The car is best known for providing Kimi Räikkönen with his first World Championship title and the team with its first Constructors title since Michael Schumacher helped them win both in 2004. The car was unveiled to the public on January 14,2007 at Ferraris Fiorano test track in Maranello, the chassis was significantly altered from the 248 F1, the car Ferrari used during 2006 to finish as runners-up to Renault in the Constructors Championship. The wheelbase is 85mm longer, from 3050mm to 3135mm, with the extra length added between the cockpit and front wheels, in order to maximize aerodynamic performance, the launch model was shown with the front and rear wings from the 248 F1. This was to keep various aerodynamic features secret from rival F1 teams, the gearbox itself, which is still mounted longitudinally, is fitted with an innovative quick-shift system. The suspension adopts a zero-keel configuration, a first for Ferrari, the dropping of the single-keel is most likely due to the departure of previous designer Rory Byrne, whose previous, ultra-successful designs all featured a single keel.
Ferrari were the team to receive tobacco sponsorship for the 2007 season. The teams principal sponsor is Philip Morris International, parent company of Marlboro cigarettes, however, in order to circumvent the European tobacco advertising ban, the cars livery did not feature the brand name. A simple red and white barcode was used and, hence the advertising at European Grands Prix was purely through association, in countries that allow tobacco sponsorship, Ferrari used Marlboro logos. The livery featured significantly less white than in previous years, the cars, driven by Felipe Massa and Kimi Räikkönen, raced with the numbers 5 and 6 respectively as the team finished second in the 2006 Constructors Championship. At the Monaco Grand Prix, Ferrari changed the colour of their cars from Marlboro red to Rosso corsa red, the 2007 season was the first in which the use of two different rubber compounds was required during a race. The Ferrari F2007 is featured in the games Gran Turismo 5, Gran Turismo 5 Prologue, F2007 Website Secrets of the F2007
Gilles Simon (Formula One)
Gilles Simon is a French Formula One engineer and designer. Simon studied at the École des Mines, one of Frances top engineering schools and he graduated in 1984 and joined the Renault team, where he worked in R&D for four years. He was hired by Peugeot and worked on the marques V10 engine, in 1993, Simon followed compatriot Jean Todt to Ferrari, assisting Paolo Martinelli in the Engine and Electronics Department. Following the Italians move to a role within Fiat, Simon took over as head of the department in October 2006. Simon left his position in October 2009, and was replaced by Luca Marmorini, in December 2009, FIA President Jean Todt revealed that Simon is to join a working group to investigate new energies and environmentally friendly technology in motorsport. In July 2011, Simon left his FIA role to join Propulsion Universelle et Recuperation dEnergie, in 2013 Simon was hired as a consultant by Honda to work on their Formula One engine. He parted company with the Japanese marque in 2017, grandprix.
com article, retrieved October 28,2006
A V8 engine is an eight-cylinder V configuration engine with the cylinders mounted on the crankcase in two sets of four, with all eight pistons driving a common crankshaft. Most banks are set at an angle to each other, some at a narrower angle, with 45°, 60°. In its simplest form, the V8 is basically two parallel inline-four engines sharing a common crankshaft, since the 1920s, most V8s have used the somewhat more complex crossplane crankshaft with heavy counterweights to eliminate the vibrations. This results in an engine that is smoother than a V6, most racing V8s continue to use the single plane crankshaft because it allows faster acceleration and more efficient exhaust system designs. In 1902, Léon Levavasseur took out a patent on a light and he called it the Antoinette after the young daughter of his financial backer. From 1904 he installed this engine in a number of competition speedboats, the aviation pioneer Alberto Santos-Dumont saw one of these boats in Côte dAzur and decided to try it on his 14-bis aircraft.
