A fingerprint is an impression left by the friction ridges of a human finger. The recovery of partial fingerprints from a crime scene is an important method of forensic science. Moisture and grease on a finger result in fingerprints on surfaces such as metal. Deliberate impressions of entire fingerprints can be obtained by ink or other substances transferred from the peaks of friction ridges on the skin to a smooth surface such as paper. Fingerprint records contain impressions from the pad on the last joint of fingers and thumbs, though fingerprint cards typically record portions of lower joint areas of the fingers. Human fingerprints are detailed, nearly unique, difficult to alter, durable over the life of an individual, making them suitable as long-term markers of human identity, they may be employed by police or other authorities to identify individuals who wish to conceal their identity, or to identify people who are incapacitated or deceased and thus unable to identify themselves, as in the aftermath of a natural disaster.
A fingerprint is formed on any opaque surface and is the impression of the friction ridges on the finger of a human. The matching of two fingerprints is among the most used and most reliable biometric techniques. Fingerprint matching considers only the obvious features of a fingerprint. A friction ridge is a raised portion of the epidermis on the digits, the palm of the hand or the sole of the foot, consisting of one or more connected ridge units of friction ridge skin; these are sometimes known as "epidermal ridges" which are caused by the underlying interface between the dermal papillae of the dermis and the interpapillary pegs of the epidermis. These epidermal ridges serve to amplify vibrations triggered, for example, when fingertips brush across an uneven surface, better transmitting the signals to sensory nerves involved in fine texture perception; these ridges may assist in gripping rough surfaces and may improve surface contact in wet conditions. Before computerization, manual filing systems were used in large fingerprint repositories.
A fingerprint classification system groups fingerprints according to their characteristics and therefore helps in the matching of a fingerprint against a large database of fingerprints. A query fingerprint that needs to be matched can therefore be compared with a subset of fingerprints in an existing database. Early classification systems were based on the general ridge patterns, including the presence or absence of circular patterns, of several or all fingers; this allowed the filing and retrieval of paper records in large collections based on friction ridge patterns alone. The most popular systems used the pattern class of each finger to form a numeric key to assist lookup in a filing system. Fingerprint classification systems included the Roscher System, the Juan Vucetich System and the Henry Classification System; the Roscher System was implemented in both Germany and Japan. The Vucetich System was implemented throughout South America; the Henry Classification System was developed in India and implemented in most English-speaking countries.
In the Henry Classification System there are three basic fingerprint patterns: loop and arch, which constitute 60–65 percent, 30–35 percent, 5 percent of all fingerprints respectively. There are more complex classification systems that break down patterns further, into plain arches or tented arches, into loops that may be radial or ulnar, depending on the side of the hand toward which the tail points. Ulnar loops start on the pinky-side of the finger, the side closer to the lower arm bone. Radial loops start on the thumb-side of the finger, the side closer to the radius. Whorls may have sub-group classifications including plain whorls, accidental whorls, double loop whorls, peacock's eye and central pocket loop whorls; the system used by most experts, is similar to the Henry Classification System. It consists of five fractions, in which R stands for right, L for left, i for index finger, m for middle finger, t for thumb, r for ring finger and p for little finger; the fractions are as follows: Ri/Rt + Rr/Rm + Lt/Rp + Lm/Li + Lp/Lr The numbers assigned to each print are based on whether or not they are whorls.
A whorl in the first fraction is given a 16, the second an 8, the third a 4, the fourth a 2, 0 to the last fraction. Arches and loops are assigned values of 0. Lastly, the numbers in the numerator and denominator are added up, using the scheme: / A 1 is added to both top and bottom, to exclude any possibility of division by zero. For example, if the right ring finger and the left index finger have whorls, the fraction used is: 0/0 + 8/0 + 0/0 + 0/2 + 0/0 + 1/1 The resulting calculation is: / = 9/3 = 3 Fingerprint identification, known as dactyloscopy, or hand print identification, is the process of comparing two instances of friction ridge skin impressions, from human fingers or toes, or the palm of the hand or sole of the foot, to determine whether these impressions could have come from the same individual; the flexibility of friction ridge skin means that no two finger or palm prints are exactly alike in every detail. Fingerprint identification referred to as individualization, involves an expert, or an expert computer system operating under threshold scoring rules, determining whether two friction ridge impressions are to have originated from the same finger or palm.
