes drivers won the championship for two years, before the team withdrew from all motorsport in the wake of the 1955 Le Mans disaster. An era of British dominance was ushered in by Mike Hawthorn and Vanwall's championship wins in 1958, although Stirling Moss had been at the forefront of the sport without securing the world title. Between Hawthorn, Jim Clark, Jackie Stewart, John Surtees and Graham Hill, British drivers won nine Drivers' Championships and British teams won fourteen Constructors' Championsh
S-segment is the a European segments for passenger cars for sport coupés. The cars are described as sports cars and the equivalent Euro NCAP class is called "roadster sport". S-segment cars have a sporting appearance and are designed to have superior handling and/or straight-line acceleration compared to other segments; the most common body styles for S-segment cars are convertible. Rear passenger accommodation is not a priority for S-segment cars, therefore many models are either two-seat cars or have a 2+2 layout with cramped rear seating. Most recent S-segment cars use the commonplace front-engine design, however the majority of cars with a Mid-engine design or rear-engine design belong to the S-segment; the five highest selling S-segment cars in Europe are the Audi TT, Mazda MX-5, Porsche 911, Ford Mustang and Porsche Boxster/Cayman. In 2014, the five highest selling coupé models were the BMW 4 Series, Opel Astra GTC,BMW 2 Series, Renault Mégane Coupé and Mercedes-Benz C-Class; the five highest selling convertible models in 2014 were the Fiat 500C, Mini Hatch, BMW 4 Series, Volkswagen Beetle and Volkswagen Golf Mk6