The inline-four engine or straight-four engine is a type of inline internal combustion four-cylinder engine with all four cylinders mounted in a straight line, or plane along the crankcase. The single bank of cylinders may be oriented in either a vertical or a plane with all the pistons driving a common crankshaft. Where it is inclined, it is called a slant-four. In a specification chart or when an abbreviation is used, an engine is listed either as I4 or L4. The inline-four layout is in primary balance and confers a degree of mechanical simplicity which makes it popular for economy cars. However, despite its simplicity, it suffers from an imbalance which causes minor vibrations in smaller engines. These vibrations become more powerful as engine size and power increase, the inline-four is the most common engine configuration in modern cars, while the V6 engine is the second most popular. This inline engine configuration is the most common in cars with a displacement up to 3.0 L, in practice, the displacement of inline-four petrol engines in cars rarely exceeds this figure.
For example, the largest engine of this form on the U. S. market in model year 2015 is the Toyota 2TR-FE, there are some notable exceptions. Early vehicles tended to have engines with larger displacements to develop horsepower, the Model A Ford was built with a 3.3 L inline-four engine. Inline-four diesel engines, which are lower revving than gasoline engines, Mitsubishi still employs a 3.0 L inline-four diesel. Generally and Asian manufacturers of trucks with a vehicle weight rating between 7.5 and 18 tonnes use inline four-cylinder diesel engines with displacements around 5 L. The MAN D0834 engine is a 4.6 L inline-4 with 220 hp and 627 lb·ft, the Isuzu Forward is a medium-duty truck which is available with a 5.2 L inline-four engine that delivers 210 hp and 470 lb·ft. The Hino Ranger is a medium-duty truck which is available with a 5.1 L inline-four engine that delivers 175 hp and 465 lb·ft, the earlier Hino Ranger even had a 5.3 L inline-four engine. The Kubota M135X is a tractor with a 6.1 L inline-four and this turbo-diesel engine has a bore of 118 mm and a relatively long stroke of 140 mm.
One of the strongest Powerboat-4-cylinders is the Volvo Penta D4-300 turbodiesel and this is a 3.7 L-inline-4 with 300 hp and 516 lb·ft. Brunswick Marine built a 127 kW3.7 L 4-cylinder gasoline engine for their Mercruiser Inboard/outboard line, the block was formed from one half of a Ford 460 cubic inch V8 engine. This engine was produced in the 1970s and 1980s, One of the largest inline-four engines is the MAN B&W 4K90 marine engine
The Ferrari 250 is a sports car built by Ferrari from 1953 to 1964. The companys most successful line, the 250 series included several variants. It was replaced by the 275 and the 330, most 250 road cars share the same two wheelbases,2,400 mm for short wheelbase and 2,600 mm for long wheelbase. Most convertibles used the SWB type, nearly all 250s share the same Colombo Tipo 125 V12 engine. At 2,953 cc, it was notable for its weight and impressive output of up to 300 PS in the Testa Rossa. The V12 weighed hundreds of less than its chief competitors — for example. Ferrari uses the displacement of a cylinder as the model designation. The light V12 propelled the small Ferrari 250 racing cars to numerous victories, typical of Ferrari, the Colombo V12 made its debut on the race track, with the racing 250s preceding the street cars by three years. The first 250 was the experimental 250 S berlinetta prototype entered in the 1952 Mille Miglia for Giovanni Bracco, the car was entered at Le Mans and in the Carrera Panamericana.
