Filippo Tommaso Emilio Marinetti was an Italian poet, art theorist, founder of the Futurist movement. He was associated with the utopian and Symbolist artistic and literary community Abbaye de Créteil between 1907 and 1908. Marinetti is best known as the author of the first Futurist Manifesto, written and published in 1909, of the Fascist Manifesto. Emilio Angelo Carlo Marinetti spent the first years of his life in Alexandria, where his father and his mother lived together more uxorio. Enrico was a lawyer from Piedmont, his mother was the daughter of a literary professor from Milan, they had come to Egypt in 1865, at the invitation of Khedive Isma'il Pasha, to act as legal advisers for foreign companies that were taking part in his modernization program. His love for literature developed during the school years, his mother was an avid reader of poetry, introduced the young Marinetti to the Italian and European classics. At age seventeen he started Papyrus, he first studied in Egypt in Paris, obtaining a baccalauréat degree in 1894 at the Sorbonne, in Italy, graduating in law at the University of Pavia in 1899.
He decided not to be a lawyer. He experimented with every type of literature, signing everything "Filippo Tommaso Marinetti". Marinetti and Constantin Brâncuși were visitors of the Abbaye de Créteil c. 1908 along with young writers like Roger Allard, Pierre Jean Jouve, Paul Castiaux, who wanted to publish their works through the Abbaye. The Abbaye de Créteil was a phalanstère community founded in the autumn of 1906 by the painter Albert Gleizes, the poets René Arcos, Henri-Martin Barzun, Alexandre Mercereau and Charles Vildrac; the movement drew its inspiration from the Abbaye de Thélème, a fictional creation by Rabelais in his novel Gargantua. It was closed down by its members early in 1908. Marinetti is known best as the author of the Futurist Manifesto, which he wrote in 1909, it was published in French on the front page of the most prestigious French daily newspaper, Le Figaro, on 20 February 1909. In The Founding and Manifesto of Futurism, Marinetti declared that "Art, in fact, can be nothing but violence and injustice."
Georges Sorel, who influenced the entire political spectrum from anarchism to Fascism argued for the importance of violence. Futurism had Fascist elements. Marinetti, who admired speed, had a minor car accident outside Milan in 1908 when he veered into a ditch to avoid two cyclists, he referred to the accident in the Futurist Manifesto: the Marinetti, helped out of the ditch was a new man, determined to end the pretense and decadence of the prevailing Liberty style. He discussed a new and revolutionary programme with his friends, in which they should end every artistic relationship with the past, "destroy the museums, the libraries, every type of academy". Together, he wrote, "We will glorify war—the world's only hygiene—militarism, the destructive gesture of freedom-bringers, beautiful ideas worth dying for, scorn for woman"; the Futurist Manifesto was read and debated all across Europe, but Marinetti's first'Futurist' works were not as successful. In April, the opening night of his drama Le Roi bombance, written in 1905, was interrupted by loud, derisive whistling by the audience... and by Marinetti himself, who thus introduced another element of Futurism, "the desire to be heckled."
Marinetti did, fight a duel with a critic he considered too harsh. His drama La donna è mobile, first presented in Turin, was not successful either. Nowadays, the play is remembered through a version, named Elettricità sessuale, for the appearance onstage of humanoid automatons, ten years before the Czech writer Karel Čapek would invent the term "robot". In 1910 his first novel, Mafarka il futurista, was cleared of all charges by an obscenity trial; that year, Marinetti discovered some allies in three young painters, who adopted the Futurist philosophy. Together with them, Marinetti began a series of Futurist Evenings, theatrical spectacles in which Futurists declaimed their manifestos in front of a crowd that in part attended the performances to throw vegetables at them; the most successful "happening" of that period was the publicization of the "Manifesto Against Past-Loving Venice" in Venice. In the flier, Marinetti demands "fill the small, stinking canals with the rubble from the old and leprous palaces" to "prepare for the birth of an industrial and militarized Venice, capable of dominating the great Adriatic, a great Italian lake."
