The Byzantine Empire referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire or Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople. It survived the fragmentation and fall of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD and continued to exist for an additional thousand years until it fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1453. During most of its existence, the empire was the most powerful economic and military force in Europe. Both the terms "Byzantine Empire" and "Eastern Roman Empire" are historiographical terms created after the end of the realm. Several signal events from the 4th to 6th centuries mark the period of transition during which the Roman Empire's Greek East and Latin West diverged. Constantine I reorganised the empire, made Constantinople the new capital, legalised Christianity. Under Theodosius I, Christianity became the Empire's official state religion and other religious practices were proscribed.
Under the reign of Heraclius, the Empire's military and administration were restructured and adopted Greek for official use in place of Latin. Thus, although the Roman state continued and its traditions were maintained, modern historians distinguish Byzantium from ancient Rome insofar as it was centred on Constantinople, oriented towards Greek rather than Latin culture, characterised by Eastern Orthodox Christianity; the borders of the empire evolved over its existence, as it went through several cycles of decline and recovery. During the reign of Justinian I, the empire reached its greatest extent after reconquering much of the Roman western Mediterranean coast, including North Africa and Rome itself, which it held for two more centuries; the Byzantine–Sasanian War of 602–628 exhausted the empire's resources and contributed to major territorial losses during the Early Muslim conquests of the 7th century, when it lost its richest provinces and Syria, to the Arab caliphate. During the Macedonian dynasty, the empire expanded again and experienced the two-century long Macedonian Renaissance, which came to an end with the loss of much of Asia Minor to the Seljuk Turks after the Battle of Manzikert in 1071.
This battle opened the way for the Turks to settle in Anatolia. The empire recovered during the Komnenian restoration, by the 12th century Constantinople was the largest and wealthiest European city. However, it was delivered a mortal blow during the Fourth Crusade, when Constantinople was sacked in 1204 and the territories that the empire governed were divided into competing Byzantine Greek and Latin realms. Despite the eventual recovery of Constantinople in 1261, the Byzantine Empire remained only one of several small rival states in the area for the final two centuries of its existence, its remaining territories were progressively annexed by the Ottomans over the 15th century. The Fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Empire in 1453 ended the Byzantine Empire; the last of the imperial Byzantine successor states, the Empire of Trebizond, would be conquered by the Ottomans eight years in the 1461 Siege of Trebizond. The first use of the term "Byzantine" to label the years of the Roman Empire was in 1557, when the German historian Hieronymus Wolf published his work Corpus Historiæ Byzantinæ, a collection of historical sources.
The term comes from "Byzantium", the name of the city of Constantinople before it became Constantine's capital. This older name of the city would be used from this point onward except in historical or poetic contexts; the publication in 1648 of the Byzantine du Louvre, in 1680 of Du Cange's Historia Byzantina further popularised the use of "Byzantine" among French authors, such as Montesquieu. However, it was not until the mid-19th century that the term came into general use in the Western world; the Byzantine Empire was known to its inhabitants as the "Roman Empire", the "Empire of the Romans", "Romania", the "Roman Republic", as "Rhōmais". The inhabitants called themselves Romaioi and as late as the 19th century Greeks referred to Modern Greek as Romaiika "Romaic." After 1204 when the Byzantine Empire was confined to its purely Greek provinces the term'Hellenes' was used instead. While the Byzantine Empire had a multi-ethnic character during most of its history and preserved Romano-Hellenistic traditions, it became identified by its western and northern contemporaries with its predominant Greek element.
The occasional use of the term "Empire of the Greeks" in the West to refer to the Eastern Roman Empire and of the Byzantine Emperor as Imperator Graecorum were used to separate it from the prestige of the Roman Empire within the new kingdoms of the West. No such distinction existed in the Islamic and Slavic worlds, where the Empire was more straightforwardly seen as the continuation of the Roman Empire. In the Islamic world, the Roman Empire was known as Rûm; the name millet-i Rûm, or "Roman nation," was used by the Ottomans through the 20th century to refer to the former subjects of the Byzantine Empire
Casein pronounced "kay-seen" in British English, is a family of related phosphoproteins. These proteins are found in mammalian milk, comprising c. 80% of the proteins in cow's milk and between 20% and 45% of the proteins in human milk. Sheep and buffalo milk have a higher casein content than other types of milk with human milk having a low casein content. Casein has a wide variety of uses, from being a major component of cheese, to use as a food additive; the most common form of casein is sodium caseinate. As a food source, casein supplies amino acids and two essential elements and phosphorus. Casein contains a high number of proline residues. There are no disulfide bridges; as a result, it has little tertiary structure. It is hydrophobic, making it poorly soluble in water, it is found in milk as a suspension of particles, called casein micelles, which show only limited resemblance with surfactant-type micelles in a sense that the hydrophilic parts reside at the surface and they are spherical. However, in sharp contrast to surfactant micelles, the interior of a casein micelle is hydrated.