An intentional recording of friction ridges is made with black
The 2012 FIA WTCC Race of Japan was the tenth round of the 2012 World Touring Car Championship season and the fifth running of the FIA WTCC Race of Japan. It was held on 21 October 2012 at the Suzuka Circuit in Japan; the first race was won by Alain Menu for Chevrolet and the second race was won by Stefano D'Aste for Wiechers-Sport. After the previous round in the United States at Sonoma Raceway, the championship was being led jointly by Yvan Muller and Robert Huff on 315 points. Norbert Michelisz was leading the Yokohama Independents' Trophy. Chevrolet had the opportunity to secure the manufacturers championship. There were a number of driver changes prior to the event, Darryl O'Young left Special Tuning Racing and returned to bamboo-engineering, his replacement at STR was German racing driver and former FIA GT1 World Championship team owner René Münnich. Masaki Kano joined Liqui Moly Team Engstler for his home event, driving a aspirated BMW 320si. Fellow Japanese racer Hiroki Yoshimoto joined Tuenti Racing Team for the event, driving the SUNRED SR León 1.6T raced up until the last event by Tiago Monteiro.
Monteiro switched to Honda Racing Team JAS for the final three rounds of the championship to debut the works Honda Civic S2000 TC in order to develop the car in preparation for a full programme in 2013. Muller set the pace in the Friday test session, interrupted by a trio of red flags, leading a Chevrolet 1–2–3 with Pepe Oriola the leading SEAT in fourth. Chevrolet continued to set the pace on Saturday in FP1, this time courtesy of Alain Menu at the head of another Chevrolet 1–2–3. Monteiro set the fourth fastest time in his new Honda Civic and Oriola was the quickest independent driver. Local driver Yoshimoto was seventh. Menu topped the times once again in FP2, although the Chevrolet 1–2–3 from earlier on was not repeated as Fernando Monje set the third fastest time in his Tuenti Racing Team SEAT León. After setting the pace throughout free practice, Menu went on to take pole position ahead of Muller and Huff while Chevrolet wrapped up the manufacturers title. Much of the attention was on the Honda of Monteiro, who at one point looked to drop out in Q1 until a last minute quick lap got him through to the second session.
He finished Q2 eleventh behind Stefano D'Aste who would take his third reversed grid pole position of the year in race two. Independents' Trophy leader Michelisz could only manage fourteenth, five places behind trophy rival Oriola; the Team Aon duo of James Nash and Tom Chilton qualified in 19th and 21st but would both start the first race at the back of the grid due to them both requiring a new engine for the event. Race two pole sitter D'Aste was the quickest driver in Sunday mornings warm up session, Michelisz was a close second. An engine change for Masaki Kano overnight would send him to the back of the race one grid. Menu led from start to finish leading a comfortable Chevrolet 1–2–3 in the opening Suzuka race; the lack of action near the front was representative of much of field, although Gabriele Tarquini jumped up from sixth to fourth at the start to lead home independent race winner Alex MacDowall. Having overtaken James Nash, Alberto Cerqui quickly ended his race in the gravel at turn one.
Mehdi Bennani collided with Aleksei Dudukalo while attempting a pass, Dudukalo held the car and continued while Bennani was forced to pit. Monteiro finished tenth to score a point in the debut race for the Honda Civic. After the race, Dudukalo received a 30-second penalty for colliding with Bennani and he dropped to 18th in the classification, while Nash and Cerqui both received 30-second penalties for start infringements dropping Nash to 19th. D'Aste started on pole position for the reverse grid race, he established a comfortable lead over second placed Oriola to take his second win of the season. Tarquini had jumped up to third place to complete the podium. Behind them, the Chevrolet trio found passing difficult and the Proteam Racing BMW of Bennani held them back for much of the race. Huff and Menu passed on the penultimate lap. Independent trophy contender Michelisz spun out of the race on the first lap, allowing trophy rival Oriola to close the points gap to 12; the overall championship was once again a tie between Muller.
Bold denotes Pole position for second race. Bold denotes Fastest lap. Bold denotes Fastest lap. Note: Only the top five positions are included for both sets of drivers' standings
Presidential elections were held in the Dominican Republic on 16 May 2004. The result was a victory for former president Leonel Fernández, who defeated incumbent Hipólito Mejía. Voter turnout was 72.8%. Hipólito Mejía, serving president, representing the Dominican Revolutionary Party seeking immediate re-election. Leonel Fernández, president from 1996-2000, representing the Dominican Liberation Party seeking a second term. Eduardo Estrella of the Social Christian Reformist Party, a former senator and advisor to ex-president Joaquín Balaguer. Opinion polls in the run-up to election day showed Fernández leading with 54%, Mejía on 27%, Estrella on 14%. In the previous weeks, Mejía had been gaining support while Fernández's numbers had been falling and, as a result, at one point it seemed possible that a second round run-off vote would have to be held between the two top candidates. Fernández's final result, in excess of 50 %, meant; the Dominican Republic introduced legislation in 1997 to enable Dominican citizens residing abroad to vote in presidential elections.
This was the first time the provisions of that law were put into practice, with some 52,500 registered overseas voters eligible to vote at polling stations set up in several American cities including Miami and New York, as well as Montréal, Caracas and Barcelona. Electoral officials noted that 52,500 was only a fraction of the overseas voters eligible to vote, but that the take-up rate was hampered by a lack of information regarding the necessary formalities and by bureaucratic hurdles