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Fifteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution

The Fifteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution prohibits the federal government and each state from denying a citizen the right to vote based on that citizen's "race, color, or previous condition of servitude." It was ratified on February 1870, as the third and last of the Reconstruction Amendments. In the final years of the American Civil War and the Reconstruction Era that followed, Congress debated the rights of the millions of former black slaves. By 1869, amendments had been passed to abolish slavery and provide citizenship and equal protection under the laws, but the election of Ulysses S. Grant to the presidency in 1868 convinced a majority of Republicans that protecting the franchise of black male voters was important for the party's future. On February 26, 1869, after rejecting more sweeping versions of a suffrage amendment, Congress proposed a compromise amendment banning franchise restrictions on the basis of race, color, or previous servitude. After surviving a difficult ratification fight, the amendment was certified as duly ratified and part of the Constitution on March 30, 1870.

United States Supreme Court decisions in the late nineteenth century interpreted the amendment narrowly. From 1890 to 1910, southern states adopted new state constitutions and enacted laws that raised barriers to voter registration; this resulted in most black voters and many poor white ones being disenfranchised by poll taxes and discriminatory literacy tests, among other barriers to voting, from which white male voters were exempted by grandfather clauses. A system of white primaries and violent intimidation by white groups suppressed black participation. In the twentieth century, the Court began to interpret the amendment more broadly, striking down grandfather clauses in Guinn v. United States and dismantling the white primary system in the "Texas primary cases". Along with measures such as the Twenty-fourth Amendment, which forbade poll taxes in federal elections, Harper v. Virginia State Board of Elections, which forbade poll taxes in state elections, these decisions increased black participation in the American political system.

To enforce the amendment, Congress enacted the Voting Rights Act of 1965, which provided federal oversight of elections in discriminatory jurisdictions, banned literacy tests and similar discriminatory devices, created legal remedies for people affected by voting discrimination. The amendment created a split within the women's suffrage movement over the amendment not prohibiting denying the women the right to vote on account of sex. Section 1; the right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude. Section 2; the Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. In the final years of the American Civil War and the Reconstruction Era that followed, Congress debated the rights of black former slaves freed by the 1863 Emancipation Proclamation and the 1865 Thirteenth Amendment, the latter of which had formally abolished slavery. Following the passage of the Thirteenth Amendment by Congress, Republicans grew concerned over the increase it would create in the congressional representation of the Democratic-dominated Southern states.

Because the full population of freed slaves would be now counted rather than the three-fifths mandated by the previous Three-Fifths Compromise, the Southern states would increase their power in the population-based House of Representatives. Republicans hoped to offset this advantage by attracting and protecting votes of the newly enfranchised black population. In 1865, Congress passed what would become the Civil Rights Act of 1866, guaranteeing citizenship without regard to race, color, or previous condition of slavery or involuntary servitude; the bill guaranteed equal benefits and access to the law, a direct assault on the Black Codes passed by many post-war Southern states. The Black Codes attempted to return ex-slaves to something like their former condition by, among other things, restricting their movement, forcing them to enter into year-long labor contracts, prohibiting them from owning firearms, by preventing them from suing or testifying in court. Although urged by moderates in Congress to sign the bill, President Johnson vetoed it on March 27, 1866.

In his veto message, he objected to the measure because it conferred citizenship on the freedmen at a time when 11 out of 36 states were unrepresented in the Congress, that it discriminated in favor of African Americans and against whites. Three weeks Johnson's veto was overridden and the measure became law; this was the first time in American history that Congress was able to muster the votes necessary to override a presidential veto. Despite this victory some Republicans who had supported the goals of the Civil Rights Act began to doubt that Congress possessed the constitutional power to turn those goals into laws; the experience encouraged both radical and moderate Republicans to seek Constitutional guarantees for black rights, rather than relying on temporary political majorities. On June 18, 1866, Congress adopted the Fourteenth Amendment, which guaranteed citizenship and equal protection under the laws regardless of race, sent it to the states for ratification. After a bitter struggle that included attempted rescissions of ratification by two states, the Fourteenth Amendment was adopted on July 28, 1868.