The caseins in the micelles are held together by hydrophobic interactions. Any of several molecular models could account for the special conformation of casein in the micelles. One of them proposes the micellar nucleus is formed by several submicelles, the periphery consisting of microvellosities of κ-casein. Another model suggests; the most recent model proposes a double link among the caseins for gelling to take place. All three models consider micelles as colloidal particles formed by casein aggregates wrapped up in soluble κ-casein molecules; the isoelectric point of casein is 4.6. Since milk's pH is 6.6, casein has a negative charge in milk. The purified protein is water-insoluble. While it is insoluble in neutral salt solutions, it is dispersible in dilute alkalis and in salt solutions such as aqueous sodium oxalate and sodium acetate; the enzyme trypsin can hydrolyze a phosphate-containing peptone. It is used to form a type of organic adhesive. Casein paint is a water-soluble medium used by artists.
Casein paint has been used since ancient Egyptian times as a form of tempera paint, was used by commercial illustrators as the material of choice until the late 1960s when, with the advent of acrylic paint, casein became less popular. It is still used by scene painters, although acrylic has made inroads in that field as well. Casein-based glues, formulated from casein, hydrated lime and sodium hydroxide were popular for woodworking, including for aircraft, as late as the de Havilland Albatross airliner. Casein glue is used in transformer manufacturing due to its oil permeability. While replaced with synthetic resins, casein-based glues still have a use in certain niche applications, such as laminating fireproof doors and the labeling of bottles; the popular Elmer's School Glue was made from casein because it was non-toxic and would wash out of clothing. Several foods and toppings all contain a variety of caseinates. Sodium caseinate acts as a greater food additive for stabilizing processed foods, however companies could opt to use calcium caseinate to increase calcium content and decrease sodium levels in their products.
The main food uses of casein are for powders requiring rapid dispersion into water, ranging from coffee creamers to instant cream soups. Mead Johnson introduced a product in the early 1920s named Casec to ease gastrointestinal disorders and infant digestive problems which were a common cause of death in children at that time, it is believed to neutralize capsaicin, the active ingredient of peppers, jalapeños, other chili peppers. Cheese consists of proteins and fat from milk the milk of cows, goats, or sheep, it is produced by coagulation, caused by destabilization of the casein micelle, which begins the processes of fractionation and selective concentration. The milk is acidified and coagulated by the addition of rennet, containing a proteolytic enzyme known as rennin; the solids are separated and pressed into final form. Unlike many proteins, casein is not coagulated by heat. During the process of clotting, milk-clotting proteases act on the soluble portion of the caseins, κ-casein, thus originating an unstable micellar state that results in clot formation.
When coagulated with chymosin, casein is sometimes called paracasein. Chymosin is an aspartic protease that hydrolyzes the peptide bond in Phe105-Met106 of κ-casein, is considered to be the most efficient protease for the cheese-making industry. British terminology, on the other hand, uses the term caseinogen for the uncoagulated protein and casein for the coagulated protein; as it exists in milk, it is a salt of calcium. Some of the earliest plastics were based on casein. In particular, galalith was well known for use in buttons. Fiber can be made from extruded casein. Lanital, a fabric made from casein fiber, was popular in Italy during the 1930s. Recent innovations such as QMilch are offering a more refined use of the fiber for modern fabrics. An attractive property of the casein molecule is its ability to form a gel or clot in the stomach, which makes it efficient in nutrient supply; the clot is able to provide a sustained slow release of amino acids into the blood stream
Domestic sheep are quadrupedal, ruminant mammals kept as livestock. Like most ruminants, sheep are members of the even-toed ungulates. Although the name sheep applies to many species in the genus Ovis, in everyday usage it always refers to Ovis aries. Numbering a little over one billion, domestic sheep are the most numerous species of sheep. An adult female sheep is referred to as a ewe, an intact male as a ram or a tup, a castrated male as a wether, a younger sheep as a lamb. Sheep are most descended from the wild mouflon of Europe and Asia. One of the earliest animals to be domesticated for agricultural purposes, sheep are raised for fleeces and milk. A sheep's wool is the most used animal fiber, is harvested by shearing. Ovine meat is called lamb when from younger animals and mutton when from older ones in Commonwealth countries, lamb in the United States. Sheep continue to be important for wool and meat today, are occasionally raised for pelts, as dairy animals, or as model organisms for science.
