Waltershof is a quarter in the Hamburg-Mitte borough of the Free and Hanseatic city of Hamburg in northern Germany. It is a part of the Port of Hamburg. Waltershof is located at the Norderelbe and Köhlbrand and is made out of the islands Griesenwerder, Mühlenwerder and Rugenbergen, it borders the quarters Finkenwerder, Steinwerder, Othmarschen and Altona-Altstadt. In the Hamburg Parliament voting Waltershof is a part of the electoral district of Billstedt-Wilhelmsburg-Finkenwerder; because of the low inhabitants the voting results are combined with the results from Finkenwerder. In Waltershof is the southern entrance to the Elbe Tunnel and the western connection to the Köhlbrandbrücke, it is not connected to the public train system but it has a ferry station to the Landungsbrücken
The HADAG, is a local public transport company in Hamburg, Germany. It owns and operates passengers ferries across the Elbe River, overseen by and integrated into the network of Hamburger Verkehrsverbund. In 2013, 10.6 million passenger journeys were made on the HADAG network. In the 1950s the company operated ferries from Hamburg to England, in the 1980s, the cruise ship MS Astor; the Hafen-Dampfschifffahrt AG was founded on 8 August 1888, the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg granted the concession to operate ferries in the Port of Hamburg. In 1897, the HADAG owned 47 ferries and took over the smaller Jollenführer Dampfer GmbH. With opening of the Elbe tunnel in 1911, the HADAG line Landungsbrücken — Steinwerder lost 259,000 passengers p.a.. In 1918, with the end of the concession, the HADAG wanted to rise the fare price; the city of Hamburg refused and the company was in danger of liquidation. On 23 October 1918, the city of Hamburg acquired the HADAG, it became a subsidiary for the Hamburger Hochbahn.
In 1928 the HHA and HADAG established a shared fare for the trains and buses of the HHA and the ferries of the HADAG. In the 1950s, the HADAG operated a ferry to the islands Heligoland and Sylt. In 1966, the last steam ferries were taken out of service. In 1982, HADAG closed the ferry line from Landungsbrücken to the Heligoland island, started a line from Cuxhaven, with a combined fare with Deutsche Bundesbahn, in 1983; until 1983, the HADAG owned the cruise ship MS Astor. The HADAG runs public transport ferries and pleasure boats on the rivers Alster; the public transport is supervised by the Hamburger Verkehrsverbund. Transport in Hamburg List of rivers of Hamburg Pictures of the ferries Hadag Website Documents and clippings about HADAG in the 20th Century Press Archives of the German National Library of Economics
The Hanseaten is a collective term for the hierarchy group consisting of elite individuals and families of prestigious rank who constituted the ruling class of the free imperial city of Hamburg, conjointly with the equal First Families of the free imperial cities Bremen and Lübeck. The members of these First Families were the persons in possession of hereditary grand burghership of these cities, including the mayors, the senators, joint diplomats and the senior pastors. Hanseaten refers to the ruling families of Hamburg, Lübeck and Bremen, but more broadly, this group is referred to as patricians along with similar social groups elsewhere in continental Europe; the three cities since the Congress of Vienna 1815 are each named the "Free and Hanseatic City Hamburg", the "Free Hanseatic City Bremen" and the "Free and Hanseatic City Lübeck", since 1937 the "Hanseatic City Lübeck". Hamburg was one of the oldest stringent civic republics, in which the Hanseatics preserved their constitutional privileges granted in 1189 by Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor, until the German Revolution of 1918–19 and the Weimar Constitution.
Hamburg was republican, but it was not a democracy, but rather an oligarchy. The Hanseaten were regarded as being of equal rank to the nobility elsewhere in Europe, although the Hanseaten regarded the nobility outside the city republics as inferior to the Hanseaten. Thomas Mann, a member of a Lübeck Hanseatic family, portrayed this class in his Nobel Prize-winning novel Buddenbrooks, for which he received the 1929 Nobel Prize for Literature; the relationship between the Hanseatic and noble families varied depending on the city. The most republican city was Hamburg, where the nobility was banned, from the 13th century to the 19th century, from owning property, participating in the political life of the city republic, from living within its walls. Hamburg, was not a true democracy, but rather an oligarchy, with the Hanseaten as its elite occupying the position held by noble and princely families elsewhere. According to Richard J. Evans, "the wealthy of nineteenth-century Hamburg were for the most part stern republicans, abhorring titles, refusing to accord any deference to the Prussian nobility, determinedly loyal to their urban background and mercantile heritage."
Many grand burghers considered the nobility inferior to Hanseatic families. A marriage between a daughter of a Hanseatic family and a noble was undesired by the Hanseaten. From the late 19th century, being integrated into a German nation state, a number of Hanseatic families were ennobled, but this was met with criticism among their fellow Hanseaten; as the Hanseatic banker Johann von Berenberg-Gossler was ennobled in Prussia in 1889, his sister Susanne, married Amsinck, exclaimed "Aber John, unser guter Name! " Upon hearing of the ennoblement of Rudolph Schröder of the ancient Hanseatic Schröder family, Hamburg First Mayor Johann Heinrich Burchard remarked that the Prussian King could indeed "place" Schröder among the nobles, but he could not "elevate" a Hanseatic merchant. A few prominent families are listed here. Amandus Augustus Abendroth, mayor of Hamburg August Abendroth, lawyer Carl Eduard Abenroth, member of the Hamburg parliament Johann Christoph Albers, merchant representative of Bremen Johann Heinrich Albers, merchant of Bremen/London, art collector Anton Albers der Ältere, merchant of Bremen/Lausanne, painter Rudolf Amsinck, senator of Hamburg Wilhelm Amsinck, mayor of Hamburg Johann Hinrich Gossler, banker Johann Heinrich Gossler and banker Anna Henriette Gossler, married to Ludwig Edwin Seyler Hermann Goßler and First Mayor of Hamburg John von Berenberg-Gossler, Hamburg senator and banker Oskar Goßler, German sculler Gustav Goßler, German sculler Johann Heinrich Burchard, mayor of Hamburg Johannes Leopold Burchard, Hamburg lawyer Wilhelm Amsinck Burchard-Motz, mayor of Hamburg Frédéric de Chapeaurouge, senator of Hamburg Charles Ami de Chapeaurouge, senator of Hamburg Paul de Chapeaurouge, senator of Hamburg Alfred de Chapeaurouge, German politician Hermann von Fehling, German chemist Johann Fehling, Lübeck senator Emil Ferdinand Fehling, mayor of Lübeck, "Dr. Moritz Hagenström" in Buddenbrooks Johann Cesar VI.
