The Tyrrell 019 was a Formula One racing car, designed by a team led by Harvey Postlethwaite, and built by Tyrrell. It was an evolution of Postlethwaites first design for Tyrrell, the Tyrrell 018, the 019 marked a significant point in the evolution of Formula One design in having an elevated nose cone. This was the first time such an idea had been tried in Formula One racing. The car was introduced two races into the 1990 Formula One season, scoring a point on its debut in the hands of Jean Alesi and this type of nose cone was gradually adopted by other teams and became the de rigueur design by 1996 in Formula One. The car was powered by the Ford DFR V8 engine - a descendant of the legendary, although the 018 had a modestly successful season in 1989, Harvey Postlethwaite did not rest on his laurels. Postlethwaite was an experienced F1 engineer, having previously built race-winning cars for Hesketh and Ferrari, taking the 018 as their base and Tyrrell Chief Designer Jean-Claude Migeot decided to try to improve the aerodynamic efficiency of the chassis.
One area in particular attracted their attention, the underbody airflow, what Postlethwaite and Migeot realised was that the efficiency of this low-pressure generating system was being seriously compromised by the low nose position at the front end of the car. These low nose cones effectively diverted air sideways and upwards around the upper bodywork. However, the generation of low pressures relies on increasing the speed of the air passing underneath the bottom of the car, in relation to that passing over. In simple terms, the air that can be drawn underneath a car, the faster that air will have to be moving, and the faster the air is moving. By raising the nose cone of the car and his team increased the volume of air that was able to pass underneath the car, the efficiency of the front wing aerofoils are increased the closer they are to the ground. These conflicting requirements led to the design of the 019s distinctive inverted-V, in practice the car did not make the same impact in terms of results as it has in technological advancement.
Nevertheless, as other teams experimented with the principle it rapidly became the norm for Formula One cars to sport a high nose cone, the last truly successful low nose design was the Williams FW16, built only four years after the Tyrrells unveiling. After this car, all Formula One Championship winning chassis have followed Tyrrells lead, the Tyrrell 019 was replaced at the end of the 1990 season by the Tyrrell 020, a further evolution of Postlethwaites high nose principle. † Seven points scored with the Tyrrell 018, frankel, A. & Brundle, M.2000
F1 2013 (video game)
F12013 is a video game developed by Codemasters based on the 2013 Formula One season. It is the fifth Formula One game developed by the Codemasters studios after the company renewed its license to develop the games of the series. A notable credit is the video features the song Clarity by Zedd featuring Foxes. F12013 was released in Europe on 4 October 2013 on PlayStation 3, Microsoft Windows, a digital version was released worldwide for Steam Store, as well as on 8 October for the PlayStation Store and 15 October for Xbox Games on Demand. The physical version of the game was delayed in the United States, an official release date has not yet been announced for the two territories. On 6 March 2014, F12013 was released on Mac OS X by Feral Interactive, on 23 May 2014, as confirmed by Publisher Bandai Namco and Creative Director Steven Hood, a Complete Edition of the game was released in some territories. It includes the game as well as all classic content on the disc and is available on PlayStation 3, Xbox 360.
A Classic Edition of the game features additional drivers, players can play with the old cars on the new tracks and the new cars on the old tracks and the GUI changes if they change decades. Murray Walker provides an introductory voice-over for the Classic Edition of the game, F12013 was met with generally positive reviews. If F12012 felt at times like an update, F12013 feels like a good step back in the direction where this franchise should be going. The game features the nineteen circuits that will be used during the 2013 Formula One season, the additional four tracks are Brands Hatch, Estoril, Imola and Jerez, Spain. These four circuits were all used together in the 1986 Formula One season, F12014 was released in October 2014 for Xbox 360, PlayStation 3 and Windows
Scuderia Ferrari S. p. A. competing as Scuderia Ferrari is the official name of the racing division of luxury Italian auto manufacturer and competes in Formula One racing. It is the oldest surviving and most successful Formula One team, the team was founded by Enzo Ferrari, initially to race cars produced by Alfa Romeo, though by 1947 Ferrari had begun building its own cars. As a constructor, Ferrari has a record 16 Constructors Championships, Alberto Ascari, Juan Manuel Fangio, Mike Hawthorn, Phil Hill, John Surtees, Niki Lauda, Jody Scheckter, Michael Schumacher and Kimi Räikkönen have won a record 15 Drivers Championships for the team. Since Räikkönens title in 2007 the team narrowly lost out on the 2008 drivers title with Felipe Massa, Schumacher is the teams most successful driver. Joining the team in 1996 and departing in 2006 he won five titles and 72 Grands Prix for the team. His titles came consecutively between 2000 and 2004, including the constructors title of 1999 consecutively being won until the end of 2004, this was the teams most successful period.