Sheep husbandry is practised throughout the majority of the inhabited world, has been fundamental to many civilizations. In the modern era, New Zealand, the southern and central South American nations, the British Isles are most associated with sheep production. Sheepraising has a large lexicon of unique terms which vary by region and dialect. Use of the word sheep began in Middle English as a derivation of the Old English word scēap. A group of sheep is called a herd or mob. Many other specific terms for the various life stages of sheep exist related to lambing and age. Being a key animal in the history of farming, sheep have a entrenched place in human culture, find representation in much modern language and symbology; as livestock, sheep are most associated with pastoral, Arcadian imagery. Sheep figure in many mythologies—such as the Golden Fleece—and major religions the Abrahamic traditions. In both ancient and modern religious ritual, sheep are used as sacrificial animals; the exact line of descent between domestic sheep and their wild ancestors is unclear.
The most common hypothesis states. Sheep were among the first animals to be domesticated by humankind. C in Mesopotamia; the rearing of sheep for secondary products, the resulting breed development, began in either southwest Asia or western Europe. Sheep were kept for meat and skins. Archaeological evidence from statuary found at sites in Iran suggests that selection for woolly sheep may have begun around 6000 BC, the earliest woven wool garments have been dated to two to three thousand years later. Sheep husbandry spread in Europe. Excavations show that in about 6000 BC, during the Neolithic period of prehistory, the Castelnovien people, living around Châteauneuf-les-Martigues near present-day Marseille in the south of France, were among the first in Europe to keep domestic sheep. From its inception, ancient Greek civilization relied on sheep as primary livestock, were said to name individual animals. Ancient Romans kept sheep on a wide scale, were an important agent in the spread of sheep raising.
Pliny the Elder, in his Natural History, speaks at length about wool. European colonists spread the practice to the New World from 1493 onwards. Domestic sheep are small ruminants with a crimped hair called wool and with horns forming a lateral spiral. Domestic sheep differ from their wild relatives and ancestors in several respects, having become uniquely neotenic as a result of selective breeding by humans. A few primitive breeds of sheep retain some of the characteristics of their wild cousins, such as short tails. Depending on breed, domestic sheep may have no horns at all, or horns in both sexes, or in males only. Most horned breeds have a single pair. Another trait unique to domestic sheep as compared to wild ovines is their wide variation in color. Wild sheep are variations of brown hues, variation within species is limited. Colors of domestic sheep range from pure white to dark chocolate brown, spotted or piebald. Selection for dyeable white fleeces began early in sheep domestication, as white wool is a dominant trait it spread quickly.
However, colored sheep do appear in many modern breeds, may appear as a recessive trait in white flocks. While white wool is desirable for large commercial markets, there is a niche market for colored fleeces for handspinning; the nature of the fleece varies among the breeds, from dense and crimped, to long and hairlike. There is variation of wool type and quality among members of the same flock, so wool classing is a step in the commercial processing of the fibre. Depending on breed, sheep show a range of weights, their rate of growth and mature weight is a heritable trait, selected for in breeding. Ewes weigh between 45 and 100 kilograms, rams between 45 and 160 kilograms; when all deciduous teeth have erupted, the sheep has 20 teeth. Mature sheep have 32 teeth; as with other ruminants, the front teeth in the lower jaw bite against a hard, toothless pad in the upper jaw. These are used to pick off vegetation the rear
Black pepper is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae, cultivated for its fruit, known as a peppercorn, dried and used as a spice and seasoning. When fresh and mature, it is about 5 mm in diameter and dark red, contains a single seed, like all drupes. Peppercorns and the ground pepper derived from them may be described as pepper, or more as black pepper, green pepper, or white pepper. Black pepper is native to present-day Kerala in Southwestern India, is extensively cultivated there and elsewhere in tropical regions. Vietnam is the world's largest producer and exporter of pepper, producing 34% of the world's crop, as of 2013. Ground dried and cooked peppercorns have been used since antiquity, both for flavour and as a traditional medicine. Black pepper is the world's most traded spice, is one of the most common spices added to cuisines around the world, its spiciness is due to the chemical compound piperine, a different kind of spicy from the capsaicin characteristic of chili peppers. It is ubiquitous in the modern world as a seasoning, is paired with salt and available on dining tables in shakers.
