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Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution

The Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution abolished slavery and involuntary servitude, except as punishment for a crime. In Congress, it was passed by the Senate on April 8, 1864, by the House on January 31, 1865; the amendment was ratified by the required number of states on December 6, 1865. On December 18, 1865, Secretary of State William H. Seward proclaimed its adoption, it was the first of the three Reconstruction Amendments adopted following the American Civil War. Since the American Revolution, states had divided into states that allowed or states that prohibited slavery. Slavery was implicitly permitted in the original Constitution through provisions such as Article I, Section 2, Clause 3 known as the Three-Fifths Compromise, which detailed how each slave state's enslaved population would be factored into its total population count for the purposes of apportioning seats in the United States House of Representatives and direct taxes among the states. Though many slaves had been declared free by President Abraham Lincoln's 1863 Emancipation Proclamation, their post-war status was uncertain.

On April 8, 1864, the Senate passed an amendment to abolish slavery. After one unsuccessful vote and extensive legislative maneuvering by the Lincoln administration, the House followed suit on January 31, 1865; the measure was swiftly ratified by nearly all Northern states, along with a sufficient number of border states up to the death of Lincoln, but approval came with President Andrew Johnson, who encouraged the "reconstructed" Southern states of Alabama, North Carolina and Georgia to agree, which brought the count to 27 states, caused it to be adopted before the end of 1865. Though the amendment formally abolished slavery throughout the United States, factors such as Black Codes, white supremacist violence, selective enforcement of statutes continued to subject some black Americans to involuntary labor in the South. In contrast to the other Reconstruction Amendments, the Thirteenth Amendment was cited in case law, but has been used to strike down peonage and some race-based discrimination as "badges and incidents of slavery."

The Thirteenth Amendment applies to the actions of private citizens, while the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments apply only to state actors. The Thirteenth Amendment enables Congress to pass laws against sex trafficking and other modern forms of slavery. Section 1. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction. Section 2. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. Slavery existed in all of the original thirteen British North American colonies. Prior to the Thirteenth Amendment, the United States Constitution did not expressly use the words slave or slavery but included several provisions about unfree persons; the Three-Fifths Compromise, Article I, Section 2, Clause 3 of the Constitution, allocated Congressional representation based "on the whole Number of free Persons" and "three fifths of all other Persons".

This clause was a compromise between Southerners who wished slaves to be counted as'persons' for congressional representation and northerners rejecting these out of concern of too much power for the South, because representation in the new Congress would be based on population in contrast to the one-vote-for-one-state principle in the earlier Continental Congress. Under the Fugitive Slave Clause, Article IV, Section 2, Clause 3, "No person held to Service or Labour in one State" would be freed by escaping to another. Article I, Section 9, Clause 1 allowed Congress to pass legislation outlawing the "Importation of Persons", but not until 1808. However, for purposes of the Fifth Amendment—which states that, "No person shall... be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law"—slaves were understood as property. Although abolitionists used the Fifth Amendment to argue against slavery, it became part of the legal basis in Dred Scott v. Sandford for treating slaves as property.

Stimulated by the philosophy of the Declaration of Independence, between 1777 and 1804 every Northern state provided for the immediate or gradual abolition of slavery. Most of the slaves involved were household servants. No Southern state did so, the slave population of the South continued to grow, peaking at 4 million people in 1861. An abolitionist movement headed by such figures as William Lloyd Garrison grew in strength in the North, calling for the end of slavery nationwide and exacerbating tensions between North and South; the American Colonization Society, an alliance between abolitionists who felt the races should be kept separated and slaveholders who feared the presence of freed blacks would encourage slave rebellions, called for the emigration and colonization of both free blacks and slaves to Africa. Its views were endorsed by politicians such as Henry Clay, who feared that the main abolitionist movement would provoke a civil war. Proposals to eliminate slavery by constitutional amendment were introduced by Representative Arthur Livermore in 1818 and by John Quincy Adams in 1839, but failed to gain significant traction.

As the country continued to expand, the issue of slavery in its new territories became the dominant national issue. The Southern position was that slaves were property and therefore could be moved to the territories like all other forms of property; the 1820 Missouri Compromise provided for the admission of Missouri as a slave state and Maine as a free state, preserving the Senate's equality between the regions. In 1846, the Wilmot Proviso was introduced to a war appropriations bill to ban slavery in all territories acquired in the Mexican–Ameri

Charles Sears Baldwin

Charles Sears Baldwin was an American scholar and professor of rhetoric at Yale University. Born in New York City in 1867, Baldwin entered Columbia College at seventeen and received his A. B. in 1888. He was one of the earliest students to be granted the Ph. D. degree in English at Columbia. Besides teaching at Yale, Baldwin worked at Barnard College and Columbia University, he was married twice, first in 1894 to Agnes Irwin, to Gratia Eaton Whited in 1902. Most of his life an Episcopalian, he converted to Catholicism the year before his death. Baldwin died in New York City in 1935; the Inflections and Syntax of the Morte D'Arthur of Sir Thomas Malory. Specimens of Prose Description; the Expository Sentence. A College Manual of Rhetoric. American Short Stories. How to Write. Essays Out of Hours. Writing and Speaking. Composition and Written. An Introduction to English Medieval Literature. God Unknown. Ancient Rhetoric and Poetic. Medieval Rhetoric and Poetic. Three Medieval Centuries of Literature in England, 1100-1400.

