Abraham Lincoln was an American politician and lawyer who served as the 16th President of the United States from March 1861 until his assassination in April 1865. Lincoln led the United States through its Civil War—its bloodiest war and perhaps its greatest moral, constitutional, in doing so, he preserved the Union, abolished slavery, strengthened the federal government, and modernized the economy. Born in Hodgenville, Lincoln grew up on the frontier in Kentucky. Largely self-educated, he became a lawyer in Illinois, a Whig Party leader, elected to the United States House of Representatives in 1846, Lincoln promoted rapid modernization of the economy through banks and railroads. Reentering politics in 1854, he became a leader in building the new Republican Party, in 1860, Lincoln secured the Republican Party presidential nomination as a moderate from a swing state. Though he gained little support in the slaveholding states of the South. Subsequently, on April 12,1861, a Confederate attack on Fort Sumter inspired the North to enthusiastically rally behind the Union.
Politically, Lincoln fought back by pitting his opponents against each other, by carefully planned political patronage and his Gettysburg Address became an iconic endorsement of the principles of nationalism, equal rights and democracy. Lincoln initially concentrated on the military and political dimensions of the war and his primary goal was to reunite the nation. He suspended habeas corpus, leading to the ex parte Merryman decision. Lincoln closely supervised the war effort, especially the selection of top generals, including his most successful general, Lincoln tried repeatedly to capture the Confederate capital at Richmond, each time a general failed, Lincoln substituted another, until finally Grant succeeded. As the war progressed, his moves toward ending slavery included the Emancipation Proclamation of 1863. On April 14,1865, five days after the surrender of Confederate commanding general Robert E. Lee, Lincoln was assassinated by John Wilkes Booth, a Confederate sympathizer. Secretary of War Edwin Stanton launched a manhunt for Booth, and 12 days on April 26, Lincoln has been consistently ranked both by scholars and the public as among the greatest U. S. presidents.
Abraham Lincoln was born February 12,1809, the child of Thomas and Nancy Hanks Lincoln, in a one-room log cabin on the Sinking Spring Farm near Hodgenville. He was a descendant of Samuel Lincoln, an Englishman who migrated from Hingham, Norfolk to its namesake of Hingham, samuels grandson and great-grandson began the familys western migration, which passed through New Jersey and Virginia. Lincolns paternal grandfather and namesake, Captain Abraham Lincoln, moved the family from Virginia to Jefferson County, Captain Lincoln was killed in an Indian raid in 1786. His children, including eight-year-old Thomas, the presidents father
United States Secretary of State
Secretary of State is a Level I position in the Executive Schedule and thus earns the salary prescribed for that level. The current Secretary of State is former ExxonMobil CEO Rex Tillerson and those that remain include storage and use of the Great Seal of the United States, performance of protocol functions for the White House, and the drafting of certain proclamations. The Secretary negotiates with the individual States over the extradition of fugitives to foreign countries, under Federal Law, the resignation of a President or of a Vice President is only valid if declared in writing, in an instrument delivered to the office of the Secretary of State. Accordingly, the resignations of President Nixon and of Vice-President Spiro Agnew, domestic issues, were formalized in instruments delivered to the Secretary of State, six Secretaries of State have gone on to be elected President. Former Secretaries of State retain the right to add the title Secretary to their surnames, as the head of the United States Foreign Service, the Secretary of State is responsible for management of the diplomatic service of the United States.
The foreign service employs about 12,000 people domestically and internationally, the U. S. Secretary of State has the power to remove any foreign diplomat from U. S. soil for any reason. The nature of the means that Secretaries of State engage in travel around the world. The record for most countries visited in a secretarys tenure is 112, second is Madeleine Albright with 96. The record for most air miles traveled in a secretarys tenure is 1.380 million miles, second is Condoleezza Rices 1.059 million miles and third is Clintons 956,733 miles. S
Roe v. Wade
Roe v. Wade,410 U. S.113, is a landmark decision by the United States Supreme Court on the issue of abortion. It was decided simultaneously with a case, Doe v. Bolton. Arguing that these state interests became stronger over the course of a pregnancy, later, in Planned Parenthood v. Casey, the Court rejected Roes trimester framework while affirming its central holding that a woman has a right to abortion until fetal viability. The Roe decision defined viable as potentially able to live outside the mothers womb, Justices in Casey acknowledged that viability may occur at 23 or 24 weeks, or sometimes even earlier, in light of medical advances. According to the Court, the criminal abortion laws in effect in a majority of States today are of relatively recent vintage. Providing a historical analysis on abortion, Justice Harry Blackmun noted that abortion was resorted to without scruple in Greek, Blackmun addressed the permissive and restrictive abortion attitudes and laws throughout history, noting the disagreements among leaders in those eras and the formative laws and cases.