The 250 S used a 2,250 mm wheelbase with a Tuboscocca tubular trellis frame, suspension was by double wishbones at the front, with double longitudinal semi-elliptic springs locating the live axle at the rear. The car had the drum brakes and worm-and-sector steering typical of the period, the dry-sump 3.0 L engine used three Weber 36DCF carburettors and was mated directly to a five-speed manual transmission. Following the success of the 250 S in the Mille Miglia, Pinin Farina created coupé bodywork which had a small grille, compact tail and panoramic rear window, and the new car was launched as the 250 MM at the 1953 Geneva Motor Show. Carrozzeria Vignales open barchetta version was a design whose recessed headlights. The 250 MMs wheelbase was longer than the 250 S at 2,400 mm, the V12 engines dry sump was omitted from the production car, and the transmission was reduced by one gear. Power was increased to 240 PS, the four-cylinder 625 TF and 735 S replaced the V12-powered 250 MM in 1953. The 250 MMs race debut was at the 1953 Giro di Sicilia with privateer Paulo Marzotto, a Carrozzeria Morelli-bodied 250 MM barchetta driven by Clemente Biondetti came fourth in the 1954 Mille Miglia.
The 1954250 Monza was and unusual hybrid of the light four-cylinder 750 Monza, the model used the 250 engine in the short-wheelbase chassis from the 750 Monza. The first two used the Pininfarina barchetta shape of the 750 Monza and a one-off 500 Mondial, two more 250 Monzas were built by Carrozzeria Scaglietti, an early use of the now-familiar coachbuilder
De Dion tube
A de Dion tube is an automobile suspension technology. It is a form of non-independent suspension and is a considerable improvement over the swing axle, Hotchkiss drive. Because it plays no part in transmitting power to the drive wheels, De Dion suspension uses universal joints at both the wheel hubs and differential, and uses a solid tubular beam to hold the opposite wheels in parallel. Unlike an anti-roll bar, a de Dion tube is not directly connected to the chassis nor is it intended to flex, in suspension geometry it is a beam axle suspension. The de Dion tube was named after Comte Jules-Albert de Dion, the tube, was invented around 1894 by co-founder Charles Trépardoux for use on the companys steam tricycles. Advantages, Reduced unsprung weight compared to the Hotchkiss drive, since the differential, unlike most fully independent suspension there are no camber changes on axle loading and unloading. Fixing the camber of both wheels at 0° assists in obtaining good traction from wide tires and tends to reduce wheel hop under high power operations compared to an independent suspension, the choice of shock absorbers and springs is made easier.
The two wheels may be aligned, allowing for independent camber and track alignment. Disadvantages, A pair of CV or universal joints is required for each wheel, adding complexity and weight. If coil springs are used, a location link is required, plus additional torque links on each side or a combination of lower trailing links. None of these links are required if leaf springs are used. The torque links are not required if the setup uses inboard brakes, like in the Pegaso 1502, Rover P6, sympathetic camber changes on opposite wheels are seen on single-wheel suspension compression, just as in a Hotchkiss drive or live axle. This is not important for operation on improved surfaces but is critical for rough road or off road use. Alfa Romeo is probably the most famous adopter of technology, using it on the Alfa Romeo Alfetta, GT, GTV, GTV6, Alfa 6,90, 75/Milano. A recent vehicle to use this suspension coupled with leaf springs was the Ford Ranger EV, the American built MV-1 van by VPG uses this suspension in the rear with leaf springs and is just starting production in spring 2010.
