Porsche 911 GT1
The Porsche 911 GT1 was a car designed for competition in the GT1 class of sportscar racing, which required a street legal version for homologation purposes. The limited-production street-legal version was labeled the 911 GT1 Straßenversion, the engine was making about 600 PS. In comparison, the 993 generation 911 GT2, which was otherwise the companys highest-performance vehicle and they followed up by winning at Spa and Ralf Kelleners and Emmanuel Collard triumphed for the factory team at Zhuhai. This compares favourably in that race, with the 1996 Ferrari F40 GTE II, in 1997, the new Mercedes-Benz CLK-GTR was successful in the new FIA GT Championship that replaced the BPR, as it was developed for racing. Mercedes did not enter Le Mans yet with their new car, the Porsche did not prove to be as fast in the FIA series, and failed to win a single race, first against the McLaren F1 GTR, and against the new CLK-GTR. Towards the end of the 1996 season Porsche made revisions to the 911 GT1 in preparation for the 1997 season, the front end of the car was revised including new bodywork which featured headlamps that previewed the all-new 2nd generation Porsche 911 which would appear in 1997.
The revised car was known as the 911 GT1 Evo, for the 1998 season Porsche developed an all-new car, the 911 GT1-98. As per the regulations a street-legal version of the 911 GT1-98 was spawned, the Michelin tyres of the factory team and especially the Pirelli of the private Zakspeed team were considered inferior to the Bridgestone of Mercedes. At the 1998 Le Mans however, it was a different story, the BMW V12 LM retired with wheel bearing trouble, and the Mercedes CLK-LM vehicles had oil pump troubles in the new V8 engines that replaced the former V12. The Toyota GT-One, which was considered to be the fastest car, the GT198 was set up with higher downforce in the race than the previous two years, which reduced its race maximum speed to 310 km/h. However, in the 1998 Le Mans 24 Hours test days, with Mercedes dominating FIA GT1 in 1998, all other entries including Porsche withdrew for 1999. The GT1 class was cancelled, and the FIA GT Championship was contested with GT2 cars, Porsche could have entered at Le Mans, but chose not to try to defend the win of 98 against new machines from other factories.
Following Champions purchase of a 911 GT1 Evo for 1999, Gunnar Racing offered a race car to the team with intentions to race in 2000. The car, known as the Gunnar G-99, was a custom-built 911 GT1 with an open cockpit, the chassis was made from scratch yet remained nearly identical to the 911 GT1 mechanically, even using the bulk of the bodyparts. A large rollbar was put over the cockpit to help protect the driver. A3.6 litre flat-6 from a Porsche 911 GT3 was used in place of the standard 911 GT1 unit, Champion would instead turn to buying a Lola B2K/10, so the Gunnar G-99 was temporarily abandoned. The car would resurface in the Rolex Sports Car Series in 2002, Gunnar Racing rebuilt the car with a near identical GT1 roof, and briefly competed in 2003. The car would take a best finish of second in class twice before being retired due to lack of funding, regulations for the GT1 category stipulated that to be eligible, a total of 25 cars must be built for road use
Formula One is the highest class of single-seat auto racing that is sanctioned by the Fédération Internationale de lAutomobile. The FIA Formula One World Championship has been the form of racing since the inaugural season in 1950. The formula, designated in the name, refers to a set of rules, the F1 season consists of a series of races, known as Grands Prix, held worldwide on purpose-built F1 circuits and public roads. The results of each race are evaluated using a system to determine two annual World Championships, one for drivers, one for constructors. The racing drivers are required to be holders of valid Super Licences, the races are required to be held on tracks graded 1, the highest grade a track can receive by the FIA. Most events are held in locations on purpose-built tracks, but there are several events in city centres throughout the world. Formula One cars are the fastest road racing cars in the world. Formula One cars race at speeds of up to approximately 375 km/h with engines currently limited in performance to a maximum of 15,000 RPM, the cars are capable of lateral acceleration in excess of five g in corners.
The performance of the cars is very dependent on electronics – although traction control and other driving aids have been banned since 2008 – and on aerodynamics, the formula has radically evolved and changed through the history of the sport. F1 had a global television audience of 425 million people during the course of the 2014 season. Grand Prix racing began in 1906 and became the most popular internationally in the second half of the twentieth century. The Formula One Group is the holder of the commercial rights. Its high profile and popularity have created a major merchandising environment, since 2000 the sports spiraling expenditures and the distribution of prize money favoring established top teams have forced complaints from smaller teams and led several teams to bankruptcy. On 23 January 2017 it was confirmed that Liberty Media had completed its $8 billion acquisition of Delta Topco, the Formula One series originated with the European Grand Prix Motor Racing of the 1920s and 1930s.