The word pepper has roots in the Sanskrit word pippali for long pepper. Ancient Greek and Latin turned pippali into the Greek πέπερι peperi and into the Latin piper, which the Romans used for both black pepper and long pepper, erroneously believing that both came from the same plant. From its Sanskrit roots, today's "pepper" is derived from the Old English pipor and from Latin, the source of Romanian piper, Italian pepe, Dutch peper, German Pfeffer, French poivre, other similar forms. In the 16th century, people began using pepper to mean the unrelated New World chili pepper. People have used pepper in a figurative sense to mean "spirit" or "energy" at least as far back as the 1840s. In the early 20th century, this shortened to "pep". Black pepper is produced from the unripe drupes of the pepper plant; the drupes are cooked in hot water, both to clean them and to prepare them for drying. The heat ruptures cell walls in the pepper; the drupes dry in the sun or by machine for several days, during which the pepper skin around the seed shrinks and darkens into a thin, wrinkled black layer.
Once dry, the spice is called black peppercorn. On some estates, the berries are separated from the stem by hand and sun-dried without the boiling process. Once the peppercorns are dried, pepper spirit and oil can be extracted from the berries by crushing them. Pepper spirit is used in many beauty products. Pepper oil is used as an ayurvedic massage oil and in certain beauty and herbal treatments. White pepper consists of the seed of the ripe fruit of the pepper plant, with the thin darker-coloured skin of the fruit removed; this is accomplished by a process known as retting, where ripe red pepper berries are soaked in water for about a week so the flesh of the peppercorn softens and decomposes. Sometimes alternative processes are used for removing the outer pepper from the seed, including removing the outer layer through mechanical, chemical, or biological methods. Ground white pepper is used in Chinese and Thai cuisine, but in salads, cream sauces, light-coloured sauces, mashed potatoes. However, white pepper has a different flavour from black pepper.
Green pepper, like black pepper, is made from unripe drupes. Dried green peppercorns are treated in a way that retains the green colour, such as with sulphur dioxide, canning, or freeze-drying. Pickled peppercorns green, are unripe drupes preserved in brine or vinegar. Fresh, unpreserved green pepper drupes unknown in the West, are used in some Asian cuisines Thai cuisine, their flavour has been described as "spicy and fresh", with a "bright aroma". They decay if not dried or preserved, making them unsuitable for international shipping. Wild pepper grows in the Western Ghats region of India. Into the 19th century, the forests contained expansive wild pepper vines, as recorded by the Scottish physician Francis Buchanan in his book A journey from Madras through the countries of Mysore and Malabar. However, deforestation resulted in wild pepper growing in more limited forest patches from Goa to Kerala, with the wild source decreasing as the quality and yield of the cultivated variety improved. No successful grafting of commercial pepper on wild pepper has been achieved to date.
Orange pepper or red pepper consists of ripe red pepper drupes preserved in brine and vinegar. Ripe red peppercorns can be dried using the same colour-preserving techniques used to produce green pepper. Pink peppercorns are the fruits of the Peruvian pepper tree, Schinus molle, or its relative, the Brazilian pepper tree, Schinus terebinthifolius, plants from a different family; as they are members of the cashew family, they may cause allergic reactions, including anaphylaxis, for persons with a tree nut allergy. The bark of Drimys winteri is used as a substitute for pepper in cold and temperate regions of Chile and Argentina, where it is found and available. In New Zealand, the seeds of kawakawa, a relative of black pepper, are sometimes used as pepper.