4WD variants of the Honda Fit use a De Dion style suspension in lieu of a torsion bar, benefits include simplicity, compactness and a relatively low liftover height for the cargo bed. Forged steel axles were used instead of tubes, setright, L. J. K. De Dion axle, The First Step to Independence, in Ward, executive editor. World of Automobiles, Volume 5, pp. 515–516
Ferrari 375 MM
See Ferrari 375 F1 for the 375 used in Formula 1 racing Ferrari 375 MM, was a race car produced by Ferrari in 1953 and 1954. It was named 375 for the displacement in the 4. 5L V12 engine. The engine was based on its Ferrari 375 F1 counterpart, but with smaller stroke, the first prototype was a Vignale Spyder and 3 next cars were Pinin Farina Berlinettas, all converted from Ferrari 340 MM. Perhaps the most known 375 MM is the Ingrid Bergman version, commissioned in 1954 by director Roberto Rossellini for his wife, the Bergman 375 MM was subsequently bought and restored by the Microsoft executive Jon Shirley and the restoration specialist Butch Dennison. It became the first postwar Ferrari to win Best of Show at the Pebble Beach Concours dElegance
Alberto Ascari was an Italian racing driver and twice Formula One World Champion. He was a racer who completed in motorcycle racing before switching to cars. Back to back World titles in 1952 and 1953 sandwiched an appearance in the Indianapolis 500 in 1952, Ascari won the legendary Mille Miglia in 1954. When Alberto was a child, his father, who was a racing driver. Alberto once admitted that he warned his children not to become close to him because of the risk involved in his profession. So this proved when he was killed during a test session for Scuderia Ferrari at the Autodromo Nazionale Monza and he was preparing for the Supercortemaggiore 1000 kilometre race that he was to have run with his protégé Eugenio Castellotti on the weekend that followed the accident. The son of one of Italys great pre-war drivers, Alberto Ascari went on to one of Formula One racings most dominant. His unexplained fatal accident – at the age as his fathers, on the same day of the month. Born in Milan, Ascari was the son of Antonio Ascari, such was his passion to become a racing driver like his father, twice he ran away from school.
He raced motorcycles in his earlier years, at the age of just 19, Ascari was signed to ride for the Bianchi team. He married a girl the same year. When Italy entered World War II, the garage, now run by Alberto, was conscripted to service. It was during this period, he established a transport business. His partner in the enterprise was a racing driver, Luigi Villoresi. The pair did survive being capsized in Tripoli harbour along with a shipment of lorries, as their business supported the Italian war effort, it made them exempt from being called up during the war. Following the end of World War II Alberto Ascari began racing in Grands Prix with Maserati 4CLT and his teammate was Villoresi, who would become a mentor and friend to Ascari. The pair were successful on the circuits in the North of Italy, soon he was bestowed with the nickname Ciccio, meaning Tubby. Formula One regulations were introduced by the FIA in 1946, with the aim of replacing the pre-war Grand Prix structure
Pebble Beach Concours d'Elegance
The Pebble Beach Concours dElegance is an automotive charitable event held each year on the Pebble Beach Golf Links in Pebble Beach, considered the most prestigious event of its kind. It is the finale of Monterey Car Week held in August every year, a Concours dElegance is an event open to both prewar and postwar collector cars in which they are judged for authenticity, function and style. Classes are commonly arranged by type, coachbuilder, country of origin, judges select first-, second-, and third-place finishers for each class in the event, and the judges confer the Best of Show award on one car from the group of first-place winners. Approximately 15,000 spectators attend the event, the 1950 and 1951 Concours were held on a practice tee and driving range adjacent to the Beach Club, a private club near the Del Monte Lodge. Thirty cars were exhibited on November 4,1950, and a field of 23 on May 27,1951. In 1952, the event was moved to the 18th green of the Pebble Beach Golf Links, the Pebble Beach Concours dElegance has continued since 1950 with one missed year, in 1960, the show was cancelled due to scheduling conflicts.
In 2001, the event saw an introduction of a new category for preservation cars and this category was designed to bear witness to the passage of time, including the so-called barn find car. The 2006 event saw 175 cars lining the 18th green and hole of Pebble Beach Golf Links with 25 judged classes, with cars brought to Pebble Beach from 27 states and 13 countries. The event describes itself as Exhibiting prewar and postwar automobiles along with the latest in concept car designs, the Pebble Beach Concours dElegance is the premiere concours in the world. 24 of the 175 cars in the come from outside the U. S, representing Italy, France, Australia, Germany, Czech Republic, Netherlands. The total estimated cost of the vehicles spread across the 18th fairway at the 2006 event was US$200 million, from 227 cars in 2005, the 2006 event had a field reduced to 175 cars. Organizers said the change was made to more time to judge each car. In 2009, the Pebble Beach Concours included classic motorcycles for the first time under the theme of pre-1959 British Motorcycles, the Concours received the 2011 Motoring Event of the Year award by the International Historic Motoring Awards.