The formula is a set of rules that all cars must meet. Formula One was a new formula agreed upon after World War II during 1946, the first world championship race was held at Silverstone, United Kingdom in 1950. A championship for constructors followed in 1958, national championships existed in South Africa and the UK in the 1960s and 1970s. Non-championship Formula One events were held for years, but due to the increasing cost of competition
Enzo Ferrari (automobile)
The Enzo Ferrari is a 12 cylinder mid-engine berlinetta sports car named after the companys founder, Enzo Ferrari. Also used are not allowed in F1 such as active aerodynamics. After a downforce of 7600 N is reached at 300 km/h the rear wing is actuated by computer to maintain that downforce, the Enzos F140 B V12 engine was the first of a new generation for Ferrari. It is based on the design of the V8 found in Maseratis Quattroporte and this design will replace the former architectures seen in V12 and V8 engines used in most other contemporary Ferraris. The 2005 F430 is the second Ferrari to get a version of this new powerplant. The Enzo was designed by Ken Okuyama, the Japanese former Pininfarina head designer, the company sent invitations to existing customers, those who had previously bought the F40 and F50. All 349 cars were sold in this way before production began, after numerous requests, Ferrari decided to build 50 more Enzos, bringing the total to 399. Before being unveiled at the Paris Motor show, the Enzo was flown from Italy to the U. S.
to be filmed in Charlies Angels and it was driven on a beach by actress Demi Moore. After filming was complete, the Enzo was flown to France to be in the Motor Show, Enzos are listed as being built in 2003. In 2004, a 400th Enzo was built and donated to the Vatican for charity, three development mules were built, M1, M2, and M3. Each was bodied to look like a 348, a model which had succeeded by two generations of mid-engined V8 sports cars—the F355 and the 360 Modena—by the time the mules were built. The third mule was offered for auction alongside the 400th Enzo in June 2005, the Enzo is a rear mid-engined vehicle with a 43. 9/56.1 front/rear weight distribution. The engine is Ferraris F140B 65° V12 with 4 valves per cylinder, dual overhead cams, bosch Motronic ME7 fuel injection is used and the engine is naturally aspirated. It displaces 5998 cc and produces 660 PS at 7800 rpm and 657 N·m at 5500 rpm, the Enzo has a semi-automatic transmission using paddles to control an automated shifting and clutch mechanism, with LED lights on the steering wheel telling the driver when to change gears.
The gearbox has a time of just 150 milliseconds. The transmission was a first generation design from the late 1990s. The Enzo has 4 wheel independent suspension with push-rod actuated shock absorbers which can be adjusted from the cabin, complemented with anti-roll bars at the front, the Enzo uses 19-inch wheels and has 15-inch Brembo disc brakes. The wheels are held by a lug nut and fitted with Bridgestone Potenza Scuderia RE050A tires
A manual transmission, known as a manual gearbox, stick shift, n-speed manual, standard, MT, or in colloquial U. S. English, a stick, is a type of transmission used in motor vehicle applications. The number of gear ratios is often expressed for automatic transmissions as well. Manual transmissions often feature a clutch and a movable gear stick. This type of transmission is called a sequential manual transmission. In a manual transmission, the flywheel is attached to the engines crankshaft, the clutch disk is in between the pressure plate and the flywheel, and is held against the flywheel under pressure from the pressure plate. When the engine is running and the clutch is engaged, the flywheel spins the clutch plate, as the clutch pedal is depressed, the throw out bearing is activated, which causes the pressure plate to stop applying pressure to the clutch disk. This makes the clutch plate stop receiving power from the engine, when the clutch pedal is released, the throw out bearing is deactivated, and the clutch disk is again held against the flywheel, allowing it to start receiving power from the engine.
Manual transmissions are characterized by gear ratios that are selectable by locking selected gear pairs to the shaft inside the transmission. Conversely, most automatic transmissions feature epicyclic gearing controlled by brake bands and/or clutch packs to select gear ratio, automatic transmissions that allow the driver to manually select the current gear are called manumatics. A manual-style transmission operated by computer is called an automated transmission rather than an automatic. Operating aforementioned transmissions often use the pattern of shifter movement with a single or multiple switches to engage the next sequence of gear selection. The earliest form of a transmission is thought to have been invented by Louis-René Panhard. This type of transmission offered multiple gear ratios and, in most cases and these transmissions are called sliding mesh transmissions or sometimes crash boxes, because of the difficulty in changing gears and the loud grinding sound that often accompanied.