In the United States, in 1821, Connecticut passed the first state statute criminalizing abortion, every state had abortion legislation by 1900. In June 1969, 21-year-old Norma L. McCorvey discovered she was pregnant with her third child and she returned to Dallas, where friends advised her to assert falsely that she had been raped in order to obtain a legal abortion. However, this failed because there was no police report documenting the alleged rape. She attempted to obtain an abortion, but found that the unauthorized facility had been closed down by the police. Eventually, she was referred to attorneys Linda Coffee and Sarah Weddington, in 1970, Coffee and Weddington filed suit in the United States District Court for the Northern District of Texas on behalf of McCorvey. The defendant in the case was Dallas County District Attorney Henry Wade, McCorvey was no longer claiming her pregnancy was a result of rape, and acknowledged that she had lied about having been raped. Rape is not mentioned in the opinions in the case.
In addition, the court relied on Justice Arthur Goldbergs concurrence in Griswold v. Connecticut, the court, declined to grant an injunction against enforcement of the law. In 1971, Shirley Wheeler was charged with manslaughter after Florida hospital staff reported her illegal abortion to the police and she received a sentence of two years probation and under her probation, she had to move back into her parents house in North Carolina. Roe v. Wade reached the Supreme Court on appeal in 1970, the justices delayed taking action on Roe and a closely related case, Doe v. Bolton, until they had decided Younger v. Harris and United States v. Vuitch. The day after they announced their decision in Vuitch, they voted to hear both Roe and Doe, arguments were scheduled by the full Court for December 13,1971. Before the Court could hear the arguments, Justices Hugo Black
Union (American Civil War)
The Union was opposed by 11 southern slave states that formed the Confederate States, or the Confederacy. All of the Unions states provided soldiers for the U. S. Army, the Border states played a major role as a supply base for the Union invasion of the Confederacy. The Northeast provided the resources for a mechanized war producing large quantities of munitions and supplies. The Midwest provided soldiers, horses, financial support, Army hospitals were set up across the Union. Most states had Republican governors who energetically supported the war effort, the Democratic Party strongly supported the war in 1861 but in 1862 was split between the War Democrats and the anti-war element led by the Copperheads. The Democrats made major gains in 1862 in state elections. They lost ground in 1863, especially in Ohio, in 1864 the Republicans campaigned under the National Union Party banner, which attracted many War Democrats and soldiers and scored a landslide victory for Lincoln and his entire ticket.
The war years were quite prosperous except where serious fighting and guerrilla warfare took place along the southern border, prosperity was stimulated by heavy government spending and the creation of an entirely new national banking system. The Union states invested a great deal of money and effort in organizing psychological and social support for soldiers wives, widows and for the soldiers themselves. Most soldiers were volunteers, although after 1862 many volunteered to escape the draft, Draft resistance was notable in some larger cities, especially New York City with its massive anti-draft riots of 1863 and in some remote districts such as the coal mining areas of Pennsylvania. In the context of the American Civil War, the Union is sometimes referred to as the North and now, as opposed to the Confederacy, which was the South. The Union never recognized the legitimacy of the Confederacys secession and maintained at all times that it remained entirely a part of the United States of America, in foreign affairs the Union was the only side recognized by all other nations, none of which officially recognized the Confederate government.
