Filk music is a musical culture and community tied to science fiction/fantasy/horror fandom and a type of fan labor. The genre has been active since the early 1950s, played since the mid-1970s; the term "filk" predates 1955. It is used as a noun: referring to the genre or to a filk song it can be used to refer to a gathering with the primary purpose of singing filk songs; such a gathering held in someone's home is called a housefilk "A filk of ___" refers to a filksong based on another song, using the same tune and but not similar structure of plot and/or lyrics. It may be a parody of the original, with content referring back to it, or it may be a contrafactum which reuses the music and the lyrical structure of the original, but with different words. Full appreciation of a parody requires familiarity with the original, but appreciation of a contrafactum may not; as a verb: To participate in filk singing, not as a planned or organized event, as in "The party guests filked." To write a filk music parody of an existing song, humorous or otherwise, as in "I filked'Hope Eyrie'."
When used in this way, "filk" does not imply that all song parodies are considered filk music, nor does it imply that all filk songs are parodies. Setting satirical or parody lyrics to established tunes is not the province of science fiction fandom: works of parody music such as those found in MAD Magazine or performed by Weird Al Yankovic have their own long-established traditions and history; as Interfilk's "What is it?" Page demonstrates, there is no consensus on the definition of filk. Attempts have been made to define filk based on various criteria. Filk has been defined as folk music with a science fiction or fantasy theme, but this definition is not exact. Filkers have been known to write filk songs about a variety of topics, including but not limited to tangentially related topics such as computers and cats. In addition, while the majority of filk songs are in the folk style, other styles such as blues and rock appear from time to time. Filk has been defined as what is sung or performed by the network of people who gathered to sing at science fiction/fantasy conventions.
This definition might be summarized as, "We can argue what it is until we're red or green or blue, but when filkers get together it's the thing we do." Yet another definition focuses on filking as a community of those who are interested in filk music and who form part of the social network self-identified with filking. As described in this article, the origins of filk in science fiction conventions and its current organization emphasizes the social-network aspect of filking; the social aspect of filk as contrasted with the "performer vs. audience" dichotomy of much of modern music was described in a speech by ethnomusicologist Dr. Sally Childs-Helton. By any of these definitions, filk is a form of music created from within science fiction and fantasy fandom performed late at night at science fiction conventions, though there are now dedicated filk conventions in Canada, England and the USA; the boundaries of filking are vague. For example, filking overlaps with the singing and music performed by participants in the Society for Creative Anachronism or at LARPs.
In keeping with the folk-culture roots of filk, the musical styles and topics of filk music are eclectic. While a plurality of filk is rooted in acoustic-instrument folk music, other pieces and artists draw inspiration from rock, a cappella vocal groups, or other styles; the hobbyist and itinerant nature of filk events gives some advantages to acoustic-vocal soloists and small groups, who need only carry a lightweight instrument or two and whose rehearsals do not need to balance scheduling logistics against regular work and other obligations. One of the few rock-style groups in filk has been Ookla the Mok, whose studio recordings use techniques common in modern rock; some styles of filk rely on sampling the original source material and integrating it into electronica and hip-hop music such as 76's Objects in Space and DJ Qbert's Wave Twisters. The range of topics in filk songs stems from its cultural roots in fandom. Many songs honor specific works in fantasy, or speculative fiction. Other songs are about science, computers, technology in general, or values related to technological change.
Yet others are about the culture including filk itself. Many filk songs are humorous. However, some common themes do not fall neatly into filk's science fiction origins; such topics include songs about cats, popular culture, politics. These are best explained as an outgrowth of filk as a folk culture, open in some respects to expansion by individual artists. A significant number of filk songs are parodies, whether in the original sense of re-using a tune or in the modern sense of humorous re-use; some are parodies of songs from popular culture, others are parodies of existing filk songs. Although parody is not the primary focus of the filk music culture, the proportion of parody songs found in filk is higher than in other musical cultures. One subtype of filk songs is one on themes of death and gloom; the term derives from the word "morose", as in "ose, even-more-ose". A further vari
Van Halen 2007–2008 Tour was a North American concert tour occurring in the fall of 2007 and winter and spring of 2008 for hard rock band Van Halen. It was Van Halen's first tour since 2004, the first one with original singer David Lee Roth since he left the band in 1985. Roth was with the band from 1974 -- 1985; the tour was going to be a fifty date summer tour in 2007. When re-scheduled, it was announced as a twenty-five date tour in Winter 2007. Dates were added, bringing it up to forty dates. In November 2007, the band announced an extension of the tour into 2008 adding thirty-four new dates to the tour, bringing the total up to seventy-four, ending in April; the tour was re-branded as the "Van Halen 2007–2008 North American Tour". A number of dates were postponed in early March, due to a reported illness Eddie Van Halen appeared to be suffering from. A Van Halen tour with Roth was rumoured for months beforehand, there had been discussions about a reunion with him for years but with no success.