Its early 24 hp at 1400 rpm version with only 55 kg of weight was interesting, Santos-Dumont ordered a larger and more powerful version from Levavasseur. He changed its dimensions from the original 80 mm stroke and 80 mm bore to 105 mm stroke and 110 mm bore, obtaining 50 hp with 86 kg of weight and its power-to-weight ratio was not surpassed for 25 years. Levavasseur eventually produced its own line of V8 equipped aircraft, named Antoinette I to VIII, hubert Latham piloted the V8 powered Antoinette IV and Antoinette VII in July 1909 on two failed attempts to cross the English Channel. However, in 1910, Latham used the VII with the engine to become the first in the world to reach an altitude of 3600 feet. Voisin constructed pusher biplanes with Antoinette engines, notably the one first flown successfully by Henry Farman in 1908, the V8 engine configuration became popular in France from 1904 onward, and was used in a number of aircraft engines introduced by Renault, and Buchet among others.
Some of these found their way into automobiles in small quantities. In 1905, Darracq built a car to beat the world speed record. They came up with two racing car built on a common crankcase and camshaft. The result was monstrous engine with a displacement of 1,551 cu in, victor Hemery fixed that record on 30 December 1905 with a speed of 109.65 mph. Rolls-Royce built a 3,535 cc V8 car from 1905 to 1906, in 1907 The Hewitt Motor Company built a large 5 passenger Touring Car. It was equipped with a hefty V8 engine that developed 50/60 horsepower and had a bore of 4 inches, the Hewitt was the first American Automobile to be equipped with a V8 engine. De Dion-Bouton introduced a 7,773 cc automobile V8 in 1910 and it was produced only in small quantities, but inspired a number of manufacturers to follow suit
2008 Belgian Grand Prix
The 2008 Belgian Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held on 7 September 2008 at the Circuit de Spa-Francorchamps near the town of Spa, Belgium. It was the 13th race of the 2008 Formula One season, Hamilton started from pole position alongside title rival Massa. Hamiltons McLaren teammate Heikki Kovalainen started from next to the 2007 winner Kimi Räikkönen. Following a spin by Hamilton on the lap, Räikkönen led most of the race, until rain fell on lap 41. Räikkönen crashed on the lap as the rain became heavier. Massa finished second on the road after Hamilton, followed by Nick Heidfeld of BMW Sauber, Hamilton received a 25-second penalty, which demoted him to third place and advanced Massa and Heidfeld to first and second positions. McLaren appealed the decision at the Fédération Internationale de lAutomobile International Court of Appeal and their case, was declared inadmissible, with the Court ruling that 25 second penalties cannot be challenged. The penalty prompted global press discussion, primarily from the United Kingdom and Italy, massas retroactive victory, with Hamilton demoted to third, narrowed the gap in the Championship from six points to just two.
Heading into the 13th race of the season, McLaren driver Lewis Hamilton was leading the Drivers Championship with 70 points, with 57 points, Ferraris Kimi Räikkönen was third, followed by Robert Kubica with 55 points. In the Constructors Championship, Ferrari led 121 points to McLarens 113, following the 2008 European Grand Prix on 24 August, mid-season testing took place at Italys Autodromo Nazionale Monza. Ferrari concentrated on their aerodynamic set-up during tests on Monzas long straights, Massa set the quickest times on the first day, ahead of McLaren driver Heikki Kovalainen. BMW Saubers Nick Heidfeld was quickest on the second day, Massa spun off into the gravel at the Ascari chicane, bringing a brief halt to testing. Hamilton was fastest on the third day, Kubica lost control of his car and drove off the track, limiting BMWs testing time as minor repairs were performed on the underside of his car. Three practice sessions were held before the Sunday race – two on Friday, and one on Saturday, the Friday morning and afternoon sessions each lasted 90 minutes, the third session, on Saturday morning, lasted for an hour.
