In a reciprocating piston engine, the connecting rod or conrod connects the piston to the crank or crankshaft. Together with the crank, they form a mechanism that converts reciprocating motion into rotating motion. Connecting rods may convert rotating motion into reciprocating motion, before the development of engines, they were first used in this way. As a connecting rod is rigid, it may transmit either a push or a pull, earlier mechanisms, such as chains, could only pull. In a few two-stroke engines the connecting rod is required to push. Today, connecting rods are best known through their use in internal combustion piston engines and these are of a distinctly different design from earlier forms of connecting rods, used in steam engines and steam locomotives. The earliest evidence for a connecting rod appears in the late 3rd century AD Roman Hierapolis sawmill and it appears in two 6th century Eastern Roman saw mills excavated at Ephesus and Gerasa. The crank and connecting rod mechanism of these Roman watermills converted the motion of the waterwheel into the linear movement of the saw blades.
In Renaissance Italy, the earliest evidence of a − albeit mechanically misunderstood − compound crank, a sound understanding of the motion involved is displayed by the painter Pisanello who showed a piston-pump driven by a water-wheel and operated by two simple cranks and two connecting-rods. The first steam engines, Newcomens atmospheric engine, was single-acting, its piston only did work in one direction and their output rocked back and forth, rather than rotating continuously. Steam engines after this are usually double-acting, their internal pressure works on each side of the piston in turn. This requires a seal around the rod and so the hinge between the piston and connecting rod is placed outside the cylinder, in a large sliding bearing block called a crosshead. In a steam locomotive, the pins are usually mounted directly on one or more pairs of driving wheels. The connecting rods, run between the pins and crossheads, where they connect to the piston rods. Crossheads or trunk guides are used on large diesel engines manufactured for marine service.
The connecting rods of smaller steam locomotives are usually of rectangular cross-section but, on small locomotives, stephen Lewin, who built both locomotive and marine engines, was a frequent user of round rods. Gresleys A4 Pacifics, such as Mallard, had an alloy steel connecting rod in the form of an I-beam with a web that was only 0.375 in thick. On Western Rivers steamboats, the rods are properly called pitmans
Rear mid-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout
In automotive design, a RMR or Rear Mid-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout is one in which the rear wheels are driven by an engine placed just in front of them, behind the passenger compartment. In contrast to the rear-engined RR layout, the center of mass of the engine is in front of the rear axle and this layout is typically chosen for its low moment of inertia and relatively favorable weight distribution. The layout has a tendency toward being heavier in the rear than the front, since there is little weight over the front wheels, under acceleration, the front of the car is prone to lift and cause understeer. Most rear-engine layouts have historically used in smaller vehicles, because the weight of the engine at the rear has an adverse effect on a larger cars handling, making it tail-heavy. It is felt that the low polar inertia is crucial in selection of this layout, the mid-engined layout uses up central space, making it impractical for any but two-seater sports cars. However, some use this layout, with a small.
This makes it possible to move the right to the front of the vehicle. In modern racing cars, RMR is the configuration and is usually synonymous with mid engine. Due to its distribution and resulting favorable vehicle dynamics, this layout is heavily employed in open-wheel Formula racing cars as well as purpose-built sports racing cars. This configuration was common in very small engined 1950s microcars, because of successes in racing, the RMR platform has been popular for road-going sports cars despite the inherent challenges of design and lack of cargo space. The 1900 NW Rennzweier was one of the first race cars with mid-engine, other known historical examples include the 1923 Benz Tropfenwagen. It was based on a design named the Rumpler Tropfenwagen in 1921 made by Edmund von Rumpler. The Benz Tropfenwagen was designed by Ferdinand Porsche along with Willy Walb and it raced in 1923 and 1924 and was most successful in the Italian Grand Prix in Monza where it stood fourth. Later, Ferdinand Porsche used mid-engine design concept towards the Auto Union Grand Prix cars of the 1930s which became the first winning RMR racers and they were decades before their time, although MR Miller Specials raced a few times at Indianapolis between 1939 and 1947.