Renaissance Literary Theory and Practice. Introduction and notes to Thomas De Quincey's Revolt of the Tartars. New York: Longmans, Green & Co. 1896. Introduction and notes to John Bunyan's The Pilgrim's Progress. New York: Longmans, Green & Co. 1905. Preface to Thomas De Quincey's Joan of Arc and the English Mail-coach. New York: Longmans, Green & Co. 1906. "Master Vergil," The Classical Weekly 2, 1908, pp. 36–37. Introduction to Aristotle's Poetics. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1930. "St. Augustine on Preaching." In: The Rhetoric of St. Augustine of Hippo. Ed. Richard Leo Enos and Roger Thompson, et al. Baylor University Press, 2008, pp. 187–203. Crowley, Sharon. "Literature in Composition, 1900–1930." In: Composition in the University: Historical and Polemical Essays. University of Pittsburgh Press, pp. 97–103. Works by or about Charles Sears Baldwin at Internet Archive Works by Charles Sears Baldwin, at Hathi Trust Works by Charles Sears Baldwin, at

Antonio Valero Vicente

Antonio Valero Vicente was a Spanish industrial engineer and the first dean of IESE Business School, part of the University of Navarra. A pioneer in executive education and in using the case method to teach management in Spain, he was committed to the world of business. Valero served as a board member and advisor in public and private sector companies, was an advisor to various government ministries, he helped. In 1968, he was awarded the Grand Cross of the Civil Order of the Wise; the son of Gabriel Valero and Dolores Vicente, he grew up in Zaragoza, where he began his higher education at the Escuela Profesional de Comercio, before moving on to Industrial Engineering in Terrassa, where he finished top of his class and graduated with honors, earning the Premio Extraordinario de Fin de Carrera. In 1960, he completed his Ph. D. in Textile Engineering from the Terrassa School of Engineering, where he would earn an engineering doctorate in Textile Industries Antonio Valero served as professor of the Chemistry of Dyes and Artificial Fibers, of Prints and Textile Preparation, as professor of Industrial Organization and Business Administration and of Theory and Economic Institutions, Business Administration and Production Management at the Escuela Técnica Superior de Terrassa.

He was a professor of Economics at the Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingenieros Industriales de Bilbao. Valero joined the University of Navarra's IESE Business School as dean and professor the year of its founding, he taught Business Policy renamed General Management, in various executive education programs, always instilling a sense of what a company committed to society and based on the ethical principles of Christianity is Antonio Valero was a visiting professor at the following academic institutions: Institut Européen d'Administration des Affaires, France. His role as a professor was complemented by his responsibilities in the management and guidance of educational organizations: He was a member of the Governing Board and the Board of Trustees of the University of Navarra and vice president president of the European Association of Management Training Centers, based in Brussels. In the summer of 1957, José Javier López Jacoiste, an envoy of Josemaría Escrivá, met with Valero and conveyed the Opus Dei founder's desire to take measures to help business leaders manage their companies from a Christian perspective.

Thus, Antonio Valero began the process commissioned by Escrivá to create a school that would train business leaders and executives. Valero gathered information from several colleagues and friends about what was happening outside of Spain in the field of executive education. In the spring of 1958, he traveled to Lille, whose École des Administrations des Affaires—directed by an MBA graduate from Harvard Business School —had introduced the case method of teaching, a novelty in Europe. In May, Valero presented a proposal to Escrivá, who gave his approval and set the 1958–1959 academic year as its launch date. In the first action plan for IESE, Valero outlined the initial phase of the project, the professors who could take part in it and the name of the future educational institute, which was, after some discussion, was called the Escuela de Directores del Instituto de Estudios Superiores de la Empresa. With Valero as dean, the next steps were to select the faculty and develop the curriculum for the first program, called the Programa de Alta Dirección de Empresas, aimed at business leaders with at least a decade of experience in senior management.

On November 25–26, 1958, the first classes were held at the Hotel del Parque in Sant Andreu de Llavaneres. The Programa de Dirección de Empresas followed in the 1959–1960 academic year, the Programa de Desarrollo para Alta Dirección de Empresas in 1961. In 1964, with the help of Harvard Business School, IESE launched the Master in Business Administration and Economics, it was the first time the term "master's" was used in Europe. The impetus for launching the master's program came from Escrivá, who believed IESE should train not only business leaders and executives, but young people. In February 1963, on a trip to Rome by professors Carlos Cavallé, Félix Huerta and Antonio Valero, they confirmed the idea, developing for months. Participation by professors Cavallé, Juan Farrán and Esteban Masifern in the International Teachers' Program at Harvard allowed the IESE professors to get to know the school's master's program and some of its faculty members. In March 1963, Harvard professor Franklin E. Folts spent a month at IESE teaching classes and helping to develop the plan for creating the master's degree.

In October of that same year, the Harvard-IESE Committee met for the first time, in Boston, with the Spanish business school seeking advice from the American institution on bot