Each years Pebble Beach Concours honors a featured marque, prospective entrants must submit an application for each car, and the Concours field is selected from each years pool of applicants. Many collectors spend years and hundreds of thousands of dollars purchasing and restoring a car in hopes of being chosen, many of the competing cars are valued in the hundreds of thousands of dollars, and more recently into the millions of dollars. To the repeat participants, their guests, and thousands of attendees, the proceeds of the Pebble Beach Concours dElegance have supported the United Way of Monterey County and the Pebble Beach Company Foundation for a combination of 56 years. It supports a number of local and national organizations. The 2016 event raised over $1.75 million, and the Concours has given more than $23 million to charities through the years
A carburetor, or carburettor, or carburator, or carburetter is a device that blends air and fuel for an internal combustion engine in the proper ratio for combustion. It is sometimes shortened to carb in North America or carby in Australia. To carburate or carburet is to blend the air and fuel or to equip with a carburetor for that purpose, carburetors have largely been supplanted in the automotive and, to a lesser extent, aviation industries by fuel injection. They are still common on engines for lawn mowers, rototillers. The word carburetor comes from the French carbure meaning carbide, carburer means to combine with carbon. In fuel chemistry, the term has the specific meaning of increasing the carbon content of a fluid by mixing it with a volatile hydrocarbon. The first carburetor was invented by Samuel Morey in 1826, a carburetor was invented by an Italian, Luigi De Cristoforis, in 1876. Another carburetor was developed by Enrico Bernardi at the University of Padua in 1882, for his Motrice Pia, a carburetor was among the early patents by Karl Benz as he developed internal combustion engines and their components.
Early carburetors were the surface type, in which air is charged with fuel by being passed over the surface of gasoline. In 1885, Wilhelm Maybach and Gottlieb Daimler developed a float carburetor for their engine based on the atomizer nozzle, hungarian engineers János Csonka and Donát Bánki patented a carburetor for a stationary engine in 1893. Frederick William Lanchester of Birmingham, experimented with the wick carburetor in cars, in 1896, Frederick and his brother built the first gasoline-driven car in England, a single cylinder 5 hp internal combustion engine with chain drive. Unhappy with the performance and power, they re-built the engine the next year into a horizontally opposed version using his new wick carburetor design. Carburetors were the method of fuel delivery for most US-made gasoline-fueled engines up until the late 1980s. 1991, Jeep Grand Wagoneer with the AMC360 cu in V8 engine, low-cost commercial vans and 4WDs in Australia continued with carburetors even into the 2000s, the last being the Mitsubishi Express van in 2003.
Elsewhere, certain Lada cars used carburetors until 2006, many motorcycles still use carburetors for simplicitys sake, since a carburetor does not require an electrical system to function. EEC legislation required all vehicles sold and produced in countries to have a catalytic converter after December 1992. This legislation had been in the pipeline for some time, with cars becoming available with catalytic converters or fuel injection from around 1990. Fords first fuel-injected car was the Ford Capri RS2600 in 1970, general Motors launched its first fuel-injected car around the same time, when began to introduce fuel-injected engines to its Vauxhall Cavalier/Opel Ascona range
By using split crankpins or ignoring minor vibrations, any V angle is possible. The 180° configuration is referred to as a flat-twelve engine or a boxer although it is in reality a 180° V since the pistons can. This is not important in a car if all-out performance is the only goal. Since cost and fuel economy are usually important even in luxury and racing cars and it is often used in marine engines where great power is required, and the hull width is limited, but a longer vessel allows faster hull speed. In twin-propeller boats, two V12 engines can be enough to sit side-by-side, while three V12 engines are sometimes used in high-speed three-propeller configurations. Large, fast cruise ships can have six or more V12 engines, after World War II, the compact, more powerful, and vibration-free turboprop and turbojet engines replaced the V12 in aircraft applications. The first V-type engine was built in 1889 by Daimler, to a design by Wilhelm Maybach, by 1903 V8 engines were being produced for motor boat racing by the Société Antoinette to designs by Léon Levavasseur, building on experience gained with in-line four-cylinder engines.