The 718 followed similarly in 1958, but it was not until the late 1950s that RMR reappeared in Grand Prix races in the form of the Cooper-Climax, soon followed by cars from BRM and Lotus. Ferrari and Porsche soon made Grand Prix RMR attempts with less initial success, the mid-engined layout was brought back to Indianapolis in 1961 by the Cooper Car Company with Jack Brabham running as high as third and finishing ninth. Cooper did not return, but from 1963 on British built mid-engined cars from constructors like Brabham and Lola competed regularly and in 1965 Lotus won Indy with their Type 38. The first rear mid-engined road car was the 1962 Bonnet / Matra Djet, nearly 1700 were built until 1967
In automotive engineering a multi-valve or multivalve engine is one where each cylinder has more than two valves. A multi-valve engine has better breathing and may be able to operate at higher revolutions per minute than a two-valve engine, a multi-valve engine design typically has three, four, or five valves per cylinder to achieve improved performance. Any four-stroke internal combustion engine needs at least two valves per cylinder, one for intake of air and fuel, and another for exhaust of combustion gases. Adding more valves increases valve area and improves the flow of intake and exhaust gases, thereby enhancing combustion, volumetric efficiency, multi-valve geometry allows the spark plug to be ideally located within the combustion chamber for optimal flame propagation. Multi-valve engines tend to have smaller valves that have lower reciprocating mass, which can wear on each cam lobe. Some engines are designed to each intake valve at a slightly different time. More valves provide additional cooling to the cylinder head, the disadvantages of multi-valve engines are an increase in manufacturing cost and a potential increase in oil consumption due to the greater number of valve stem seals.
Some SOHC multi-valve engines use a single fork-shaped rocker arm to drive two valves so that fewer cam lobes will be needed in order to reduce manufacturing costs, three-valve cylinder head This has a single large exhaust valve and two smaller intake valves. A three-valve layout allows better breathing than a head. The manufacturing cost for this design can be lower than for a four-valve design, the three-valve design was common in the late 1980s and early 1990s, and from 2004 the main valve arrangement used in Ford F-Series trucks, and Ford SUVs. Four-valve cylinder head This is the most common type of multi-valve head and this design allows similar breathing as compared to a three-valve head, and as the small exhaust valves allow high RPM, this design is very suitable for high power outputs. Five-valve cylinder head Less common is the head, with two exhaust valves and three inlet valves. All five valves are similar in size and this design allows excellent breathing, and, as every valve is small, high RPM and very high power outputs are theoretically available.
After making five-valve Genesis engines for several years, Yamaha has reverted to the cheaper four-valve design, beyond five valves For a cylindrical bore and equal-area sized valves, increasing the number of valves beyond five decreases the total valve area. The following table shows the areas of differing valve quantities as proportion of cylinder bore. These percentages are based on geometry and do not take into account orifices for spark plugs or injectors. Also, in practice, exhaust valves are larger than intake in heads with an even number of valves-per-cylinder. The same applies to variable valve timing and variable intake manifolds, rotary valves offer improved engine breathing and high rev performance but these were never very successful
LaFerrari is a limited production hybrid sports car built by Ferrari. LaFerrari literally means The Ferrari in most Romance languages, in the sense that it is the definitive Ferrari, on December 3,2016, a LaFerrari auctioned off for $7 million making this car the most valuable 21st century automobile ever sold at auction. LaFerrari Concept Manta, LaFerrari Concept Tensostruttura were unveiled in Ferrari Museum Maranello, the LaFerrari is based on findings from testing of the FXX and on research being conducted by the Millechili Project at the University of Modena. Association with the Millechili Project led to speculation during development that the car would weigh under 1,000 kg, only 499 units have been built, and each cost more than 1 million US dollars. An additional 500th car was made to be sold at an auction. The vehicle was unveiled at the 2013 Geneva Auto Show, followed by Auto Shanghai 2013,2013 Tour Auto Optic 2000,2013 Supercar Chronicle, the LaFerrari Aperta is a limited version of the LaFerrari.