Newer manual transmissions on cars have all gears mesh at all times and are referred to as constant-mesh transmissions, in both types, a particular gear combination can only be engaged when the two parts to engage are at the same speed. To shift to a gear, the transmission is put in neutral. The vehicle slows while in neutral and that slows other transmission parts, so the time in neutral depends on the grade, for both upshifts and downshifts, the clutch is released while in neutral. Some drivers use the only for starting from a stop. Even though automobile and light truck transmissions are now almost universally synchronized, transmissions for trucks and machinery, motorcycles
IMSA GT Championship
IMSA GT was a sports car racing series organized by International Motor Sports Association. Races took place primarily in the United States and occasionally in Canada, the series was founded in 1969 by John and Peggy Bishop and Bill France, Sr. and racing debuted in 1971. It was originally aimed at two of FIAs stock car categories running at two different classes, the GT and touring cars, the first race was held at Virginia International Raceway, it was an unexpected hit with both the drivers and a handful of spectators who attended. For the following year, IMSA founder John Bishop brought in sponsor R. J. Reynolds and in 1975, in 1977, the series would go through a series of major changes. IMSA permitted turbocharged cars for the first time as well as introducing a new category called GTX for cars based on the Group 5 rules, in 1981, after Bishop decided to not follow FIAs newly introduced Group C rules, so he introduced the GTP class for sports prototypes. In 1989, Bishop sold off his organization, after a period of decline in the early 1990s, the worlds sports car category was introduced in 1993 to replace the GTP category in 1994.
After a period of multiple ownerships, the organization was eventually renamed Professional Sports Car Racing, in 1999, PSCR decided to drop their own championship in order to sanction a new American Le Mans Series. Despite various names, the GT series was known commonly as the IMSA series as it had been the organizations dominant series, the 1971 season was the first racing season, and featured six races. The early years of the series featured GT cars, similar to the European Group 2 and Group 4 classes, GTO cars were grand touring-type cars with engines of 2.5 L displacement or more, the letter O colloquially meaning over 2. 5L. The GTO group was dominated by Corvettes, by Shelby Mustangs and various factory teams consisting of Cougars, 280zxs and finally, 300ZXs. GTU cars were by grand touring-type cars with engines of 2.5 L displacement or less, the GTU group was dominated by Porsche 914-6 GTs and SA22 Mazda RX-7s through the end of the 1980s. TO were touring-type cars such as the Camaro with engines of 2.5 L or more displacement, TU were touring-type cars with engines of 2.5 L or less displacement.
In essence, these groups had been absorbed from the Trans Am Series, Trans Am would quickly become a support series for IMSA GT. The first champions were Peter H. Gregg and Hurley Haywood, common winners in these early years of IMSA were the Porsche 911 Carrera RSR and Chevrolet Corvette. Camel became the sponsor during the second season, and the series became known as Camel GT Challenge Series. As well as Joe Camel decal, starting fields of 30 or more competitors were not unusual during this era. One of the race events was the Paul Revere 250 which started at the stroke of midnight of the 4th of July. The race was conducted entirely during the night from start to finish, in 1974 a new category called All American Grand Touring was introduced to counteract the Porsche dominance in GTO
Governments and private organizations have developed car classification schemes that are used for innumerable purposes including regulation and categorization, among others. This article details commonly used classification schemes in use worldwide, vehicles can be categorized in numerous ways. Regulatory agencies may establish a vehicle classification system for determining a tax amount, in the United Kingdom, a vehicle is taxed according to the vehicles construction, weight, type of fuel and emissions, as well as the purpose for which it is used. Other jurisdictions may determine vehicle tax based upon environmental principles, such as the user pays principle, another standard for road vehicles of all types that is used internationally, is ISO 3833-1977. In the United States, since 2010 the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety uses a scheme it has developed that takes into account a combination of both shadow and weight. The United States Federal Highway Administration has developed a scheme used for automatically calculating road use tolls.