The term Union occurs in the first governing document of the United States, the subsequent Constitution of 1787 was issued and ratified in the name not of the states, but of We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union. Union, for the United States of America, is repeated in such clauses as the Admission to the Union clause in Article IV. Even before the war started, the preserve the Union was commonplace. Using the term Union to apply to the non-secessionist side carried a connotation of legitimacy as the continuation of the political entity. In comparison to the Confederacy, the Union had a large industrialized and urbanized area, the Union states had a manpower advantage of 5 to 2 at the start of the war. Year by year, the Confederacy shrank and lost control of increasing quantities of resources, the Union turned its growing potential advantage into a much stronger military force
Voting Rights Act of 1965
The Voting Rights Act of 1965 is a landmark piece of federal legislation in the United States that prohibits racial discrimination in voting. It was signed into law by President Lyndon B. Johnson during the height of the Civil Rights Movement on August 6,1965, and Congress amended the Act five times to expand its protections. According to the U. S. Department of Justice, the Act is considered to be the most effective piece of civil rights legislation enacted in the country. The Act contains numerous provisions that regulate election administration, the Acts general provisions provide nationwide protections for voting rights. Section 2 is a provision that prohibits every state and local government from imposing any voting law that results in discrimination against racial or language minorities. Other general provisions specifically outlaw literacy tests and similar devices that were used to disenfranchise racial minorities. The Act contains provisions that apply to only certain jurisdictions. Another special provision requires jurisdictions containing significant language minority populations to provide bilingual ballots, Section 5 and most other special provisions apply to jurisdictions encompassed by the coverage formula prescribed in Section 4.
The coverage formula was designed to encompass jurisdictions that engaged in egregious voting discrimination in 1965. In Shelby County v. Holder, the U. S. Supreme Court struck down the formula as unconstitutional. The Court did not strike down Section 5, but without a coverage formula, as initially ratified, the United States Constitution granted each state complete discretion to determine voter qualifications for its residents. After the Civil War, the three Reconstruction Amendments were ratified and limited this discretion and these Amendments empower Congress to enforce their provisions through appropriate legislation. To enforce the Reconstruction Amendments, Congress passed the Enforcement Acts in the 1870s, the Acts criminalized the obstruction of a citizens voting rights and provided for federal supervision of the electoral process, including voter registration. However, in 1875 the Supreme Court struck down parts of the legislation as unconstitutional in United States v. Cruikshank, after the Reconstruction Era ended in 1877, enforcement of these laws became erratic, and in 1894, Congress repealed most of their provisions.
Southern states generally sought to disenfranchise racial minorities during and after Reconstruction, from 1868 to 1888, electoral fraud and violence throughout the South suppressed the African-American vote. During this period, the Supreme Court generally upheld efforts to discriminate against racial minorities, in Giles v. Harris, the Court held that irrespective of the Fifteenth Amendment, the judiciary did not have the remedial power to force states to register racial minorities to vote. In the 1950s, the Civil Rights Movement increased pressure on the government to protect the voting rights of racial minorities. In 1957, Congress passed the first civil rights legislation since Reconstruction, although these acts helped empower courts to remedy violations of federal voting rights, strict legal standards made it difficult for the Department of Justice to successfully pursue litigation
United States House of Representatives
The United States House of Representatives is the lower chamber of the United States Congress which, along with the Senate, composes the legislature of the United States. The composition and powers of the House are established by Article One of the United States Constitution, since its inception in 1789, all representatives are elected popularly. The total number of voting representatives is fixed by law at 435, the House is charged with the passage of federal legislation, known as bills, after concurrence by the Senate, are sent to the President for consideration. The presiding officer is the Speaker of the House, who is elected by the members thereof and is traditionally the leader of the controlling party. He or she and other leaders are chosen by the Democratic Caucus or the Republican Conferences. The House meets in the wing of the United States Capitol. Under the Articles of Confederation, the Congress of the Confederation was a body in which each state was equally represented. All states except Rhode Island agreed to send delegates, the issue of how to structure Congress was one of the most divisive among the founders during the Convention.
The House is referred to as the house, with the Senate being the upper house. Both houses approval is necessary for the passage of legislation, the Virginia Plan drew the support of delegates from large states such as Virginia and Pennsylvania, as it called for representation based on population. The smaller states, favored the New Jersey Plan, the Constitution was ratified by the requisite number of states in 1788, but its implementation was set for March 4,1789. The House began work on April 1,1789, when it achieved a quorum for the first time, during the first half of the 19th century, the House was frequently in conflict with the Senate over regionally divisive issues, including slavery. The North was much more populous than the South, and therefore dominated the House of Representatives, the North held no such advantage in the Senate, where the equal representation of states prevailed. Regional conflict was most pronounced over the issue of slavery, One example of a provision repeatedly supported by the House but blocked by the Senate was the Wilmot Proviso, which sought to ban slavery in the land gained during the Mexican–American War.