200 cars will be sold, the additional nine Ferrari LaFerrari are reserved for selected distribution during the 70th anniversary celebrations of Ferrari, the LaFerrari Aperta comes with a removable carbon-fibre hard top and a removable soft top. The vehicle was unveiled in 2016 Paris Auto Show, like past convertible Ferrari models, it may use the Aperta label to denote its retractable roof. According to Ferrari, all units have already sold to customers via invitation. LaFerrari is the first mild hybrid from Ferrari, providing the highest power output of any Ferrari whilst decreasing fuel consumption by 40 percent, the KERS system adds extra power to the combustion engines output level for a total of 963 PS and a combined torque of 900 N·m. Ferrari claims CO2 emissions of 330 g/km, the engines bore and stroke is 94×75.2 mm with a compression ratio of 13.5,1 and a specific power output of 94 kW per litre. It is connected to a 7-speed dual-clutch transmission and the car is rear-wheel drive, Ferrari LaFerrari has a power to weight ratio of 1.3 kg per horsepower.
The car is equipped with carbon-ceramic Brembo discs on the front and rear, with the car sitting on Pirelli P Zero Corsa tires measuring 265/30 R19 and it has a double wishbone suspension in the front and a multi-link suspension in the rear. Ferrari claims that the car has lapped its Fiorano Test Circuit in 1,19.70 which is faster than any other road-legal car Ferrari has ever produced. LaFerrari received no input from Pininfarina, making it the first Ferrari since the Bertone-styled 1973 Dino 308 GT4 not to have Pininfarina bodywork or other styling and this decision is a rare exception to the collaboration between Ferrari and Pininfarina that began in 1951. However, Ferrari has stated that two new models designed jointly with Pininfarina have yet to be unveiled and that there are no plans to end relations with Pininfarina. The cockpit stands out for its essentiality and the sportiness of the shapes, there is a steering wheel with integrated controls and gear levers directly fixed to the steering column, a solution that allows better use in all conditions.
The bridge which exists between the two seats, designed like a wing, is home to other instruments linked to the dual-clutch gearbox
A spark plug has a metal threaded shell, electrically isolated from a central electrode by a porcelain insulator. The central electrode, which may contain a resistor, is connected by an insulated wire to the output terminal of an ignition coil or magneto. The spark plugs shell is screwed into the engines cylinder head. Spark plugs may be used in applications such as furnaces wherein a combustible fuel/air mixture must be ignited. In this case, they are referred to as flame igniters. In 1860 Étienne Lenoir used a spark plug in his gas engine. Early patents for spark plugs included those by Nikola Tesla, Frederick Richard Simms, helen Blair Bartlett played a vital role in making the insulator in 1930. The plug is connected to the voltage generated by an ignition coil or magneto. As current flows from the coil, a voltage develops between the central and side electrodes. Initially no current can flow because the fuel and air in the gap is an insulator, once the voltage exceeds the dielectric strength of the gases, the gases become ionized.
The ionized gas becomes a conductor and allows current to flow across the gap, spark plugs usually require voltage of 12, 000–25,000 volts or more to fire properly, although it can go up to 45,000 volts. They supply higher current during the process, resulting in a hotter. As the current of electrons surges across the gap, it raises the temperature of the channel to 60,000 K. The intense heat in the channel causes the ionized gas to expand very quickly. This is the click heard when observing a spark, similar to lightning and thunder. The heat and pressure force the gases to react with each other, the size of this fireball, or kernel, depends on the exact composition of the mixture between the electrodes and the level of combustion chamber turbulence at the time of the spark. A small kernel will make the run as though the ignition timing was retarded. A spark plug is composed of a shell and the central conductor, spark plugs are specified by size, either thread or nut, sealing type, and spark gap
Cold-formed steel is the common term for products made by rolling or pressing steel into semi-finished or finished goods at relatively low temperatures. Cold-formed steel goods are created by the working of steel billet, bar, or sheet using stamping, the use of cold-formed steel construction materials has become more and more popular since its initial introduction of codified standards in 1946. In the construction industry both structural and non-structural elements are created from thin gauges of sheet steel and these building materials encompass columns, joists, floor decking, built-up sections and other components. Cold-formed steel construction materials differ from other construction materials known as hot-rolled steel. The manufacturing of cold-formed steel products occurs at room temperature using rolling or pressing, the strength of elements used for design is usually governed by buckling. The construction practices are similar to timber framing using screws to assemble stud frames.