In 1911, the Italo-Turkish War began and Marinetti departed for Libya as war correspondent for a French newspaper. His articles were collected and published in The Battle of Tripoli, he covered the First Balkan War of 1912–13, witnessing the surprise success of Bulgarian troops against the Ottoman Empire in the Siege of Adrianople. In this period he made a number of visits to London, which he considered'the Futurist city par excellence', where a number of exhibitions and demonstrations of Futurist music were staged. However, although a number of artists, including Wyndham Lewis, were interested in t
Christopher Columbus Langdell was an American jurist and legal academic, Dean of Harvard Law School from 1870 to 1895. Dean Langdell's legacy lies in the educational and administrative reforms he made to Harvard Law School, a task he was entrusted with by President Charles Eliot. Before Langdell's tenure the study of law was a rather technical pursuit in which students were told what the law is. Langdell applied the principles of pragmatism to the teaching of law as a result of which students were compelled to use their own reasoning powers to understand how the law might apply in a given case; this dialectical process came to be called the case method and has been the primary method of pedagogy at American law schools since. The case method has since been adopted and improved upon by schools in other disciplines, such as business, public policy, education; this innovation, coupled with Langdell's introduction of meritocratic principles into the evaluation of candidates, has led him to be considered'arguably the most influential teacher in the history of professional education in the United States'.
Christopher Langdell was born in the town of New Boston, New Hampshire, of English and Scots-Irish ancestry. He studied at Phillips Exeter Academy in 1845–48, at Harvard College in 1848–50 and at Harvard Law School in 1851–54; as a student, he served as one of the Harvard Law School's first librarians. From 1854 to 1870 he practiced law in New York City. In January 1870 he received an invitation from Charles Eliot to take up the chair of Dane Professor of Law at Harvard Law School. Langdell accepted the offer and soon after became Dean of the Law Faculty, succeeding Theophilus Parsons, to whose Treatise on the Law of Contracts he had contributed as a student; as Dean he introduced sweeping changes to the curriculum of the Law school extending the length of the academic programme from one to two years and replacing the old-style lecture system with a new system of tuition which required a greater level of engagement and input from students. He was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1870 and received the degree of LL.
D. in 1875. Langdell resigned the deanship in 1895, in 1900 became Dane Professor Emeritus, on July 6, 1906 died in Cambridge. In 1903 a chair in the law school was named in his honor and after his death the school's primary academic building, housing both the world's largest academic law library and classrooms, was named Langdell Hall. Langdell made the Harvard Law School a success by remodeling its administration. In a private correspondence of April 13, 1915, Charles W. Eliot wrote: "the putting of Langdell in charge of the Law School was the best piece of work I did for Harvard University, except the reconstruction of the Medical school in 70 and 71, the long fight for the development of the elective system." Dean Langdell's greatest innovation was his introduction of the case method of instruction. Until 1890, no other U. S. law school used this method, now standard. Moreover, the standard first-year curriculum at all American law schools — Contracts, Torts, Criminal Law, Civil Procedure — stands unchanged, from the curriculum Langdell instituted.
Langdell, who came from a unknown family, was conscious of the fact that students from more privileged backgrounds received higher grades in their coursework purely because of their family's wealth and social status. Dean Langdell instituted the process of blind grading, now common at U. S. law schools, so that students known by professors or from esteemed families would have no advantage over others. Selection of Cases on the Law of Contracts A Selection of Cases on Sales of Personal Property A Summary of Equity Pleading Cases in Equity Pleading Brief Survey of Equity Jurisdiction Chase, Anthony. "The Birth of the Modern Law School," American Journal of Legal History 23#4 pp 329-348 in JSTOR Granfield, Robert. Making Elite Lawyers: Visions of Law at Harvard and Beyond. New York: Routledge. Kimball, Bruce A; the Inception of Modern Professional Education: C. C. Langdell, 1826–1906 429 pp. ISBN 978-0-8078-3257-8 Kimball, Bruce A. "The Proliferation of Case Method Teaching in American Law Schools: Mr. Langdell's Emblematic'Abomination,' 1890-1915," History of Education Quarterly 46#2 pp 192-240 in JSTOR Kimball, Bruce A.'"Warn Students That I Entertain Heretical Opinions, Which They Are Not To Take as Law': The Inception of Case Method Teaching in the Classrooms of the Early C.