In 1904, the Putney Motor Works completed a new V12 marine racing engine—the first V12 engine produced for any purpose, a single camshaft mounted in the central V operated the valves directly. As in many engines, the camshaft could be slid longitudinally to engage a second set of cams. Starting is by pumping a charge into each cylinder and switching on the trembler coils, a sliding camshaft gave direct reversing. The camshaft has fluted webs and main bearings in graduated thickness from the largest at the flywheel end, displacing 1,120 cu in, the engine weighed 950 pounds and developed 150 bhp. Little is known of the achievements in the 40-foot hull for which it was intended. One V12 Dörwald marine engine was still running in a Hong Kong junk in the late-1960s. Two more V12s appeared in the 1909-1910 motor boat racing season, the Lamb Boat & Engine Company of Clinton, Iowa built a 1,559 cu in engine for the companys 32-foot Lamb IV. It weighed in at 2,114 pounds, no weight is known for the massive 3,464 cu in F-head engine built by the Orleans Motor Company.
Output is quoted as nearly 400 bhp, by 1914, when Panhard built two 2,356 cu in engines with four-valve cylinder heads the V12 was well established in motor boat racing. In October 1913, Louis Coatalen, chief engineer of the Sunbeam Motor Car Company entered a V12 powered car in the Brooklands short, the engine displaced 9 L, with bore and stroke of 80 x 150 mm. An aluminum crankcase carried two blocks of three cylinders each along each side, with a 60 degree included angle, the cylinders were of iron, with integral cylinder heads with L-shaped combustion chambers
Gran Turismo 6
Gran Turismo 6 is a racing video game developed by Polyphony Digital and published by Sony Computer Entertainment for the PlayStation 3 video game console. It is the major release and twelfth game overall in the Gran Turismo video game series. It was released worldwide on December 6,2013, and was popular with critics, won awards, Gran Turismo 6 is the first-ever video game to have officially certified FIA content. In November 2011, the Gran Turismo series creator, Kazunori Yamauchi, said that he, in March 2012, workers were seen on site at Mount Panorama in Bathurst, New South Wales, Australia and scanning the track. The workers revealed that Mount Panorama will be included in Gran Turismo 6, Gran Turismo 6 was announced on May 15,2013, when Sony Computer Entertainment Europe hosted a celebration of the 15th anniversary of Gran Turismo at Silverstone Circuit in the United Kingdom. An early build of Gran Turismo 6s updated physics was shown to the public when GT Academy 2013 was released on the PlayStation Store on July 2,2013.
On July 10,2013, game developers announced that the Goodwood Festival of Speed hill climb course will be included on the game. This gave the developers the idea to base a track here due to the wide variety of vehicles that use the hill climb in front of 185,000 spectators. Goodwood represents every type of motoring and motor sport which very much mirrors what we aim to achieve with Gran Turismo, there will be no better feedback than that provided by the Goodwood fans to tell me if we are heading in the right direction with Gran Turismo 6. A demo of GT6 was made available at the Festival, to give spectators the chance to challenge Nick Heidfelds 41. 6-second course record set in 1999 in a Formula 1 car. Cars such as the Pagani Huayra, Fisker Karma, Chevrolet Corvette Stingray C7 and BMW Z8 were announced, as well as the Aston Martin One-77, Audi R18, KTM X-Bow and the 1971 Lunar Roving Vehicle. DeltaWing was originally announced for the game, but it was removed due to possible legal. However, it was revealed on December 2,2013 that the DeltaWing will return to the game in the 2012 and 2013 models, Polyphony helped design Toyotas FT-1 concept car by modeling the car initially in Gran Turismo 5 and in Gran Turismo 6.