Proteins are essential nutrients for the human body. They are one of the building blocks of body tissue and can serve as a fuel source; as a fuel, proteins provide as much energy density as carbohydrates: 4 kcal per gram. The most important aspect and defining characteristic of protein from a nutritional standpoint is its amino acid composition. Proteins are polymer chains made of amino acids linked together by peptide bonds. During human digestion, proteins are broken down in the stomach to smaller polypeptide chains via hydrochloric acid and protease actions; this is crucial for the absorption of the essential amino acids that cannot be biosynthesized by the body. There are nine essential amino acids which humans must obtain from their diet in order to prevent protein-energy malnutrition and resulting death, they are phenylalanine, threonine, methionine, isoleucine and histidine. There has been debate as to whether there are 9 essential amino acids; the consensus seems to lean towards 9. There are five amino acids.
These five are alanine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid and serine. There are six conditionally essential amino acids whose synthesis can be limited under special pathophysiological conditions, such as prematurity in the infant or individuals in severe catabolic distress; these six are arginine, glycine, glutamine and tyrosine. Dietary sources of protein include both animals and plants: meats, dairy products and eggs, as well as grains and nuts. Vegans can get enough essential amino acids by eating plant proteins. Protein is a nutrient needed by the human body for maintenance. Aside from water, proteins are the most abundant kind of molecules in the body. Protein can be found in all cells of the body and is the major structural component of all cells in the body muscle; this includes body organs and skin. Proteins are used in membranes, such as glycoproteins; when broken down into amino acids, they are used as precursors to nucleic acid, co-enzymes, immune response, cellular repair, other molecules essential for life.
Additionally, protein is needed to form blood cells. Protein can be found in a wide range of food; the best combination of protein sources depends on the region of the world, cost, amino acid types and nutrition balance, as well as acquired tastes. Some foods are high in certain amino acids, but their digestibility and the anti-nutritional factors present in these foods make them of limited value in human nutrition. Therefore, one must consider digestibility and secondary nutrition profile such as calories, cholesterol and essential mineral density of the protein source. On a worldwide basis, plant protein foods contribute over 60 percent of the per capita supply of protein, on average. In North America, animal-derived foods contribute about 70 percent of protein sources. Meat, products from milk, eggs and fish are sources of complete protein. Whole grains and cereals are another source of proteins. However, these tend to be limiting in the amino acid lysine or threonine, which are available in other vegetarian sources and meats.
Examples of food staples and cereal sources of protein, each with a concentration greater than 7.0%, are buckwheat, rye, maize, wheat, sorghum and quinoa. Vegetarian sources of proteins include legumes, nuts and fruits. Legumes, some of which are called pulses in certain parts of the world, have higher concentrations of amino acids and are more complete sources of protein than whole grains and cereals. Examples of vegetarian foods with protein concentrations greater than 7 percent include soybeans, kidney beans, white beans, mung beans, cowpeas, lima beans, pigeon peas, wing beans, Brazil nuts, pecans, cotton seeds, pumpkin seeds, hemp seeds, sesame seeds, sunflower seeds. Food staples that are poor sources of protein include roots and tubers such as yams and sweet potato. Plantains, another major staple, are a poor source of essential amino acids. Fruits, while rich in other essential nutrients, are another poor source of amino acids; the protein content in roots and fruits is between 0 and 2 percent.
Food staples with low protein content must be complemented with foods with complete, quality protein content for a healthy life in children for proper development. A good source of protein is a combination of various foods, because different foods are rich in different amino acids. A good source of dietary protein meets two requirements: The requirement for the nutritionally indispensable amino acids under all conditions and for conditionally indispensable amino acids under specific physiological and pathological conditions The requirement for nonspecific nitrogen for the synthesis of the nutritionally dispensable amino acids and other physiologically important nitrogen-containing compounds such as nucleic acids and porphyrins. Healthy people eating a balanced diet need protein supplements; the table below presents the most important food groups as protein sources, from a worldwide perspective. It lists their respective performance as source of the limiting amino acids, in milligrams of limiting amino acid per gram of total protein in the food source.
The table reiterates the need for a balanced mix of
Grilling is a form of cooking that involves dry heat applied to the surface of food from above or below. Grilling involves a significant amount of direct, radiant heat, tends to be used for cooking meat and vegetables quickly. Food to be grilled is cooked on a grill pan, or griddle. Heat transfer to the food when using a grill is through thermal radiation. Heat transfer when using a grill griddle is by direct conduction. In the United States, when the heat source for grilling comes from above, grilling is called broiling. In this case, the pan that holds the food is called a broiler pan, heat transfer is through thermal radiation. Direct heat grilling can expose food to temperatures in excess of 260 °C. Grilled meat acquires a distinctive roast aroma and flavor from a chemical process called the Maillard reaction; the Maillard reaction only occurs when foods reach temperatures in excess of 155 °C. Studies have shown that cooking beef, pork and fish at high temperatures can lead to the formation of heterocyclic amines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, which are carcinogens.