Currently, World Champions Kimi Räikkönen and Sebastian Vettel are the two race drivers. The team is known for its passionate support base known as the tifosi. The Italian Grand Prix at Monza is regarded as the home race. The Scuderia Ferrari team was founded by Enzo Ferrari on 16 November 1929 and became the team of Alfa Romeo. In 1938, Alfa Romeo management made the decision to enter racing under its own name, establishing the Alfa Corse organisation, Enzo Ferrari disagreed with this change in policy and was finally dismissed by Alfa in 1939. The terms of his leaving forbade him from motorsport under his own name, in 1939 Ferrari started work on a racecar of his own, the Tipo 815. The 815s, designed by Alberto Massimino, were thus the first Ferrari cars, World War II put a temporary end to racing, and Ferrari concentrated on an alternative use for his factory during the war years, doing machine tool work. After the war, Ferrari recruited several of his former Alfa colleagues and established a new Scuderia Ferrari, the team owns and operates a test track on the same site, the Fiorano Circuit built in 1972, which is used for testing road and race cars.
The team is named after its founder, Enzo Ferrari, Scuderia is Italian for a stable reserved for racing horses and is commonly applied to Italian motor racing teams. In 1947 Ferrari constructed the 12-cylinder,1.5 L Tipo 125, a Formula One version of the Tipo 125, the Ferrari 125 F1 was developed in 1948 and entered in several Grand Prix, at the time a World Championship had not yet been established. In 1950, the Formula One World Championship was established, and it is the only team to have competed in every season of the World Championship, from its inception to the current day. The company switched to the large-displacement naturally aspirated formula for the 275,340, after the 1951 Formula One season the Alfa team withdrew from F1, causing the authorities to adopt the Formula Two regulations due to the lack of suitable F1 cars
Ross James Brawn OBE is the Formula One Managing Director of Motorsports. He is a former engineer and Formula One team principal. He had worked for a number of Formula One teams, serving as the director of the championship-winning Benetton. He took a sabbatical from the sport in 2007 but returned to F1 for the 2008 season as Team Principal of Honda. He was the owner of the Brawn GP team, which acquired the Honda team in early 2009, Mercedes bought into the team in November 2009, making Brawn Team Principal and Co-Owner with Nick Fry. In 2011 Brawn and Fry sold the shares to Mercedes Benz. In November 2013, it was announced that Brawn would step down, following speculation linking him with other teams, Brawn announced his retirement from Formula One in February 2014. Teams with Brawn in a role have won, in total,8 constructors championships and 8 drivers championships. Brawn was born in Ashton-under-Lyne, England and he became interested in engineering during his early years, often visiting Belle Vue Stadium to watch various forms of motor racing.
He moved south aged 11 as his father took a job near Reading, Berkshire and he went on to start an HNC in Mechanical Engineering, still funded by Harwell. Living in Reading he found an advertisement for Frank Williams Grand Prix, Williams were looking for a milling machinist which was one of the skills he learnt at Harwell. Brawn lives in Stoke Row, near Henley-on-Thames, in his spare time he enjoys gardening and listening to music. In 2006 Brawn received a degree of Doctor of Engineering from Brunel University for his services to motorsport. On 18 November 2011, Brawn received a honorary doctorate from Heriot-Watt University. His career in began in 1976 when he joined March Engineering in the town of Bicester as a milling machine operator. Soon afterwards he joined their Formula 3 racing team as a mechanic, Brawn was hired by Sir Frank Williams in 1978 as a machinist for the newly formed Williams team. He quickly moved up through the ranks, working in the R&D department with Frank Dernie, Brawn joined the Haas Lola team in 1985 and was part of Neil Oatleys design team at FORCE that produced both the Lola THL1 and THL2 cars used by the team.
When the Haas team left F1 at the end of the 1986 season, there he designed the Megatron powered Arrows A10 and its update, the A10B for the 1987 and 1988 seasons respectively and the Ford V8 powered Arrows A11 used in 1989
Automotive design is the profession involved in the development of the appearance, and to some extent the ergonomics, of motor vehicles or more specifically road vehicles. This most commonly refers to automobiles but refers to motorcycles, buses, the functional design and development of a modern motor vehicle is typically done by a large team from many different disciplines included within automotive engineering. Automotive design in context is primarily concerned with developing the visual appearance or aesthetics of the vehicle. Automotive design is practiced by designers who usually have an art background, the task of the design team is usually split into three main aspects, exterior design, interior design, and color and trim design. Graphic design is an aspect of design, this is generally shared amongst the design team as the lead designer sees fit. Design focuses not only on the outer shape of automobile parts. The aesthetic value will need to correspond to ergonomic functionality and utility features as well, though not all the new vehicular gadgets are to be designated as factory standard items, some of them may be integral to determining the future course of any specific vehicular models.