The first session was held on a dry track under cloudy skies, Massa was fastest with a time of 1,47.284, the McLarens of Hamilton and Kovalainen, Webber and Vettel completed the top eight. Light rain during the second session grew momentarily heavier halfway through, Hamilton led for most of the running, before Alonso and Kovalainen set faster times late in the session on a drying track. Saturday afternoons qualifying session was divided into three parts, in the first 20-minute period, cars finishing 16th or lower were eliminated. The second qualifying period lasted for 15 minutes, at the end of which the fastest ten cars went into the final period, to determine their grid positions for the race
Automotive design is the profession involved in the development of the appearance, and to some extent the ergonomics, of motor vehicles or more specifically road vehicles. This most commonly refers to automobiles but refers to motorcycles, buses, the functional design and development of a modern motor vehicle is typically done by a large team from many different disciplines included within automotive engineering. Automotive design in context is primarily concerned with developing the visual appearance or aesthetics of the vehicle. Automotive design is practiced by designers who usually have an art background, the task of the design team is usually split into three main aspects, exterior design, interior design, and color and trim design. Graphic design is an aspect of design, this is generally shared amongst the design team as the lead designer sees fit. Design focuses not only on the outer shape of automobile parts. The aesthetic value will need to correspond to ergonomic functionality and utility features as well, though not all the new vehicular gadgets are to be designated as factory standard items, some of them may be integral to determining the future course of any specific vehicular models.
The stylist responsible for the design of the exterior of the vehicle develops the proportions, Exterior design is first done by a series of digital or manual drawings. Progressively, drawings that are more detailed are executed and approved by appropriate layers of management, Clay and or digital models are developed from, and along with the drawings. The data from these models are used to create a full sized mock-up of the final design. With three- and five-axis CNC milling machines, the model is first designed in a computer program and carved using the machine. Even in times of high-class 3d software and virtual models on power walls, here the emphasis is on ergonomics and the comfort of the passengers. The procedure here is the same as with exterior design, the color and trim designer is responsible for the research and development of all interior and exterior colors and materials used on a vehicle. These include paints, fabric designs, grains, headliner, wood trim, contrast and pattern must be carefully combined to give the vehicle a unique interior environment experience.
Designers work closely with the exterior and interior designers, designers draw inspiration from other design disciplines such as, industrial design, home furnishing and sometimes product design. Specific research is done into global trends to design for two to three model years in the future. Trend boards are created from research in order to keep track of design influences as they relate to the automotive industry. The designer uses this information to develop themes and concepts that are further refined and tested on the vehicle models
Formula One is the highest class of single-seat auto racing that is sanctioned by the Fédération Internationale de lAutomobile. The FIA Formula One World Championship has been the form of racing since the inaugural season in 1950. The formula, designated in the name, refers to a set of rules, the F1 season consists of a series of races, known as Grands Prix, held worldwide on purpose-built F1 circuits and public roads. The results of each race are evaluated using a system to determine two annual World Championships, one for drivers, one for constructors. The racing drivers are required to be holders of valid Super Licences, the races are required to be held on tracks graded 1, the highest grade a track can receive by the FIA. Most events are held in locations on purpose-built tracks, but there are several events in city centres throughout the world. Formula One cars are the fastest road racing cars in the world. Formula One cars race at speeds of up to approximately 375 km/h with engines currently limited in performance to a maximum of 15,000 RPM, the cars are capable of lateral acceleration in excess of five g in corners.
The performance of the cars is very dependent on electronics – although traction control and other driving aids have been banned since 2008 – and on aerodynamics, the formula has radically evolved and changed through the history of the sport. F1 had a global television audience of 425 million people during the course of the 2014 season. Grand Prix racing began in 1906 and became the most popular internationally in the second half of the twentieth century. The Formula One Group is the holder of the commercial rights. Its high profile and popularity have created a major merchandising environment, since 2000 the sports spiraling expenditures and the distribution of prize money favoring established top teams have forced complaints from smaller teams and led several teams to bankruptcy. On 23 January 2017 it was confirmed that Liberty Media had completed its $8 billion acquisition of Delta Topco, the Formula One series originated with the European Grand Prix Motor Racing of the 1920s and 1930s.