These types of sections are cold-formed from steel sheet, plate, or flat bar in roll forming machines, the material thicknesses for such thin-walled steel members usually range from 0.0147 in. to about ¼ in. Steel plates and bars as thick as 1 in. can be cold-formed successfully into structural shapes, the use of cold-formed steel members in building construction began in the 1850s in both the United States and Great Britain. One of the first documented uses of cold-formed steel as a material is the Virginia Baptist Hospital, constructed around 1925 in Lynchburg. The walls were load bearing masonry, but the system was framed with double back-to-back cold-formed steel lipped channels. According to Chuck Greene, P. E of Nolen Frisa Associates, Greene engineered a recent renovation to the structure and said that for the most part, the joists are still performing well. A site observation during this renovation confirmed that these joists from the roaring twenties are still supporting loads, in the 1940s, Lustron Homes built and sold almost 2500 steel-framed homes, with the framing, finishes and furniture made from cold-formed steel.
Design standards for hot-rolled steel were adopted in 1930s, but were not applicable to cold–formed sections because of their relatively thin steel walls which were susceptible to buckling, Cold-formed steel members maintain a constant thickness around their cross-section, whereas hot-rolled shapes typically exhibit tapering or fillets. Cold-formed steel allowed for shapes which differed greatly from the classical hot-rolled shapes, the material was easily workable, it could be deformed into many possible shapes. Even a small change in the geometry created significant changes in the characteristics of the section. It was necessary to some minimum requirements and laws to control the buckling. In the United States, the first edition of the Specification for the Design of Light Gage Steel Structural Members was published by the American Iron and Steel Institute in 1946. The first Allowable Stress Design Specification was based on the research work sponsored by AISI at Cornell University under the direction of late Professor George Winter since 1939, as a result of this work, George Winter is now considered the grandfather of cold-formed steel design
The Ferrari 348 is a mid-engined, rear-wheel-drive V8-powered 2-seat sports car by Ferrari, replacing the 328 in 1989 and continuing until 1995. It was the final V8 mid-engine model developed by Enzo Ferrari before his death, the 348, badged 348 tb for the coupé and 348 ts and the 348sp versions, features a normally aspirated 3. 4-litre version of the quad-cam, four-valve-per-cylinder V8 engine. As with its predecessors, the number was derived from this configuration. The engine, which produced 300 hp, was mounted longitudinally and coupled to a manual gearbox. The T in the model name 348 tb and ts refers to the position of the gearbox. Overall,2,895 examples of the 348 tb and 4,230 of the 348 ts were produced, the F355 that replaced it returned to the styling cues of the 328 with round tail lights and rounded side air scoops. Fifty-seven Challenge models were built for owners who wanted a more track-ready car, the 348 was fitted with dual-computer engine management using twin Bosch Motronic ECUs, double-redundant anti-lock brakes, and self-diagnosing air conditioning and heating systems.
Late versions have Japanese-made starter motors and Nippondenso power generators to improve reliability, U. S. spec 348s have OBD-I engine management systems, though European variants do not come with the self-test push button installed, which is needed to activate this troubleshooting feature. This had the effect of making the doors very wide. The 348 was equipped with an oil system to prevent oil starvation at high speeds. The oil level can only be checked on the dipstick when the motor is running due to this setup. The 348 was fitted with adjustable suspension and a removable rear sub-frame to speed up the removal of the engine for maintenance. This vehicle served as a test mule for the Ferrari Enzo, between 1992 and 1993 Ferrari made 100 units of 348 Serie Speciale of its tb and ts versions. It was a limited edition made for the US market. During 1992 -1993 there were only 35 TB Serie Speciales manufactured with the remainder being the TS Serie Speciale, Ferrari indicates a 0-60 mph time of 5.3 seconds and a standing ¼ mile of 13.75 seconds.