It helped the car designers to see the car in motion, the car has been released as a free download to Gran Turismo 6 alongside other concept cars on January 14. F1 drivers Sebastian Vettel and Bruno Senna were both test drivers for the game, a free update in May 2014 added a new feature called Ayrton Senna Tribute, which follows the motor racing career of Ayrton Senna. The update includes the iconic Lotus 97T, which Senna drove during the 1985 Formula One season, as well as some tracks featuring variable weather and time of day, there will be a dynamic celestial sphere, so that stars in the night sky have accurate positions. With this, there is a feature where players can drive at Hadley Rille on the moon with the Lunar Rover. On November 17,2013, the first Vision GT car, on May 14,2014, the second Vision GT car, the BMW Vision Gran Turismo, was unveiled and released in the 1.07 update.08 update without an announcement in advance
John Michael Hawthorn was a British racing driver. Hawthorn won the 195524 Hours of Le Mans, but was haunted by his involvement in the crash that marred the race. Hawthorn died in an accident six months after retiring, he was suffering from a terminal illness at the time. His father owned the Tourist Trophy Garage in Farnham, franchised to supply and service several high performance brands including Jaguar and his father raced motorcycles and supported his sons racing career, when he died in a road accident, in 1954, Mike Hawthorn inherited the business. Mike Hawthorn made his debut in his 1934 Riley Ulster Imp, KV9475. In 1951, driving a 1½-litre T. T. Riley, he entered the Motor Sport Brooklands Memorial Trophy and he won the Ulster Trophy Handicap at Dundrod and the Leinster Trophy at Wicklow that year. By 1952, he had switched to single-seaters and during that season won his first race in a Formula Two Cooper-Bristol T20 at Goodwood, further successes followed which brought him to the attention of Enzo Ferrari who offered him a works drive.
He made his Formula One debut at the 1952 Grote Prijs van Belgie on the legendary Circuit de Spa-Francorchamps, finishing in fourth place. By the end of the season, he had secured his first podium, with a third place at the RAC British Grand Prix. This and two podium finishes helped him end the season fourth overall. He won the BRDC International Trophy and the Ulster Trophy as well as the 24 Heures de Spa Francorchamps with Ferrari team-mate Giuseppe Farina, in January 1955, Hawthorn joined the Jaguar racing team, replacing Stirling Moss, who had left for Mercedes. Hawthorn won the 1955 les 24 Heures du Mans following what has been described as a drive in which he set a lap record of 122.388 mph during a three-hour duel with Fangio in the early stages. The impact shattered the front end of the car, which somersaulted high, pitching debris into the spectator area, the debris, including bonnet and front axle, which separated from the frame, flew through the crowd. Eight hours later, while leading the race 1, the French press carried photographs of Hawthorn and Ivor Bueb celebrating their win with the customary champagne but treated them with scorn.
The official inquiry into the accident ruled that Hawthorn was not responsible for the crash, the death of the spectators was blamed on inadequate safety standards for track design. The Grandstand and pit areas were demolished and rebuilt soon after, the death toll led to a ban on motorsports in France, Switzerland and other nations, until the tracks could be brought to a higher safety standard. Another change of team for 1956 – this team to BRM - was a failure, in 1957, Hawthorn rejoined the Ferrari factory team, and soon became friends with Peter Collins, a fellow Englishman and Ferrari team driver. During the 1957 and 1958 racing seasons, the two Englishmen became engaged in a rivalry with Luigi Musso, another Ferrari driver, for prize money
Luigi Villoresi was an Italian Grand Prix motor racing driver who continued racing on the Formula One circuit at the time of its inception. Born in Milan and nicknamed Gigi, he was the brother of race car driver Emilio Villoresi who co-piloted with him in several races at the beginning of their careers. In 1935, he raced in the Coppa Ciano, finishing third, the following year he and his brother purchased a Maserati which they drove individually in different races. Emilio was so successful that he was signed to drive an Alfa Romeo for Scuderia Ferrari in the 1937 season, in 1938, Luigi Villoresi became part of the Maserati team, driving the 8CTF model that Maserati had designed to compete with the dominant German Silver Arrows. In 1939, Maserati introduced the Maserati 4CL which Villoresi drove to victory at the the 1939 South African Grand Prix, his brother Emilio died that year while testing an Alfa Romeo 158/159 Alfetta factory racer at the Autodromo Nazionale Monza. A little over two weeks after his brothers death, he drove his Maserati to victory at the 1939 Adriatic Grand Prix and his racing career was interrupted by the onset of World War II.