Marination may reduce the formation of these compounds. Grilling is presented as a healthy alternative to cooking with oils, although the fat and juices lost by grilling can contribute to drier food. In Japanese cities, yakitori carts, restaurants, or shops can be found; these marinated grilled meat on a stick. Yakiniku is a type of food where meat and/or vegetables are grilled directly over small charcoal or gas grills at high temperatures. In Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand, a popular food item from food vendors is satay, marinated meat on a bamboo skewer grilled over a charcoal fire and served with peanut sauce. In Germany, the most prominent outdoor form of grilling is using the gridiron over a bed of burning charcoal. Care is taken. Beer is sprinkled over the sausages or meat and used to suppress flames; the meat is marinated before grilling. Besides charcoal, sometimes gas and electric heat sources are used. Other methods are used less frequently. In Northern Mexico, carne asada is a staple food.
Popular cuts include arrachera and rib eye, as well as chorizo and chicken, among others. Charcoal, mesquite or firewood are used for the grilling. In Argentina and Uruguay, both asado and steak a la parrilla are staple dishes and hailed as national specialties. In Sweden, grilling directly over hot coals is the most prominent form of grilling; the meat is Boston butt, pork chops or pork fillet. It is common to cook meat and vegetables together on a skewer, this is called "grillspett". In the United Kingdom, Commonwealth countries, Ireland, grilling refers to cooking food directly under a source of direct, dry heat; the "grill" is a separate part of an oven where the food is inserted just under the element. This practice is referred to as "broiling" in North America. Sometimes the term grilling may refer to cooking with heat from below, as in the United States. In the 1970s and 1980s the electric, two sided vertical grill marketed by the Sunbeam company achieved cult status because of its quick, no added fat operation.
In electric ovens, grilling may be accomplished by placing the food near the upper heating element, with the lower heating element off and the oven door open. Grilling in an electric oven may create a large amount of smoke and cause splattering in the oven. Both gas and electric ovens have a separate compartment for grilling, such as a drawer below the flame or one of the stove top heating elements. In the United States, the use of the word grill refers to cooking food directly over a source of dry heat with the food sitting on a metal grate that leaves "grill marks." Grilling is done outdoors on charcoal grills or gas grills. Grilling may be performed using stove-top "grill pans" which have raised metal ridges for the food to sit on, or using an indoor electric grill. A skewer, brochette, or rotisserie may be used to cook small pieces of food; the resulting food product is called a "kabob" or "kebab" which means "to grill" in Persian. Kebab is short for "shish kebab". Mesquite or hickory wood chips may be added on top of the coals to create a smoldering effect that provides additional flavor to the food.
Other hardwoods such as pecan, apple and oak may be used. As is true of any high-temperature frying or baking, when meat is grilled at high temperatures, the cooking process can generate carcinogenic chemicals. Two processes are thought to be responsible. Heterocyclic amines are formed when amino acids and creatine react at high temperatures. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are formed when fat and juices from meat grilled directly over an open fire drip onto the fire, causing flames; these flames contain PAHs that adhere to the surface of the meat. However it is possible to reduce carcinogens when grilling meat, or mitigate their effect. Garlic, olive oil and vitamin E have been shown to reduce formation of both HCAs and PAHs. V-profiled grill elements placed at an angle may help drain much of the meat juices and dripping fat, transport them away from the heat source. Hea
Polyphemus is the giant son of Poseidon and Thoosa in Greek mythology, one of the Cyclopes described in Homer's Odyssey. His name means "abounding in songs and legends". Polyphemus first appears as a savage man-eating giant in the ninth book of the Odyssey; some Classical writers link his name with the nymph Galatea and present him in a different light. In Homer's epic, Odysseus lands on the island of the Cyclops during his journey home from the Trojan War and, together with some of his men, enters a cave filled with provisions; when the giant Polyphemus returns home with his flocks, he blocks the entrance with a great stone and, scoffing at the usual custom of hospitality, eats two of the men. Next morning, the giant leaves the cave to graze his sheep. After the giant returns in the evening and eats two more of the men, Odysseus offers Polyphemus some strong and undiluted wine given to him earlier on his journey. Drunk and unwary Odysseus his name, promising him a guest-gift if he answers. Odysseus tells him "Οὖτις", which means "nobody" and Polyphemus promises to eat this "Nobody" last of all.