The stylist responsible for the design of the exterior of the vehicle develops the proportions, Exterior design is first done by a series of digital or manual drawings. Progressively, drawings that are more detailed are executed and approved by appropriate layers of management, Clay and or digital models are developed from, and along with the drawings. The data from these models are used to create a full sized mock-up of the final design. With three- and five-axis CNC milling machines, the model is first designed in a computer program and carved using the machine. Even in times of high-class 3d software and virtual models on power walls, here the emphasis is on ergonomics and the comfort of the passengers. The procedure here is the same as with exterior design, the color and trim designer is responsible for the research and development of all interior and exterior colors and materials used on a vehicle. These include paints, fabric designs, grains, headliner, wood trim, contrast and pattern must be carefully combined to give the vehicle a unique interior environment experience.
Designers work closely with the exterior and interior designers, designers draw inspiration from other design disciplines such as, industrial design, home furnishing and sometimes product design. Specific research is done into global trends to design for two to three model years in the future. Trend boards are created from research in order to keep track of design influences as they relate to the automotive industry. The designer uses this information to develop themes and concepts that are further refined and tested on the vehicle models
1996 Canadian Grand Prix
The 1996 Canadian Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held at Circuit Gilles Villeneuve on 16 June 1996. The race was won by Damon Hill ahead of home hero Jacques Villeneuve, michael Schumacher started from the back of the grid, as his crew were still working on his car as the field set off on the warm-up lap. This started a run of problems for the reigning double World Champion. For the second race, Gerhard Berger spun off while trying to pass teammate Jean Alesi on lap 43. Brundle eventually recovered to place behind Mika Häkkinen in the sister McLaren after getting past Johnny Herbert courtesy of a faster final pit stop. Fastest Lap, Jacques Villeneuve 1,21.916 150th Grand Prix for Martin Brundle Bold text indicates who still has a chance of becoming World Champion. Note, Only the top five positions are included for both sets of standings
A podium is a platform used to raise something to a short distance above its surroundings. It derives from the Greek πόδι, in architecture a building can rest on a large podium. Podia can be used to people, for instance the conductor of an orchestra stands on a podium as do many public speakers. Common parlance has shown a use of podium in American English to describe a lectern. In sports, a type of podium is used to honor the top three competitors in such as the Olympics. In the Olympics a three-level podium is used, the highest level in the center holds the gold medalist. To their right is a lower platform for the silver medalist. At the 2016 Summer Games in Rio, the Silver, in many sports, results in the top three of a competition are often referred to as podiums or podium finishes. In some individual sports, podiums is a statistic, referring to the number of top three results an athlete has achieved over the course of a season or career. The word may be used, chiefly in the United States, as a verb, to podium, meaning to attain a podium place.
Podia were first used at the 1930 British Empire Games in Hamilton and subsequently during the 1932 Summer Olympic Games in Los Angeles, the winner stands in the middle, with the second placed driver to his right and the third place driver to his left. Also present are the selected by the race organisers who will present the trophies. In many forms of motorsport, the three top-placed drivers in a stand on a podium for the trophy ceremony. The recordings are versions of the national anthems, ensuring the podium ceremony does not exceeded its allocated time. Should a driver experience problems with his car on a lap in Formula One. The drivers will generally refrain from spraying if a fatality or major accident occurs during the event. Also, in countries where alcohol sponsorship or drinking is prohibited, alcoholic beverages may be replaced by other drinks, the NASCAR Sprint Cup Series, the highest level of stock car racing in the United States, does not use a podium in post-game events or statistics.
Instead, the team celebrates in victory lane, and top-five
The Ferrari 312T was a Ferrari Formula One car design, based on the 312B3 from 1974. In various versions, it was used from 1975 until 1980 and it was designed by Mauro Forghieri for the 1975 season and was an uncomplicated and clean design that responded to mechanical upgrades. The 312T series won 27 races, four Constructors and three Drivers Championships, and was replaced for the 1981 season by the 126 C, Ferraris first turbocharged F1 car, the car was powered by the powerful and ultra reliable flat-12 engine which gave around 510 bhp. The T in the name stood for transverse, as the gearbox was mounted in this way, improving the handling characteristics. The development of the 312T began in 1974, as it became apparent that problems with the handling of the current 312B3 chassis could not be solved, as with all Ferrari F1 cars of this era, the design of the new model was led by Mauro Forghieri. The gearbox design allowed it to be positioned ahead of the rear axle, the suspension was significantly different from that of the 312B3, and the front of the chassis was much narrower.