At wars end, he returned to race for Maserati until 1949 when he signed again with Ferrari debuting in Formula One on 21 May 1950, Villoresi finished second in the 1949 Buenos Aires Grand Prix-President Juan Peron Grand Prix. Alberto Ascari was the winner with a time of 1 hour,30 minutes,23.9 seconds, Villoresi won the first Grand Prix de Bruxelles, beating Alexander Orley of the United States. The winning time was 85 mph over 188-mile distance, louis Rosier was victorious in a blue Talbot, in a 500-kilometre Grand Prix at Spa-Francorchamps, in June 1949. He took the lead following 23 laps and came across the line in front of Villoresi. Villoresi was third in a 60-mile international race at Silverstone in September 1949, Italian drivers made a clean sweep of the first three positions with Ascari first and Giuseppe Farina second as 100,000 fans looked on. English driver St. John Horsfall died when his car crashed at a turn, Villoresi skidded on oil, penetrated a barrier, and killed three spectators at the Grand Prix des Nations race in Geneva.
Nino Farina impacted Villoresis car at speed but was uninjured. Villoresi broke his leg and suffered head injuries which were treated at a hospital. The Grand Prix of 272 kilometres was won by Juan Manuel Fangio, the 1951 British Grand Prix was taken by José Froilán González of Argentina. Villoresi finished third, two laps behind the winner, with an speed of 95.39 miles per hour. Villoresi completed 88 laps,2 behind Gonzalez, in July 1952 Villoresi won the French Grand Prix at Les Sables dOlonne, driving a Ferrari. He captured the three-hour, 208-mile race, with an speed of 69.3 miles per hour
Aurelio Lampredi was an Italian automobile and aircraft engine designer. Born in Livorno, he began his career at Piaggio, makers of the Vespa scooter and he worked at Isotta Fraschini before World War II, and joined Reggiane to design aircraft engines. Lampredis fame brought him to Ferrari in 1946 where he designed large 3.3,4.1 and 4.5 L versions of its V12 which first saw use in the 1950s 275S,340 F1 and 375 F1 race cars. Lampredi returned to Isotta Fraschini in March 1947 but returned to Ferrari at the beginning of 1948, Lampredis engines were used as large naturally aspirated alternatives to the diminutive Gioacchino Colombo-designed V12s used in most Ferrari cars until that time. Especially after the failure of Colombos supercharged engine in Formula One, Lampredi oversaw Ferraris racing effort during its early success in 1952 and 1953. Lampredis work at Ferrari ended permanently in 1955 when Ferrari bought Lancias racing team and famed engine designer Vittorio Jano, though Lampredis engine designs lived on in Ferrari road cars, Janos V6 and V8 engines quickly replaced Lampredis large V12s for racing use.
After Ferrari, Lampredi went to Fiat, where he oversaw that companys engine design efforts until 1977 and it was at Fiat where he designed the Fiat Twin-Cam and SOHC engines, which provided motive-force for most Fiat automobiles for over 32 years. He was manager of Fiats Abarth factory racing group from 1973 through 1982. He was responsible for designing the engine that allowed Fiat to allocate in the Brazilian market in 1976 and that engine equipped the Fiat 147, direct derivation of the European Fiat 127 but exclusively Brazilian. That was a big impact for the Brazilian automotive industry, because the Fiat 147 was the first national vehicle to have transverse mounted engine with belt driven overhead camshaft and it was the first engine made on a large scale to be powered by Ethanol. Then, in 1979 the Fiat 147 is known to be the worlds first car sold on a scale to be moved by Ethanol. Lampredi died in Livorno in 1989