The formula is a set of rules that all cars must meet. Formula One was a new formula agreed upon after World War II during 1946, the first world championship race was held at Silverstone, United Kingdom in 1950. A championship for constructors followed in 1958, national championships existed in South Africa and the UK in the 1960s and 1970s. Non-championship Formula One events were held for years, but due to the increasing cost of competition
A chassis consists of an internal vehicle frame that supports an artificial object in its construction and use, can provide protection for some internal parts. An example of a chassis is the underpart of a motor vehicle, if the running gear such as wheels and transmission, and sometimes even the drivers seat, are included, the assembly is described as a rolling chassis. In the case of vehicles, the rolling chassis means the frame plus the running gear like engine, drive shaft, differential. An under body, which is not necessary for integrity of the structure, is built on the chassis to complete the vehicle. For commercial vehicles, a rolling chassis consists of an assembly of all the parts of a truck to be ready for operation on the road. The design of a car chassis will be different than one for commercial vehicles because of the heavier loads. Commercial vehicle manufacturers sell chassis only and chassis, as well as chassis cab versions that can be outfitted with specialized bodies and these include motor homes, fire engines, box trucks, etc.
In particular applications, such as buses, a government agency like National Highway Traffic Safety Administration in the U. S. defines the design standards of chassis. An armoured fighting vehicles hull serves as the chassis and comprises the part of the AFV that includes the tracks, drivers seat. This describes the hull, although common usage might include the upper hull to mean the AFV without the turret. The hull serves as a basis for platforms on tanks, armoured carriers, combat engineering vehicles. In an electronic device, the chassis consists of a frame or other supporting structure on which the circuit boards. In the absence of a frame, the chassis refers to the circuit boards and components themselves. The combination of chassis and outer covering is called an enclosure. Vietnam Studies, Department of the Army, Washington, D. C.1978
2008 Canadian Grand Prix
The 2008 Canadian Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held on 8 June 2008 at the Circuit Gilles Villeneuve, Quebec, Canada. It was the 7th race of the 2008 Formula One season, the 70-lap race was won by Robert Kubica for the BMW Sauber team after starting from second position. Nick Heidfeld finished second in a BMW Sauber car, with David Coulthard third in a Red Bull. Lewis Hamilton, who started from pole position, failed to finish the race, Kubicas win promoted him into the lead of the Drivers Championship for the first time in his career, overtaking Hamilton, Räikkönen and Massa. Massa and Hamilton tied for place, four points behind Kubica. In the Constructors Championship, BMW passed McLaren for second position, the Grand Prix was contested by 20 drivers, in ten teams of two. The teams, known as constructors, were Ferrari, McLaren-Mercedes, Renault, BMW Sauber, Force India, Red Bull Racing and Toro Rosso. Before the race, McLaren driver Lewis Hamilton led the Drivers Championship, with 38 points, ahead of Ferraris Kimi Räikkönen, on 35 points, BMW driver Robert Kubica was fourth, ahead of Kubicas teammate Nick Heidfeld in fifth.
In the Constructors Championship, Ferrari were leading on 69 points,16 points ahead of McLaren with 53 points, ahead of the race, the organizers unveiled a new paddock and media center facilities at Circuit Gilles Villeneuve. Also the site where Robert Kubica crashed in the years race was modified. The wall on which Kubica crashed was moved closer to the track to decrease angle of impact, debris fencing was put on the wall to prevent any hazard to cars on the other side of the wall. Three practice sessions were held before the Sunday race—two on Friday, the Friday morning and afternoon sessions each lasted 90 minutes. The third session was held on Saturday morning and lasted an hour, Ferraris Felipe Massa recorded the fastest lap in this session, followed by Robert Kubica and Heikki Kovalainen. In the second session of the day, Lewis Hamilton aced while Kubica continued to record good timings at number two, Kimi Räikkönen recorded third fastest lap time compared to his fifth fastest in the earlier session.