There are two categories depending on whether the vehicle carries passengers or commodities. Vehicles that carry commodities are further subdivided by number of axles and number of units, the United States Environmental Protection Agency has developed a classification scheme used to compare fuel economy among similar vehicles. Passenger vehicles are classified based on a total interior passenger. Trucks are classified based upon their gross vehicle weight rating, heavy duty vehicles are not included within the EPA scheme. A similar set of classes is used by the Canadian EPA, in Australia, the Federal Chamber of Automotive Industries publishes its own classifications. This is a table listing several different methods of vehicle classification. Straddling the boundary between car and motorbike, these vehicles have engines under 1.0 litre, typically only two passengers, and are sometimes unorthodox in construction. Some microcars are three-wheelers, while the majority have four wheels, microcars were popular in post-war Europe, where their appearance led them to be called Bubble cars.
More recent microcars are often electric powered, the size of ultracompact cars will be less than minicars, but have engine greater than 50cc displacement and able to transport 1 or 2 persons. Ultracompact cars cannot use standard, because of strict safety standards for minicars. The regulation about running capacity and safety performance of cars will be published in early autumn. Today, there are smaller than ultracompact cars, called category-1 motorized vehicles which it has 50cc displacement or less
The Ferrari Mythos was a mid-engine, rear wheel drive concept car based on the mechanical underpinnings of the Ferrari Testarossa designed by Pininfarina and produced by Ferrari in 1989. Its World premiere was at the Tokyo Motor Show, the design was implemented on the platform of the Ferrari Testarossa, which dictated the cars wedge shape and large air intake ahead of the rear wheels. It is capable of 290 km/h, the prototype is stored in Pininfarina style center at Cambiano, Though never produced in quantity, the Pininfarina Mythos was prominently featured in the 1990 Accolade video game Test Drive III. As previously mentioned, the vehicle was never produced in a large mass, sources claim that the Sultan of Brunei owns two Mythos prototypes, one being a turquoise convertible. Technical Information Photographs of the mythos
In automotive engineering, an inlet manifold or intake manifold is the part of an engine that supplies the fuel/air mixture to the cylinders. The word manifold comes from the Old English word manigfeald and refers to the multiplying of one into many, in contrast, an exhaust manifold collects the exhaust gases from multiple cylinders into a smaller number of pipes – often down to one pipe. The primary function of the manifold is to evenly distribute the combustion mixture to each intake port in the cylinder head. Even distribution is important to optimize the efficiency and performance of the engine and it may serve as a mount for the carburetor, throttle body, fuel injectors and other components of the engine. Due to the movement of the pistons and the restriction caused by the throttle valve, in a reciprocating spark ignition piston engine. This vacuum can be used to draw any piston blow-by gases from the engines crankcase and this is known as a positive crankcase ventilation system, in which the gases are burned with the fuel/air mixture.
The intake manifold has historically been manufactured from aluminum or cast iron, the carburetor or the fuel injectors spray fuel droplets into the air in the manifold. Due to electrostatic forces some of the fuel will form into pools along the walls of the manifold, both actions are undesirable because they create inconsistencies in the air-fuel ratio. Turbulence in the intake causes forces of uneven proportions in varying vectors to be applied to the fuel, better atomization allows for a more complete burn of all the fuel and helps reduce engine knock by enlarging the flame front. To achieve this turbulence it is a practice to leave the surfaces of the intake and intake ports in the cylinder head rough. Only a certain degree of turbulence is useful in the intake, once the fuel is sufficiently atomized additional turbulence causes unneeded pressure drops and a drop in engine performance. The design and orientation of the manifold is a major factor in the volumetric efficiency of an engine.
Modern intake manifolds usually employ runners, individual tubes extending to each port on the cylinder head which emanate from a central volume or plenum beneath the carburetor. The purpose of the runner is to take advantage of the Helmholtz resonance property of air, air flows at considerable speed through the open valve. When the valve closes, the air that has not yet entered the still has a lot of momentum and compresses against the valve. This high-pressure air begins to equalize with lower-pressure air in the manifold, due to the airs inertia, the equalization will tend to oscillate, At first the air in the runner will be at a lower pressure than the manifold. The air in the manifold tries to back into the runner. This process occurs at the speed of sound, and in most manifolds travels up, the smaller the cross-sectional area of the runner, the higher the pressure changes on resonance for a given airflow
Targa top, targa for short, is a semi-convertible car body style with a removable roof section and a full width roll bar behind the seats. The term was first used on the 1966 Porsche 911 Targa, the rear window is normally fixed, but on some targa models, it is removable or foldable, making it a convertible-type vehicle. The word targa first came into use from the 1966 Porsche 911 Targa, the system first appeared in 1957 on the limited-production Fiat 1200 “Wonderful” by Vignale, designed by Giovanni Michelotti. The Triumph TR4 from 1961, another Michelotti design, featured a similar system, the 1964 SAAB Catherina prototype and the 1965 Toyota Sports 800 both used similar systems before the 1966 Porsche 911 Targa. As a result, manufacturers adopted Targa tops or T-tops, as Porsche helped to popularise this body style, they took out a trademark for the Targa name and manufacturers sought for alternative names for their removable tops. Porsche got the name Targa from the Targa Florio, the road race in Sicily where Porsche was very successful.