The handling of the car was found to be inherently neutral, Niki Lauda tested the car extensively during the off season, ready for a full-on championship challenge. The first 312T was completed in the autumn of 1974, the team used the old 312B3 at the first two races of the 1975 season, and it was not until the South African Grand Prix the 312T received its race debut. The cars performance at its debut race was disappointing, with Clay Regazzonis car being set up incorrectly, a subsequent test of Laudas engine proved that there was a technical problem. Lauda went on to win the US Grand Prix at seasons end, the Formula 1 technical regulations were changed for the 1976 season – from the Spanish Grand Prix in May, the tall air boxes which had become popular would be banned. The rules therefore allowed Ferrari to continue to use the 312T for the opening 3 races of the 1976 season, before the introduction of its successor, a total of five 312T chassis were used in races. The cars final world championship race was at the 1976 United States Grand Prix West, the 312T2 was launched at Fiorano and featured a number of modifications over the 312T.
In order to comply with the revised rules, the car no longer featured an airbox behind the cockpit. Instead NACA shaped air intakes were incorporated into the cockpit sides, at 2560mm, the wheelbase was 42mm longer than that of the 312T. The 312T2 was given its debut at the non-championship Brands Hatch Race of Champions in March 1976 and was first used in a world championship race in May at the Spanish Grand Prix. The 312T2 was, if anything, more successful than the 312T, Lauda was comfortably leading the world championship after another 3 wins, when at the 1976 German Grand Prix at Nürburgring he had a massive accident caused by a suspected rear suspension failure. In the aftermath he nearly burned to death, but was back to racing just 6 weeks later. Lauda conceded the title by just a point to James Hunt
Formula One is the highest class of single-seat auto racing that is sanctioned by the Fédération Internationale de lAutomobile. The FIA Formula One World Championship has been the form of racing since the inaugural season in 1950. The formula, designated in the name, refers to a set of rules, the F1 season consists of a series of races, known as Grands Prix, held worldwide on purpose-built F1 circuits and public roads. The results of each race are evaluated using a system to determine two annual World Championships, one for drivers, one for constructors. The racing drivers are required to be holders of valid Super Licences, the races are required to be held on tracks graded 1, the highest grade a track can receive by the FIA. Most events are held in locations on purpose-built tracks, but there are several events in city centres throughout the world. Formula One cars are the fastest road racing cars in the world. Formula One cars race at speeds of up to approximately 375 km/h with engines currently limited in performance to a maximum of 15,000 RPM, the cars are capable of lateral acceleration in excess of five g in corners.
The performance of the cars is very dependent on electronics – although traction control and other driving aids have been banned since 2008 – and on aerodynamics, the formula has radically evolved and changed through the history of the sport. F1 had a global television audience of 425 million people during the course of the 2014 season. Grand Prix racing began in 1906 and became the most popular internationally in the second half of the twentieth century. The Formula One Group is the holder of the commercial rights. Its high profile and popularity have created a major merchandising environment, since 2000 the sports spiraling expenditures and the distribution of prize money favoring established top teams have forced complaints from smaller teams and led several teams to bankruptcy. On 23 January 2017 it was confirmed that Liberty Media had completed its $8 billion acquisition of Delta Topco, the Formula One series originated with the European Grand Prix Motor Racing of the 1920s and 1930s.
The formula is a set of rules that all cars must meet. Formula One was a new formula agreed upon after World War II during 1946, the first world championship race was held at Silverstone, United Kingdom in 1950. A championship for constructors followed in 1958, national championships existed in South Africa and the UK in the 1960s and 1970s. Non-championship Formula One events were held for years, but due to the increasing cost of competition
Internal combustion engine
An internal combustion engine is a heat engine where the combustion of a fuel occurs with an oxidizer in a combustion chamber that is an integral part of the working fluid flow circuit. In an internal combustion engine the expansion of the high-temperature and high-pressure gases produced by combustion applies direct force to some component of the engine, the force is applied typically to pistons, turbine blades, rotor or a nozzle. This force moves the component over a distance, transforming chemical energy into mechanical energy. The first commercially successful internal combustion engine was created by Étienne Lenoir around 1859, firearms are a form of internal combustion engine. Working fluids can be air, hot water, pressurized water or even liquid sodium, ICEs are usually powered by energy-dense fuels such as gasoline or diesel, liquids derived from fossil fuels. While there are many applications, most ICEs are used in mobile applications and are the dominant power supply for vehicles such as cars, aircraft.