Timo Glock suffered an accident after he hit the wall on turn four. Nico Rosberg, sprung a surprise by topping the Saturday session ahead of Räikkönen, Vettels teammate Sébastien Bourdais suffered a crash at turn five. Saturday afternoons qualifying session was divided into three parts, in the first 20-minute period, cars finishing 16th or lower were eliminated. The second qualifying period lasted for 15 minutes, at the end of which the fastest ten cars went into the final period, to determine their grid positions for the race
Felipe Massa is a Brazilian Formula One racing driver who currently drives for Williams. Massa started his career in go-karting from the age of eight continuing in national and regional championships for seven years and he moved into Formula Chevrolet and claimed the championship. He moved in Italian Formula Renault in 2000 and won the title along with the European championship, Massa went into Euro Formula 3000 taking the championship. Massa started his Formula One career with Sauber before joining Scuderia Ferrari as a test driver for 2003, Massa won three races in 2007, finishing 4th in the Drivers Championship. He finished second in the 2008 Drivers World Championship after a title battle with Lewis Hamilton. At the 2009 Hungarian Grand Prix, Massa was injured by a suspension spring off the Brawn GP car of Rubens Barrichello, Massa was forced to miss the rest of the season but returned in 2010. Massa suffered a dip in form in 2011 scoring no podiums, Massa contributed to Ferraris Constructors Championships in 2007 and 2008 and was under contract to race for the team until the end of the 2013 season.
On 10 September 2013, he confirmed he would be leaving Ferrari at the end of the 2013 season, Massa replaced Pastor Maldonado alongside Valtteri Bottas at Williams from 2014. On 1 September 2016, Massa announced that he would retire from Formula One at the end of the season, however, he returned for the 2017 season when Valtteri Bottas joined Mercedes. Born in São Paulo, Massa is a Brazilian whose grandfather emigrated from Cerignola, Massa began karting when he was 8 years old, finishing fourth in his first season. He continued in national and international championships for 7 years, and in 1998 moved into Formula Chevrolet, during the following season, he won 3 of the 10 races and claimed the championship. In 2000, he moved to Europe to compete in the Italian Formula Renault series and he could have moved to Formula Three, but instead chose the Euro Formula 3000, where he won 6 of the 8 races and the championship. He was offered a Formula 1 test with the Sauber team and he drove for Alfa Romeo in the European Touring Car Championship as a guest driver.
In his rookie year in Formula 1, Massa was paired with 1999 International Formula 3000 champion Nick Heidfeld and he proved he was a competitive driver, but made several mistakes, including spinning off the track several times. Nevertheless, Massa scored 4 championship points in his first season and he suffered a one race suspension late in the season, forcing him to miss the United States Grand Prix. Heinz-Harald Frentzen, Saubers former driver, drove for Massa in his place, Massa returned to the drivers seat for the Japanese Grand Prix, but Sauber confirmed that Frentzen would partner Heidfeld in 2003, leaving Massa without a race seat. Instead, he spent a year with Saubers engine suppliers, Sauber re-signed Massa for the 2004 season. In 2004, he scored 12 of Saubers 34 points, his best result being a place at the Belgian Grand Prix
Auto racing is a sport involving the racing of automobiles for competition. Almost as soon as automobiles had been invented, races of various sorts were organised, by the 1930s specialist racing cars had developed. There are now numerous different categories, each with different rules and it was won by the carriage of Isaac Watt Boulton. Internal combustion auto racing events began soon after the construction of the first successful gasoline-fueled automobiles, the first organized contest was on April 28,1887, by the chief editor of Paris publication Le Vélocipède, Monsieur Fossier. It ran 2 kilometres from Neuilly Bridge to the Bois de Boulogne, on July 22,1894, the Parisian magazine Le Petit Journal organized what is considered to be the worlds first motoring competition, from Paris to Rouen. One hundred and two competitors paid a 10-franc entrance fee, the first American automobile race is generally held to be the Thanksgiving Day Chicago Times-Herald race of November 28,1895. Press coverage of the event first aroused significant American interest in the automobile, brooklands, in Surrey, was the first purpose-built motor racing venue, opening in June 1907.