C. Langdell, 1870-1883," Law and History Review 17: 57-140. LaPiana, William P. Logic and Experience: The Origin of Modern American Legal Education excerpt and text search Wells, Catharine P.. "Langdell and the Invention of Legal Doctrine". Buffalo Law Review. 58: 551-618. AttributionChisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Langdell, Christopher Columbus". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press. "Finding aid for Christopher Columbus Langdell, Research notes and correspondences, 1852-1902". Harvard Law School Library. "Harvard Law School Deans throughout history", Harvard Law School
Simultaneous embedding is a technique in graph drawing and information visualization for visualizing two or more different graphs on the same or overlapping sets of labeled vertices, while avoiding crossings within both graphs. Crossings between an edge of one graph and an edge of the other graph are allowed. If edges are allowed to be drawn as polylines or curves any planar graph may be drawn without crossing its vertices in arbitrary positions in the plane, where the same vertex placement provides a simultaneous embedding. There are two restricted models: simultaneous geometric embedding, where each graph must be drawn planarly with line segments representing its edges rather than more complex curves restricting the two given graphs to subclasses of the planar graphs and simultaneous embedding with fixed edges, where curves or bends are allowed in the edges, but any edge in both graphs must be represented by the same curve in both drawings. In the unrestricted model, any two planar graphs can have a simultaneous embedding.
Simultaneous embedding is a technique in graph drawing and information visualization for visualizing two or more different graphs on the same or overlapping sets of labeled vertices, while avoiding crossings within both graphs. Crossings between an edge of one graph and an edge of the other graph are allowed. If edges are allowed to be drawn as polylines or curves any planar graph may be drawn without crossings with its vertices in arbitrary positions in the plane. Using the same vertex placement for two graphs provides a simultaneous embedding of the two graphs. Research has concentrated on finding drawings with few bends, or with few crossings between edges from the two graphs. There are two restricted models: simultaneous geometric embedding and simultaneous embedding with fixed edges, where curves or bends are allowed in the edges, but any edge present in both graphs must be represented by the same curve in both drawings; when a simultaneous geometric embedding exists, it automatically is a simultaneous embedding with fixed edges.
For simultaneous embedding problems on more than two graphs, it is standard to assume that all pairs of input graphs have the same intersection as each other. This constraint is known as sunflower intersection. Simultaneous embedding is related to thickness, the minimum number of planar subgraphs that can cover all of the edges of a given graph, geometric thickness, the minimum number of edge colors needed in a straight-line drawing of a given graph with no crossing between same-colored edges. In particular, the thickness of a given graph is two, if the graph's edges can be partitioned into two subgraphs that have a simultaneous embedding, the geometric thickness is two, if the edges can be partitioned into two subgraphs with simultaneous geometric embedding. In simultaneous geometric embedding each graph must be drawn as a planar graph with line segments representing its edges rather than more complex curves restricting the two given graphs to subclasses of the planar graphs. Many results on simultaneous geometric embedding are based on the idea that the Cartesian coordinates of the two given graphs' vertices can be derived from properties of the two graphs.
One of the most basic results of this type is the fact that any two path graphs on the same vertex set always have a simultaneous embedding. To find such an embedding, one can use the position of a vertex in the first path as its x-coordinate, the position of the same vertex in the second path as its y-coordinate. In this way, the first path will be drawn as an x-monotone polyline, a type of curve, automatically non-self-crossing, the second path will be drawn as a y-monotone polyline; this type of drawing places the vertices in an integer lattice of dimensions linear in the graph sizes. Defined layouts work, with larger but still linear grid sizes, when both graphs are caterpillars or when both are cycle graphs. A simultaneous embedding in a grid of linear dimensions is possible for any number of graphs that are all stars. Other pairs of graph types that always admit a simultaneous embedding, but that might need larger grid sizes, include a wheel graph and a cycle graph, a tree and a matching, or a pair of graphs both of which have maximum degree two.
However, pairs of planar graphs and a matching, or of a tree and a path exist, that have no simultaneous geometric embedding. Testing whether two graphs admit a simultaneous geometric embedding is NP-hard. More it is complete for the existential theory of the reals; the proof of this result implies that for some pairs of graphs that have simultaneous geometric embeddings, the smallest grid on which they can be drawn has doubly exponential size. When a simultaneous geometric embedding exists, it automatically is a simultaneous embedding with fixed edges. In simultaneous embedding with fixed edges, curves or bends are allowed in the edges, but any edge present in both graphs must be represented by the same curve in both drawings; the classification of different types of input as always having an embedding or as sometimes not being possible depends not only on the two types of graphs to be drawn, but on the structure of their intersection. For instance, it is always possible to find such an embedding when both of the two given graphs are outerplanar graphs and their intersection is a linear forest, with at most one bend per edge and with vertex coordinates and bend points all belonging to a grid of polynomial area.
However, there exist other pairs of outerplanar graphs with more complex intersections that have no such embedding. It is possible to find a simultaneous embedding with fixed edges