Typically an ICE is fed with fossil fuels like natural gas or petroleum products such as gasoline, there is a growing usage of renewable fuels like biodiesel for compression ignition engines and bioethanol or methanol for spark ignition engines. Hydrogen is sometimes used, and can be made from fossil fuels or renewable energy. Various scientists and engineers contributed to the development of internal combustion engines, in 1791, John Barber developed a turbine. In 1794 Thomas Mead patented a gas engine, in 1794 Robert Street patented an internal combustion engine, which was the first to use liquid fuel, and built an engine around that time. In 1798, John Stevens built the first American internal combustion engine, in 1807, Swiss engineer François Isaac de Rivaz built an internal combustion engine ignited by electric spark. In 1823, Samuel Brown patented the first internal combustion engine to be applied industrially, in 1860, Belgian Jean Joseph Etienne Lenoir produced a gas-fired internal combustion engine.
In 1864, Nikolaus Otto patented the first atmospheric gas engine, in 1872, American George Brayton invented the first commercial liquid-fuelled internal combustion engine. In 1876, Nikolaus Otto, working with Gottlieb Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach, patented the compressed charge, in 1879, Karl Benz patented a reliable two-stroke gas engine. In 1892, Rudolf Diesel developed the first compressed charge, compression ignition engine, in 1926, Robert Goddard launched the first liquid-fueled rocket. In 1939, the Heinkel He 178 became the worlds first jet aircraft, at one time, the word engine meant any piece of machinery — a sense that persists in expressions such as siege engine. A motor is any machine that produces mechanical power, electric motors are not referred to as Engines, combustion engines are often referred to as motors. In boating an internal combustion engine that is installed in the hull is referred to as an engine, reciprocating piston engines are by far the most common power source for land and water vehicles, including automobiles, ships and to a lesser extent, locomotives
The Ferrari 312B was a series of Formula One racing car models and built by Scuderia Ferrari. It was the successor to the Ferrari 312 and was used from 1970 until early 1975, several versions were made, the 312B, 312B2 and 312B3. The early 1970s saw the return of success to the Scuderia, under the direction of Mauro Forghieri, Ferrari developed a new Flat-12 engine, colloquially referred to as a boxer, giving a lower center of gravity and a clear airflow beneath the rear wing. In the remaining races, Ickx could not pass Rindts point score for the drivers title, the 1971 started with a win by new signing Mario Andretti. Although being presented in January, the 312 B2 debuted only at the round in Monaco. However the B2 suffered with handling problems, the combination of the rear suspension. Ferrari ultimately came second in the Constructors Championship, as Jackie Stewart, in 1972 Ferrari fielded a revised B2 with a more conventional rear suspension, but could not keep up with the progress of the competition, dropping to fourth at the end of the year.
Ickx won the 1972 German Grand Prix at his track, the Nürburgring. The sports cars season was a success for Ferrari though, with the Ferrari 312PB based on the F1 car, during the season, Forghieri designed a radical new car featuring a square bodywork and full width nose on a very short wheelbase. This new 312 B3 was tested by Merzario and Ickx but never raced in a Grand Prix, the Italian press nicknamed it the spazzaneve. For 1973, FIAT executives imposed a new staff and Forghieri was transferred to the experimental department, his role was taken by Sandro Colombo. The spazzaneve project was discarded and replaced by a new design, a new full monocoque chassis was built by specialist English company TC Prototypes, under John Thompsons guidance, and the engine became a fully stressed member. In the first races, Ferrari still used the old 312 B2, the car was no longer competitive, the new 312 B3 debuted at the Spanish round, but proved to be slow and unreliable achieving even worse results. In addition to the cars, which were beaten by the French Matra, the F1 program of the Italian team was outclassed.
This was not acceptable to Ickx, because the Nürburgring where the German Grand Prix was being held that year was his race track. During the summer Forghieri was recalled as technical director and set about revising the B3 incorporating some of the used on his radical spazzaneve. For 1974 Ferrari fielded a revised car, named 312 B3-74. The car was succeeded by the 312T which was introduced for the 1975 Formula One season,1 In 1975,63.5 points were scored driving the Ferrari 312T