The glass roof retracted underneath the window revealing a large opening. A shade was there to prevent the greenhouse effect of the closed roof. This system was a redesign, as previous Targa models had a removable roof section. The Targa had the body of the Cabriolet with the Targa glass roof replacing the fabric roof, the 911 Targa continued with the all-new 996-model and gained a lifting hatchback glass window. This, in turn, was used on the 997 model of 911, with the introduction and production of the latest 911, the Type 991, Porsche decided to take the latest Targa in a different direction from that of the previous water-cooled Type 996/997 cars. The Type 991 Targa brings back the feature of the Targa bar that was perhaps the most obvious. Ferrari introduced a variation of the targa roof and folding metal roof with the 180 degree rotating roof featured on the 2005 Ferrari 575M Maranello Superamerica. The concept was used in the 2010 Renault Wind. Examples of the Targa car body style include, Hardtop Bimini top Dodger
Internal combustion engine
An internal combustion engine is a heat engine where the combustion of a fuel occurs with an oxidizer in a combustion chamber that is an integral part of the working fluid flow circuit. In an internal combustion engine the expansion of the high-temperature and high-pressure gases produced by combustion applies direct force to some component of the engine, the force is applied typically to pistons, turbine blades, rotor or a nozzle. This force moves the component over a distance, transforming chemical energy into mechanical energy. The first commercially successful internal combustion engine was created by Étienne Lenoir around 1859, firearms are a form of internal combustion engine. Working fluids can be air, hot water, pressurized water or even liquid sodium, ICEs are usually powered by energy-dense fuels such as gasoline or diesel, liquids derived from fossil fuels. While there are many applications, most ICEs are used in mobile applications and are the dominant power supply for vehicles such as cars, aircraft.
Typically an ICE is fed with fossil fuels like natural gas or petroleum products such as gasoline, there is a growing usage of renewable fuels like biodiesel for compression ignition engines and bioethanol or methanol for spark ignition engines. Hydrogen is sometimes used, and can be made from fossil fuels or renewable energy. Various scientists and engineers contributed to the development of internal combustion engines, in 1791, John Barber developed a turbine. In 1794 Thomas Mead patented a gas engine, in 1794 Robert Street patented an internal combustion engine, which was the first to use liquid fuel, and built an engine around that time. In 1798, John Stevens built the first American internal combustion engine, in 1807, Swiss engineer François Isaac de Rivaz built an internal combustion engine ignited by electric spark. In 1823, Samuel Brown patented the first internal combustion engine to be applied industrially, in 1860, Belgian Jean Joseph Etienne Lenoir produced a gas-fired internal combustion engine.
In 1864, Nikolaus Otto patented the first atmospheric gas engine, in 1872, American George Brayton invented the first commercial liquid-fuelled internal combustion engine. In 1876, Nikolaus Otto, working with Gottlieb Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach, patented the compressed charge, in 1879, Karl Benz patented a reliable two-stroke gas engine. In 1892, Rudolf Diesel developed the first compressed charge, compression ignition engine, in 1926, Robert Goddard launched the first liquid-fueled rocket. In 1939, the Heinkel He 178 became the worlds first jet aircraft, at one time, the word engine meant any piece of machinery — a sense that persists in expressions such as siege engine. A motor is any machine that produces mechanical power, electric motors are not referred to as Engines, combustion engines are often referred to as motors. In boating an internal combustion engine that is installed in the hull is referred to as an engine, reciprocating piston engines are by far the most common power source for land and water vehicles, including automobiles, ships and to a lesser extent, locomotives
In automotive engineering a multi-valve or multivalve engine is one where each cylinder has more than two valves. A multi-valve engine has better breathing and may be able to operate at higher revolutions per minute than a two-valve engine, a multi-valve engine design typically has three, four, or five valves per cylinder to achieve improved performance. Any four-stroke internal combustion engine needs at least two valves per cylinder, one for intake of air and fuel, and another for exhaust of combustion gases. Adding more valves increases valve area and improves the flow of intake and exhaust gases, thereby enhancing combustion, volumetric efficiency, multi-valve geometry allows the spark plug to be ideally located within the combustion chamber for optimal flame propagation. Multi-valve engines tend to have smaller valves that have lower reciprocating mass, which can wear on each cam lobe. Some engines are designed to each intake valve at a slightly different time. More valves provide additional cooling to the cylinder head, the disadvantages of multi-valve engines are an increase in manufacturing cost and a potential increase in oil consumption due to the greater number of valve stem seals.