Conflict over slavery and other issues persisted until the Civil War, the war culminated in the Souths defeat and in the abolition of slavery. Because all southern senators except Andrew Johnson resigned their seats at the beginning of the war, the years of Reconstruction that followed witnessed large majorities for the Republican Party, which many Americans associated with the Unions victory in the Civil War and the ending of slavery. The Reconstruction period ended in about 1877, the ensuing era, the Democratic and the Republican Party held majorities in the House at various times. The late 19th and early 20th centuries saw an increase in the power of the Speaker of the House
United States Bill of Rights
The Bill of Rights is the first ten amendments to the United States Constitution. Proposed following the oftentimes bitter 1787–88 battle over ratification of the U. S, on June 8,1789, Representative James Madison introduced nine amendments to the constitution in the House of Representatives. Among his recommendations Madison proposed opening up the Constitution and inserting specific rights limiting the power of Congress in Article One, Seven of these limitations would become part of the ten ratified Bill of Rights amendments. Contrary to Madisons original proposal that the articles be incorporated into the body of the Constitution. Articles Three through Twelve were ratified as additions to the Constitution on December 15,1791, Article Two became part of the Constitution on May 5,1992, as the Twenty-seventh Amendment. Article One is technically still pending before the states, the door for their application upon state governments was opened in the 1860s, following ratification of the Fourteenth Amendment.
Since the early 20th century both federal and state courts have used the Fourteenth Amendment to apply portions of the Bill of Rights to state, the process is known as incorporation. There are several original engrossed copies of the Bill of Rights still in existence, One of these is on permanent public display at the National Archives in Washington, D. C. However, the government that operated under the Articles of Confederation was too weak to adequately regulate the various conflicts that arose between the states. The Philadelphia Convention set out to correct weaknesses of the Articles that had been apparent even before the American Revolutionary War had been successfully concluded, the convention took place from May 14 to September 17,1787, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The convention convened in the Pennsylvania State House, and George Washington of Virginia was unanimously elected as president of the convention, the 55 delegates who drafted the Constitution are among the men known as the Founding Fathers of the new nation.
Thomas Jefferson, who was Minister to France during the convention, Rhode Island refused to send delegates to the convention. However, the motion was defeated by a vote of the state delegations after only a brief discussion. Madison, an opponent of a Bill of Rights, explained the vote by calling the bills of rights parchment barriers that offered only an illusion of protection against tyranny. The quick rejection of this motion, endangered the entire ratification process, thirty-nine delegates signed the finalized Constitution. Thirteen delegates left before it was completed, and three who remained at the convention until the end refused to sign it, Gerry, elbridge Gerry wrote the most popular Anti-Federalist tract, Hon. Mr. Gerrys Objections, which went through 46 printings, the essay particularly focused on the lack of a bill of rights in the proposed constitution, many were concerned that a strong national government was a threat to individual rights and that the president would become a king.
Jefferson wrote to Madison advocating a Bill of Rights, Half a loaf is better than no bread, if we cannot secure all our rights, let us secure what we can
Race (human categorization)
Race is the classification of humans into groups based on physical traits, genetics, or social relations, or the relations between them. First used to refer to speakers of a language and to denote national affiliations. The term was used in a general biological taxonomic sense, starting from the 19th century. Social conceptions and groupings of races vary over time, involving folk taxonomies that define essential types of individuals based on perceived traits, scientists consider biological essentialism obsolete, and generally discourage racial explanations for collective differentiation in both physical and behavioral traits. Although still used in contexts, race has often been replaced by less ambiguous and emotionally charged synonyms, people, ethnic groups, or communities. A popular view in American sociology is that the categories that are common in everyday usage are socially constructed. For this reason, there is no current consensus about whether racial categories can be considered to have significance for understanding human genetic variation, when people define and talk about a particular conception of race, they create a social reality through which social categorization is achieved.