The cars were offered with F40 style sport seats in Connolly leather, the door panels were modified and made of leather. Each car is numbered, with a 348 Serie Speciale plate on the passengers side door-post, in 1994, a further 15 units were produced, bringing the total production of this limited edition to 115. The Ferrari Challenge was initiated by Ferrari Club Nederland and designated for the Ferrari 348, using the un-modified engine, the only changes of the car were slick tyres, better brake-pads, roll-bar, smaller battery in a different position and seat belts
Dino 206 GT and 246 GT
The Dino 206 GT,246 GT and 246 GTS are V6 mid-engined sports cars produced by Ferrari and sold under the Dino marque between 1968 and 1974. The Dino 246 was the first Ferrari model produced in high numbers and it is lauded by many for its intrinsic driving qualities and groundbreaking design. In 2004, Sports Car International placed the car at number six on its list of Top Sports Cars of the 1970s, motor Trend Classic placed the 206/246 at number seven in their list of the 10 Greatest Ferraris of all time. The production Dino 206 GT was designed by Leonardo Fioravanti at Pininfarina, the 206 GT used a transverse-mounted 2.0 L all-aluminum,160 hp at the 8,000 rpm redline, 65-degree V6 engine with dual overhead camshafts and a 9.7,1 compression ratio. Torque was 138 lbs/ft at 6,500 rpm, the crankshaft featured four main bearings. Induction was via three Weber 40 DCN/4 2-barrel carburetors and it was the first Ferrari product to have a direct rack-and-pinion steering. The 206 GT frame featured a light-weight,1980 pound, aluminium body, full independent suspension, the 206 GT had a 90. 0-inch wheelbase.
The 206 had a top speed of 146 mph,152 were built in total during 1968 and 1969, in left hand drive only. The same 2. 0L engine was used in the Fiat Dino Coupe and Spider, the conversion of the Dino 196 racing engine for road-going use in the Dino was entrusted by Fiat to Aurelio Lampredi, to whom Ferrari owed so many great engines. Lampredi, interviewed in the early 1980s, noted that, Things didnt work out exactly as Ferrari had foreseen, Ferrari had counted building the engines at Maranello, but Fiats management insisted on taking control of production, to avoid any breaks in the engine supply. Fiat quoted 160 hp DIN for the Fiat Dino and Coupé and this, was not the case. Both engines were made by Fiat workers in Turin on the production line, without any discrimination as to their destination. 150 units were taken from the first production batch at the beginning of 1968 to power the Dino 206 GTs. Jean-Pierre Gabriel, writing in Les Ferraris de Turin, notes that, however, as always, it was certainly a savvy piece of marketing by the Commendatore.
Later Fiat Dinos used the 2. 4L engine, although significantly fewer were produced with this engine, calls for more power were answered with the 2.4 L Dino 246. The engine was a 2418 cc 65-degree, dual-overhead-camshaft,9.0,1 compression ratio, the European motor produced 195 bhp, and was available as a fixed-top GT coupé or, after 1971, an open Spyder GTS. The American version had an exhaust air-pump, and timing changes which created 175 hp, the GT had 3 Weber 40 DCNF/6 or 40 DCNF/7 carburetors. For the 246 a new version of the Dinoplex ignition was deployed, the 246 Dino GT weighed 2,380 lb
The widest application for spark ignition internal combustion engines is in petrol road vehicles, four-by-fours, pickups, vans and buses. Compression ignition Diesel engines ignite the mixture by the heat of compression. They usually have glowplugs that preheat the combustion chamber to allow starting in cold weather, other engines may use a flame, or a heated tube, for ignition. While this was common for very early engines it is now rare, the first electric spark ignition was probably Alessandro Voltas toy electric pistol from the 1780s. The simplest form of ignition is that using a magneto. The spark plugs are connected directly from the magneto output, early magnetos had one coil, with the contact breaker inside the combustion chamber. In about 1902, Bosch introduced a double-coil magneto, with a fixed sparking plug, and they are used on piston-engined aircraft engines. Although an electrical supply is available, magneto systems are used mainly because of their higher reliability, magnetos were used in these engines because their simplicity and self-contained operation was more reliable, and because magnetos weighed less than having a battery and dynamo or alternator.
The Wright brothers used a magneto invented in 1902 and built for them in 1903 by Dayton, Ohio inventor and this gave the benefits of easy starting with reliable sparking at speed. Many modern magneto systems have removed the second coil from the magneto itself, in this development, the induced current in the coil in the magneto flows through the primary of the external coil, generating a high voltage in the secondary as a result. Such a system is referred to as a transfer system. Energy transfer systems provide the ultimate in ignition reliability, the output of a magneto depends on the speed of the engine, and therefore starting can be problematic. Some magnetos include a system, which spins the magnet quickly at the proper moment. Some engines, such as aircraft but the Ford Model T, used a system which relied on non rechargeable dry cells, the operator would manually switch the ignition over to magneto operation for high speed operation. To provide high voltage for the spark from the low voltage batteries, a tickler was used, in this mode of operation, the coil would buzz continuously, producing a constant train of sparks.