Some SOHC multi-valve engines use a single fork-shaped rocker arm to drive two valves so that fewer cam lobes will be needed in order to reduce manufacturing costs, three-valve cylinder head This has a single large exhaust valve and two smaller intake valves. A three-valve layout allows better breathing than a head. The manufacturing cost for this design can be lower than for a four-valve design, the three-valve design was common in the late 1980s and early 1990s, and from 2004 the main valve arrangement used in Ford F-Series trucks, and Ford SUVs. Four-valve cylinder head This is the most common type of multi-valve head and this design allows similar breathing as compared to a three-valve head, and as the small exhaust valves allow high RPM, this design is very suitable for high power outputs. Five-valve cylinder head Less common is the head, with two exhaust valves and three inlet valves. All five valves are similar in size and this design allows excellent breathing, and, as every valve is small, high RPM and very high power outputs are theoretically available.
After making five-valve Genesis engines for several years, Yamaha has reverted to the cheaper four-valve design, beyond five valves For a cylindrical bore and equal-area sized valves, increasing the number of valves beyond five decreases the total valve area. The following table shows the areas of differing valve quantities as proportion of cylinder bore. These percentages are based on geometry and do not take into account orifices for spark plugs or injectors. Also, in practice, exhaust valves are larger than intake in heads with an even number of valves-per-cylinder. The same applies to variable valve timing and variable intake manifolds, rotary valves offer improved engine breathing and high rev performance but these were never very successful
A sports car is a small, usually two seater, two door automobile designed for spirited performance and nimble handling. According to the Merriam-Webster dictionary, the first known use of the term was in 1928, Sports cars may be spartan or luxurious, but high maneuverability and minimum weight are requisite. The basis for the car is traced to the early 20th century touring cars and roadsters. These raced in rallies, such as the Herkomer Cup, Prinz-Heinrich-Fahrt. These would shortly be joined by the French DFP and the Rolls-Royce Silver Ghost. In 1921, Ballot premiered its 2LS, with a remarkable 75 hp DOHC two liter, designed by Ernest Henry, capable of 150 km/h, at most, one hundred were built in four years and this was followed by the SOHC 2LT and 2LTS. The same year, Benz built a supercharged 28/95PS four for the Coppa Florio, duerkopps Zoller-blown two liter in 1924, as well. There was a clear cleavage by 1925, by the end of the 1920s, AC produced a 2-liter six, the 3. Benz introduced the powerful SS and SSK, and Alfa Romeo, hispano-Suizas Alfonso XIII is considered the first sportcar developed between 1911 and 1914.
Two companies would offer really reliable sports cars, Austin with the Seven, the drive train and engine layout significantly influences the handling characteristics of an automobile, and is crucially important in the design of a sports car. The front-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout is common to cars of any era and has survived longer in sports cars than in mainstream automobiles. Examples include the Caterham 7, Mazda MX-5, and the Chevrolet Corvette, more specifically, many such sports cars have a FMR layout, with the centre of mass of the engine between the front axle and the firewall. In search of improved handling and weight distribution, other layouts are sometimes used, the RMR layout is commonly found only in sports cars—the motor is centre-mounted in the chassis, and powers only the rear wheels. Some high-performance sports car manufacturers, such as Ferrari and Lamborghini have preferred this layout, Porsche is one of the few remaining manufacturers using the rear-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout.
The motors distributed weight across the wheels, in a Porsche 911, provides excellent traction, Porsche has continuously refined the design and in recent years added electronic driving aids to counteract these inherent design shortcomings. The front-engine, front-wheel-drive layout layout which is the most common in sport compacts and hot hatches, its conservative handling effect, particularly understeer, and the fact that many drivers believe rear wheel drive is a more desirable layout for a sports car count against it. The Fiat Barchetta, Saab Sonett, and Berkeley cars are cars with this layout. Before the 1980s few sports cars used four-wheel drive, which had added a lot of weight