Section 2 of the Fourteenth Amendment punished, by reduced representation in the House of Representatives, any state that disenfranchised any male citizens over

Andrei Mironov (actor)

Andrei Alexandrovich Mironov was a Soviet and Russian theatre and film actor who played lead roles in some of the most popular Soviet films, such as The Diamond Arm, Beware of the Car and Twelve Chairs. Mironov was a popular singer. Mironov was born in Moscow to Maria Mironova, a Russian, Alexander Menaker, a Russian Jew. Both his parents were actors. Mironov studied in the Vakhtangov Theatre School during the early 1950s. From 1958 to 1962, he studied acting at the Moscow Shchukin School. From June 18, 1962, to 1987, Mironov was a permanent member of the trope at the Moscow Theatre of Satire. In 1961, he acted in his first film What If This Is Love? On December 18, 1980, he was awarded the title of People's Artist of the RSFSR, he received the Medal "For Labour Valour". Andrei Mironov is known and loved for his roles in films made by Eldar Ryazanov, Leonid Gaidai, Mark Zakharov, other directors, he played diverse roles. On one of his tours through Latvia in 1987, he lost consciousness while performing the lead role in The Marriage of Figaro.

He was driven to a hospital where two days he was pronounced dead. His death occurred only nine days after the passing of his close friend and frequent co-star Anatoli Papanov; the cause of his death was excessive internal brain bleeding due to a congenital cerebral aneurysm. Mironov's parents, Alexander Menaker and Maria Vladimirovna Mironova, were known nationwide as a comedic duo, he was married twice. First to Yekaterina Gradova, with whom he had one daughter, Maria Mironova, second to Larisa Golubkina, a singer and actress best known for her role of the hussar maiden in Hussar Ballad. Maria Mironova and his adopted daughter Maria Golubkina had successful careers in Russian cinema. A minor planet 3624 Mironov, discovered by Soviet astronomers Lyudmila Georgievna Karachkina and Lyudmila Zhuravlyova in 1982 is named after him. What If This Is Love? Three Plus Two as Roman My Younger Brother Two Sundays A year like a life Beware of the Car as Dima Semitsvetov The Mysterious Wall The Diamond Arm as Gennadiy Kozodoyev To Love The Literature Lesson New Year's Abduction Family Happiness The Shadow Grandads-Robbers as Yury Proskudin Property of the Republic as Shilovsky aka Marquis The Kid and Carlson, who lives on the roof Unbelievable Adventures of Italians in Russia as Andrei Vasiliev Mad Day or the Marriage of Figaro TV Lev Gurych Sinichkin TV Small comedies of the big house The Straw Hat as Leonidas Fadinar Repeated Wedding Pages of the Pechorin's diary TV Step Forward Heavenly Swallows Blue Puppy as Black Cat The Twelve Chairs as Ostap Bender An Ordinary Miracle as Minister Administrator Three Men in a Boat TV Faratyev's Fantasies TV Rikki-Tikki-Tavi Appointment TV Say a Word for the Poor Hussar as narrator Be my husband as Victor Revisor TV The Story of Voyages as Orlando Somewhere in Provincial Garden TV The Blonde Around the Corner as Nikolay Gavrilovich Poryvaev Victory My Friend Ivan Lapshin as Khanin A Man from the Boulevard des Capucines as Johnny First The Pathfinder The Official web site of Andrei Mironov Andrei Mironov Andrei Mironov on IMDb Andrei Mironov on YouTube Peter Rollberg, Historical Dictionary of Russian and Soviet Cinema.

2008, ISBN 0-8108-6072-4.

HernĂ¡n Encina

Hernán Nicolás Encina is an Argentine football midfielder who plays for Guaraní Antonio Franco in the Primera B Nacional. Born in Rosario, Encina made his league debut in 2001 for Rosario Central, he made over 50 appearances for the club before joining Mexican side Tecos in 2007 that year he played for Atlas. In 2008 Encina returned to Argentina where he played for Colón de Santa Fe and Godoy Cruz. On June 7, 2009 Encina will be joining Barcelona for the second part of the Ecuadorian Serie A. On 19 January 2010 Club de Gimnasia y Esgrima La Plata has obtained on loan for six months the 27-year-old attacking midfielder. Guardian statistics Official Club Player Profile Argentine Primera statistics El Universo Hernán EncinaLiga MX stats at MedioTiempo.com Hernán Encina at Soccerway