"Ed and Al hated that guy," noted Sammy Hagar. "Really hated him. I would never have believed they'd get back together." Three times in 2000–2001, Roth entered the 5150 studio with the Van Halen brothers to jam. An angle to the tour was that Eddie Van Halen's 16-year-old son Wolfgang Van Halen was the new bassist; this offended many fans because original bassist Michael Anthony was not asked to be a part of this reunion. Wolfgang was a mere 17 years old at the time; however the tour sold well. 25 dates across the USA/Canada were announced, but 50 more were added due to the demand. The tour finished on July 3, 2008 with a total of 76 dates; the band's last tour, with Sammy Hagar in 2004, was set to be 50 dates and was extended to 80. Ky-Mani Marley, son of reggae artist Bob Marley, opened each show bar the final two during the first three legs of the tour. R&B singer Ryan Shaw announced that, beginning on February 22, he would be the opening act for the remainder of the tour. Shaw began to tour with the band starting with the Las Vegas show on April 19.
The tour was named the "Van Halen Fall 2007 Tour" during early announcements. A "Merry Christmas" message on the Van Halen website referred to the "2007 tour", with no new title given for the 2008 leg; the website stated, "As Van Halen readies for a much needed holiday break, it's back on the road in 2008 to continue the tour." Extra dates were added and all postponed dates were made up for at stages, with no information on if the "2007 tour" had a scheduled ending. The tour grossed over $93 million, the band's most profitable to date. "You Really Got Me" "I'm the One" "Runnin' with the Devil" "Romeo Delight" "Somebody Get Me a Doctor" "Beautiful Girls" "Dance the Night Away" "Atomic Punk" "Everybody Wants Some!!" "So This Is Love?" "Mean Street" "Oh, Pretty Woman" Alex Van Halen drum solo "Unchained" "I'll Wait" "And the Cradle Will Rock..." "Hot for Teacher" "Little Dreamer" "Little Guitars" "Jamie's Cryin'" "Ice Cream Man" "Panama" Eddie Van Halen guitar solo" "Ain't Talkin"Bout Love" "1984" and "Jump" "Little Guitars" David Lee Roth – lead vocals Eddie Van Halen – lead guitar, backing vocals Wolfgang Van Halen – bass guitar, backing vocals Alex Van Halen – drums, percussion Van-Halen.com – The official Van Halen website Van Halen NewsDesk
Vernon George Prins was a Sri Lankan cricketer who captained the Ceylon team in first-class matches from 1955-56 to 1959-60. Prins attended S. Thomas' College, Mount Lavinia, where he played for the First XI for several years, captaining the team in 1942-43, he captained Nondescripts Cricket Club in the P Saravanamuttu Trophy from 1952 to 1959, leading them to five premierships, scoring 5611 runs at an average of 45.25 and taking 322 wickets at 15.60. In 1954-55 Nondescripts played The Rest in a three-day match at the Nondescripts ground. Prins took 5 for 11 and 6 for 41 and Nondescripts won by 320 runs, he played for Ceylon from 1944-45 to 1959-60, captaining the national team from 1955-56 to 1959-60. His best performances came in consecutive matches for the Gopalan Trophy. In 1957-58 he took 5 for 48 and 3 for 52, in 1958-59 he took 6 for 85 and 2 for 44, he made his highest first-class score in the Gopalan Trophy, 74 in 1953-54. He worked as a police inspector, he represented Ceylon at hockey.
The Venetian Interdict of 1606 and 1607 was the expression in terms of canon law, by means of a papal interdict, of a diplomatic quarrel and confrontation between the Papal Curia and the Republic of Venice, taking place in the period from 1605 to 1607. While it was active, the Interdict saw expulsions of some religious orders from Venice, a pamphlet war, intense diplomacy by France and Spain to resolve the issue. There had been previous interdicts laid on Venice. In 1202 the Venetian siege of Zadar during the Fourth Crusade led Pope Innocent III to excommunicate the army. In 1284, Pope Martin IV imposed an interdict because of Venice's refusal to support a crusade. Pope Clement V addressed escalating measures against Venice after the 1308 capture of Ferrara. In 1509 Pope Julius II placed Venice under interdict, during the War of the League of Cambrai, to further the papal cause in warfare in the Romagna. In 1605 Venice took measures to counter a papal attack on the way the Republic exerted control over its Catholic clergy.