With that, he falls into a drunken sleep. Odysseus had meanwhile drives it into Polyphemus' eye; when Polyphemus shouts for help from his fellow giants, saying that "Nobody" has hurt him, they think Polyphemus is being afflicted by divine power and recommend prayer as the answer. In the morning, the blind Cyclops lets the sheep out to graze, feeling their backs to ensure that the men are not escaping; however and his men have tied themselves to the undersides of the animals and so get away. As he sails off with his men, Odysseus boastfully reveals his real name, an act of hubris, to cause problems for him later. Polyphemus prays to his father, for revenge and casts huge rocks towards the ship, which Odysseus escapes; the story reappears in Classical literature. In Cyclops, the 5th century BC play by Euripides, a chorus of satyrs offers comic relief from the grisly story of how Polyphemus is punished for his impious behaviour in not respecting the rites of hospitality. In his Latin epic, Virgil describes how Aeneas observes blind Polyphemus as he leads his flocks down to the sea.
They have encountered Achaemenides, who re-tells the story of how Odysseus and his men escaped, leaving him behind. The giant is described as using a "lopped pine tree" as a walking staff. Once Polyphemus reaches the sea, he groans painfully. Achaemenides is taken aboard Aeneas’ vessel and they cast off with Polyphemus in chase, his great roar of frustration brings the rest of the Cyclopes down to the shore as Aeneas draws away in fear. Julien d'Huy speculates. Elements of the story of Odysseus and Polyphemus are recognizable in the folklore of many other European groups. Wilhelm Grimm collected versions in Serbian, Estonian, Finnish and German. Versions in Basque, Lithuanian, Gascon and Celtic are known; the vivid nature of the Polyphemus episode made it a favorite theme of ancient Greek painted pottery, on which the scenes most illustrated are the blinding of the Cyclops and the ruse by which Odysseus and his men escape. One such episode, on a vase featuring the hero carried beneath a sheep, was used on a 27 drachma Greek postage stamp in 1983.
The blinding was depicted in life-size sculpture, including a giant Polyphemus, in the Sperlonga sculptures made for the Emperor Tiberius. This may be an interpretation of an existing composition, was repeated in variations in Imperial palaces by Claudius, Nero and at Hadrian's Villa. Of the European painters of the subject, the Flemish Jacob Jordaens depicted Odysseus escaping from the cave of Polyphemus in 1635 and others chose the dramatic scene of the giant casting boulders at the escaping ship. In Guido Reni's painting of 1639/40, the furious giant is tugging a boulder from the cliff as Odysseus and his men row out to the ship far below. Polyphemus is portrayed, as it happens, with two empty eye sockets and his damaged eye located in the middle on his forehead; this convention goes back to Greek statuary and painting and is reproduced in Johann Heinrich Wilhelm Tischbein's 1802 head and shoulders portrait of the giant. Arnold Bocklin pictures the giant as standing on rocks onshore and swinging one of them back as the men row over a surging wave, while Polyphemus is standing at the top of a cliff in Jean-Léon Gérôme's painting of 1902.
He stands poised, having thrown one stone, which misses the ship. The reason for his rage is depicted in Ulysses Deriding Polyphemus. Here the ship sails forward; the giant himself is an indistinct shape distinguished from the woods and smoky atmosphere high above. Although there are some earlier references to the story of the love of Polyphemus for the sea-nymph Galatea and her preference for the human shepherd Acis, the best known source is a lost play by Philoxenus of Cythera, of which a few fragments and several accounts are left. Dating from about 400 BC, it links the love story to the arrival of Odysseus and, according to ancient sources, had a witty contemporary subtext. Philoxenos had had an affair with the mistress of Dionysius I of Syracuse and as a consequence was condemned to work in the stone quarries. Here he is supposed to have composed The Cyclops, with the tyrant cast in the role of the giant, while the successful lovers are the poet and his Galatea; the Hellenistic poet Theocritus painted a more sympath