In this sense, races are said to be social constructs and these constructs develop within various legal and sociopolitical contexts, and may be the effect, rather than the cause, of major social situations. Socioeconomic factors, in combination with early but enduring views of race, have led to considerable suffering within disadvantaged racial groups, as a result, racial groups possessing relatively little power often find themselves excluded or oppressed, while hegemonic individuals and institutions are charged with holding racist attitudes. Racism has led to instances of tragedy, including slavery. In some countries, law enforcement uses race to profile suspects and this use of racial categories is frequently criticized for perpetuating an outmoded understanding of human biological variation, and promoting stereotypes. Because in some societies racial groupings correspond closely with patterns of stratification, for social scientists studying social inequality. As sociological factors, racial categories may in part reflect subjective attributions, self-identities, the racial paradigms employed in different disciplines vary in their emphasis on biological reduction as contrasted with societal construction.
Groups of humans have identified themselves as distinct from neighboring groups. These features are the features of how the concept of race is used today. As Europeans encountered people from different parts of the world, they speculated about the physical, social, a set of folk beliefs took hold that linked inherited physical differences between groups to inherited intellectual and moral qualities. Brutal conflicts between groups have existed throughout history and across the world. In the 18th century the differences among human groups became a focus of scientific investigation, Homo sapiens europaeus was described as active and adventurous, whereas Homo sapiens afer was said to be crafty and careless
Civil Rights Act of 1964
The Civil Rights Act of 1964 is a landmark civil rights and US labor law in the United States that outlaws discrimination based on race, religion, sex, or national origin. It ended unequal application of voter registration requirements and racial segregation in schools, at the workplace, powers given to enforce the act were initially weak, but were supplemented during years. The Act was signed into law by President Lyndon B. Johnson on July 2,1964, Kennedy was moved to action following the elevated racial tensions and wave of black riots in the spring 1963. On June 11,1963, President Kennedy met with the Republican leaders to discuss the legislation before his television address to the nation that evening and this led to several Republican Congressmen drafting a compromise bill to be considered. On June 19, the president sent his bill to Congress as it was originally written, the presidents bill went first to the House of Representatives, where it was referred to the Judiciary Committee, chaired by Emanuel Celler, a Democrat from New York.
They added authorization for the Attorney General to file lawsuits to protect individuals against the deprivation of any rights secured by the Constitution or U. S. law, in essence, this was the controversial Title III that had been removed from the 1957 and 1960 Acts. Civil rights organizations pressed hard for this provision because it could be used to protect peaceful protesters and black voters from police brutality, Kennedy called the congressional leaders to the White House in late October,1963 to line up the necessary votes in the House for passage. The assassination of John F. Kennedy on November 22,1963, kennedys successor as president, Lyndon Johnson, made use of his experience in legislative politics, along with the bully pulpit he wielded as president, in support of the bill. Judiciary Committee chairman Celler filed a petition to discharge the bill from the Rules Committee, by the time of the 1963 winter recess,50 signatures were still needed. After the return of Congress from its winter recess, however, it was apparent that public opinion in the North favored the bill, to avert the humiliation of a successful discharge petition, Chairman Smith relented and allowed the bill to pass through the Rules Committee.
Johnson, who wanted the bill passed as soon as possible, the bill would have been referred to the Senate Judiciary Committee, chaired by Senator James O. Eastland, Democrat from Mississippi. Given Eastlands firm opposition, it seemed impossible that the bill would reach the Senate floor, Senate Majority Leader Mike Mansfield took a novel approach to prevent the bill from being relegated to Judiciary Committee limbo. Said Russell, We will resist to the bitter end any measure or any movement which would have a tendency to bring about equality and intermingling. This is the worst civil-rights package ever presented to the Congress and is reminiscent of the Reconstruction proposals, on the morning of June 10,1964, Senator Robert Byrd completed a filibustering address that he had begun 14 hours and 13 minutes earlier opposing the legislation. Until then, the measure had occupied the Senate for 60 working days, a day earlier, Democratic Whip Hubert Humphrey of Minnesota, the bills manager, concluded he had the 67 votes required at that time to end the debate and end the filibuster.
With six wavering senators providing a four-vote victory margin, the tally stood at 71 to 29. Never in history had the Senate been able to muster enough votes to cut off a filibuster on a civil rights bill, and only once in the 37 years since 1927 had it agreed to cloture for any measure. On June 19, the bill passed the Senate by a vote of 73–27, and quickly passed through the House-Senate conference committee