It featured a 4.43 km concrete track with high-speed banked corners, One of the oldest existing purpose-built automobile racing circuits in the United States, still in use, is the 2. 5-mile -long Indianapolis Motor Speedway in Speedway, Indiana. It is the largest capacity venue of any variety worldwide, with a top capacity of some 257. NASCAR was founded by Bill France, Sr. on February 21,1948, the first NASCAR Strictly Stock race ever was held on June 19,1949, at Daytona Beach, Florida. From 1962, sports cars temporarily took a seat to GT cars. From 1972 through 2003, NASCARs premier series was called the Winston Cup Series, the changes that resulted from RJRs involvement, as well as the reduction of the schedule from 48 to 31 races a year, established 1972 as the beginning of NASCARs modern era. The IMSA GT Series evolved into the American Le Mans Series, the European races eventually became the closely related Le Mans Series, both of which mix prototypes and GTs. The best-known variety of racing, Formula One, which hosts the famous Monaco Grand Prix.
In single-seater, the wheels are not covered, and the cars often have aerofoil wings front, in Europe and Asia, open-wheeled racing is commonly referred to as Formula, with appropriate hierarchical suffixes. In North America, the Formula terminology is not followed, the sport is usually arranged to follow an international format, a regional format, and/or a domestic, or country-specific, format. In North America, the used in the National Championship have traditionally been similar though less sophisticated than F1 cars. The series most famous race is the Indianapolis 500, the other major international single-seater racing series is GP2
Italy, officially the Italian Republic, is a unitary parliamentary republic in Europe. Located in the heart of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Austria, San Marino, Italy covers an area of 301,338 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate and Mediterranean climate. Due to its shape, it is referred to in Italy as lo Stivale. With 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth most populous EU member state, the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom, which eventually became a republic that conquered and assimilated other nearby civilisations. The legacy of the Roman Empire is widespread and can be observed in the distribution of civilian law, republican governments, Christianity. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, exploration, Italian culture flourished at this time, producing famous scholars and polymaths such as Leonardo da Vinci, Galileo and Machiavelli. The weakened sovereigns soon fell victim to conquest by European powers such as France and Austria.
Despite being one of the victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil. The subsequent participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in defeat, economic destruction. Today, Italy has the third largest economy in the Eurozone and it has a very high level of human development and is ranked sixth in the world for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military and diplomatic affairs, as a reflection of its cultural wealth, Italy is home to 51 World Heritage Sites, the most in the world, and is the fifth most visited country. The assumptions on the etymology of the name Italia are very numerous, according to one of the more common explanations, the term Italia, from Latin, was borrowed through Greek from the Oscan Víteliú, meaning land of young cattle. The bull was a symbol of the southern Italic tribes and was often depicted goring the Roman wolf as a defiant symbol of free Italy during the Social War. Greek historian Dionysius of Halicarnassus states this account together with the legend that Italy was named after Italus, mentioned by Aristotle and Thucydides.
The name Italia originally applied only to a part of what is now Southern Italy – according to Antiochus of Syracuse, but by his time Oenotria and Italy had become synonymous, and the name applied to most of Lucania as well. The Greeks gradually came to apply the name Italia to a larger region, excavations throughout Italy revealed a Neanderthal presence dating back to the Palaeolithic period, some 200,000 years ago, modern Humans arrived about 40,000 years ago. Other ancient Italian peoples of undetermined language families but of possible origins include the Rhaetian people and Cammuni. Also the Phoenicians established colonies on the coasts of Sardinia and Sicily, the Roman legacy has deeply influenced the Western civilisation, shaping most of the modern world