Pope Paul V treated Venice's approach, on civil jurisdiction over clerics and church property, as anti-clerical. Based on the case current at the time of two arrested clerics, the Pope issued an interdict against Venice in April 1606. In diplomatic moves, Philip III of Spain encouraged the Papacy to press its case; the estimate in Rome was that the forces required to prosecute the conflict militarily were 50,000 infantry with 4,000 cavalry. Philip III ordered Pedro Henriquez de Acevedo, Count of Fuentes in Milan to readiness, with the required cavalry and about half the infantry. Paul V called in Alfonso d'Avalos, a Spanish colonel based in Milan, to oversee, Alessandro Monti from Flanders to command, his forces. Henry IV started to raise troops. War threatened, but the French were not prepared to fight over the matter, as the Spanish were; as this became apparent, Henry's diplomacy was able to resolve the contentious matters. His objective all along was to play the peacemaker and gain influence in Italy, this approach being at odds in the end with Canaye's pro-Venetian posture.
Canaye moved to press the Venetians to accept mediation by Cardinal François de Joyeuse. The interdict was lifted and formal reconciliation occurred in April 1607, with de Joyeuse as cardinal legate taking custody of the two priests at the centre of the dispute in his accommodation in the upper loggia at the Fondaco dei Turchi on the 21st; however the interdict had prompted a ban from the territories of the Venetian Republic of the Jesuits, this continued until 1656/7, when it ended as part of the reconciliation of another period of disputes between the Republic and the Papacy. Bouwsma states that, while the outcome was satisfactory to Venice, this event marks the beginning of the decline of the Republic. John A. Marino writes that the polemical exchanges on theories of statehood, by their intellectual depth, were influential for future discussions well into the 17th century; this was the last example of a papal interdict applied to an extended region, though interdicts have been used subsequently on a local scale.
William J. Bouwsma and the Defense of Republican Liberty. University of California Press. Filippo De Vivo "'Information and Communication in Venice: Rethinking Early Modern Politics.'" Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007 The Venetian Interdict and the Problem of Order John C. Rao, 2004 article on the Interdict in the Seattle Catholic
Louisa Watson Peat, born Louisa Watson Small, was an Irish-born writer and lecturer. Born in Keady, County Armagh, Louisa Peat attending Queens College in Belfast, furthermore attended the University of London. After graduation she worked in London, first for the Daily Chronicle and for Herbert N. Casson, managing the London office; the British Government employed Miss Small as an efficiency lecturer in 1915. Attempting to locate her cousin, John O'Donnell Watson, serving in a Canadian Battalion from Alberta, at the front during World War I, Miss Small had advertised looking for news and received many responses, including a letter from a Canadian soldier, Harold R. Peat, who had served with the Third Battalion. Peat, was recuperating from action at Ypres, at the Royal Herbert Hospital, Woolwich, they became a couple and married. Together, they wrote Private Peat, a best-selling account of a soldier under fire during the Great War, her memoir of this period Mrs. Private Peat was published in 1918.
Harold Peat sent for Miss Small to join him in Canada and they were married on August 24, 1916. The Irving Rossiter Family in Winnipeg assisted the bride with settling in North America, they lived in Chicago where two daughters were born, Louisa "Pat" Watson Peat, Julienne Michelle "Miki" Peat. The family lived for a period in Vancouver, British Columbia, where their third child, Elizabeth "Betty" Peat, was born. Betty Peat married Boleslaw Gladych; the couple toured, promoting their books. The Inexcusable Lie, published in 1923, is a treatise against nationalism and destructive patriotism that wastes the youth of nations. During the 1920s Louisa and Harold Peat traveled around North America on the Redpath Chatauqua Circuit with their growing family. Archives at the University of Iowa contain programs and advertisements of their lectures which were concerned with ensuring peace and promoting democracy. In the late 1920s or early 1930s, Louisa Peat settled in Michigan City and worked as an editor for the women's section of the Michigan City News-Dispatch paper.
In the late 1930s or early 1940s, Louisa Watson Small Peat moved to New York City to continue her writing career. During that time, she was ghost writing including Sydney Robert Montague. After World War II, Louisa Peat published Canada, New World Power and in 1950 Grandma Did It This Way, Memories of an Irish Childhood. Louisa Watson Small Peat died in 1953 at Massachusetts. Mrs. Private Peat Canada New World Power Grandma Did It This Way About Louisa Watson PeatBrush, Philippa Mary, 1999. "This feminine invasion": Women and the workplace in Canadian magazines, 1900-1930. Edmonton: PhD Diss. University of Alberta. Sdrc.lib.uiowa.edu
Strepsicrates is a genus of moths belonging to the subfamily Olethreutinae of the family Tortricidae. Some species have been moved between Stictea. Strepsicrates brachytycha Strepsicrates ebenocosma Strepsicrates holotephras Strepsicrates infensa Strepsicrates melanotreta Strepsicrates parthenia Strepsicrates penechra Strepsicrates poliophora Bradley, 1962 Strepsicrates prolongata Strepsicrates rhothia Strepsicrates semicanella Strepsicrates sideritis Strepsicrates smithiana Walsingham, 1891 Strepsicrates tetropsis Strepsicrates thyellopis Strepsicrates transfixa Strepsicrates trimaura Diakonoff, 1985 List of Tortricidae genera tortricidae.com