The entire apparatus was known as the Model T spark coil, in the UK these devices were commonly known as trembler coils and were popular in cars pre-1910, and in commercial vehicles with large engines until around 1925 to ease starting. In either case, the low voltage was switched to the spark plug by the timer mounted on the front of the engine. This performed the equivalent function to the distributor, although by directing the low voltage
A transmission is a machine in a power transmission system, which provides controlled application of the power. Often the term refers simply to the gearbox that uses gears and gear trains to provide speed. In British English, the term refers to the whole drivetrain, including clutch, prop shaft, differential. In American English, the term more specifically to the gearbox alone. The most common use is in vehicles, where the transmission adapts the output of the internal combustion engine to the drive wheels. Such engines need to operate at a high rotational speed, which is inappropriate for starting, stopping. The transmission reduces the engine speed to the slower wheel speed. Transmissions are used on bicycles, fixed machines. Often, a transmission has multiple gear ratios with the ability to switch between them as speed varies and this switching may be done manually or automatically. Directional control may be provided, single-ratio transmissions exist, which simply change the speed and torque of motor output.
The output of the transmission is transmitted via the driveshaft to one or more differentials, while a differential may provide gear reduction, its primary purpose is to permit the wheels at either end of an axle to rotate at different speeds as it changes the direction of rotation. Conventional gear/belt transmissions are not the mechanism for speed/torque adaptation. Alternative mechanisms include torque converters and power transformation, automatic transmissions use a valve body to shift gears using fluid pressures in conjunction with an ecm. Early transmissions included the right-angle drives and other gearing in windmills, horse-powered devices, and steam engines, in support of pumping, most modern gearboxes are used to increase torque while reducing the speed of a prime mover output shaft. This means that the shaft of a gearbox rotates at a slower rate than the input shaft. A gearbox can be set up to do the opposite and provide an increase in speed with a reduction of torque. Some of the simplest gearboxes merely change the rotational direction of power transmission.
Many typical automobile transmissions include the ability to select one of several gear ratios, in this case, most of the gear ratios are used to slow down the output speed of the engine and increase torque
Governments and private organizations have developed car classification schemes that are used for innumerable purposes including regulation and categorization, among others. This article details commonly used classification schemes in use worldwide, vehicles can be categorized in numerous ways. Regulatory agencies may establish a vehicle classification system for determining a tax amount, in the United Kingdom, a vehicle is taxed according to the vehicles construction, weight, type of fuel and emissions, as well as the purpose for which it is used. Other jurisdictions may determine vehicle tax based upon environmental principles, such as the user pays principle, another standard for road vehicles of all types that is used internationally, is ISO 3833-1977. In the United States, since 2010 the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety uses a scheme it has developed that takes into account a combination of both shadow and weight. The United States Federal Highway Administration has developed a scheme used for automatically calculating road use tolls.
There are two categories depending on whether the vehicle carries passengers or commodities. Vehicles that carry commodities are further subdivided by number of axles and number of units, the United States Environmental Protection Agency has developed a classification scheme used to compare fuel economy among similar vehicles. Passenger vehicles are classified based on a total interior passenger. Trucks are classified based upon their gross vehicle weight rating, heavy duty vehicles are not included within the EPA scheme. A similar set of classes is used by the Canadian EPA, in Australia, the Federal Chamber of Automotive Industries publishes its own classifications. This is a table listing several different methods of vehicle classification. Straddling the boundary between car and motorbike, these vehicles have engines under 1.0 litre, typically only two passengers, and are sometimes unorthodox in construction. Some microcars are three-wheelers, while the majority have four wheels, microcars were popular in post-war Europe, where their appearance led them to be called Bubble cars.
More recent microcars are often electric powered, the size of ultracompact cars will be less than minicars, but have engine greater than 50cc displacement and able to transport 1 or 2 persons. Ultracompact cars cannot use standard, because of strict safety standards for minicars. The regulation about running capacity and safety performance of cars will be published in early autumn. Today, there are smaller than ultracompact cars, called category-1 motorized vehicles which it has 50cc displacement or less