Godeffroy, Hamburg merchant Johann Michael Hudtwalcker, Hamburg merchant Martin Hieronymus Hudtwalcker Hamburg senator Nicolaus Hudtwalcker, Hamburg insurance broker Johann Christian Jauch senior, Hamburg merchant and Grand Burgher Auguste Jauch, Hamburg benefactor to the poor Carl Jauch, Grand Burgher, Lord of Wellingsbüttel and cavalry lieutenant in the Hamburg Citizen Militia August Jauch, delegate of the grand burghers to the Hamburg parliament Hans Jauch, German colonel and Freikorps-leader Walter Jauch, founder of Aon Jauch & Hübener Günther Jauch, German television host and producer Heinrich Kellinghusen, Hamburg merchant and first mayor Thomas Johann Heinrich Mann, senat
Flag of Hamburg
There are three flags of Hamburg, Germany. The Landesflagge, the State flag of Hamburg and the admiralty flag consist of the Coat of arms of Hamburg on a red flag; the civil flag shows a white castle with three towers on red background, used as a civil flag as a state flag for most purposes. The oldest seal with the castle is thought to date from 1241; the first flag featuring the current form was in the mid-16th century, although this was most a red field, a white escutcheon and red castle. After about 1623, the escutcheon began to be omitted, leaving a red castle on white or a white castle on red, it was only in 1751. The civil flag is free for use to everybody; the state flag of Hamburg is only used by the Senate of Hamburg as the head of state. This flag was created in 1897 on the occasion of the opening of the new town hall; the Admiralty flag of Hamburg is used only for state buildings connected to the navigation and at the jacks of boats of Hamburg's Water Constabulary, since there are no genuine warships under city command any more.
It portrays the admiralty coat of arms which have existed since 1642. Coat of arms of Hamburg Media related to Flags of Hamburg at Wikimedia Commons Hamburg at Flags of the World
Airbus SE, from 2000 to 2014 known as the European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company, is a European multinational aerospace corporation, registered in the Netherlands and trading shares in France and Spain. It designs and sells civil and military aerospace products worldwide and manufactures in the European Union and various other countries; the company has three divisions: Commercial Aircraft and Space, Helicopters, the third being the largest in its industry in terms of revenues and turbine helicopter deliveries. The company's main civil aeroplane business is based in Blagnac, France, a suburb of Toulouse, with production and manufacturing facilities in the European Union but in China and the United States. Final assembly production is based in France; the company produces and markets the first commercially viable digital fly-by-wire airliner, the Airbus A320, the world's largest passenger airliner, the A380. The 10,000th aircraft, an A350, was delivered to Singapore Airlines on 14 October 2016.
The global Airbus fleet have performed more than 110 million flights, totaling over 215 billion kilometres and carrying 12 billion passengers. Airbus's corporate headquarters is located in Leiden and the main office is located in Toulouse, France; the company is led by CEO Guillaume Faury and is a component of the Euro Stoxx 50 stock market index. The current company is the product of consolidation in the European aerospace industry tracing back to the formation of the Airbus Industrie GIE consortium in 1970. In 2000, the European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company NV was established. In addition to other subsidiaries pertaining to security and space activities, EADS owned 100% of the pre-existing Eurocopter SA, established in 1992, as well as 80% of Airbus Industrie GIE. In 2001, Airbus Industrie GIE was reorganised as a simplified joint-stock company. In 2006, EADS acquired. EADS NV was renamed Airbus Group NV and SE in 2014, 2015, respectively. Due to the dominance of the Airbus SAS division within Airbus Group SE, these parent and subsidiary companies were merged in January 2017, keeping the name of the parent company.
The company was given its present name in April 2017. The logos of Airbus Industrie GIE and Airbus SAS displayed a stylised turbine symbol, redolent of a jet engine, a font similar to Helvetica Black; the logo colours were reflected in the standard Airbus aircraft livery in each period. The EADS logo between 2000 and 2010 combined the logos of the merged companies, DaimlerChrysler Aerospace AG and Aérospatiale-Matra, after which these elements were removed and a new font with 3D shading was chosen; this font was retained in the logos of Airbus Group NV and Airbus Group SE Airbus SE: The Airbus product line started with the A300, the world's first twin-aisle, twin-engined aircraft. A shorter, re-winged, re-engined variant of the A300 is known as the A310. Building on its success, Airbus launched the A320 notable for being the first commercial jet to use a fly-by-wire control system; the A320 has been, continues to be, a great commercial success. The A318 and A319 are shorter derivatives with some of the latter under construction for the corporate business jet market as Airbus Corporate Jets.
A stretched version is known as the A321. The A320 family's primary competitor is the Boeing 737 family; the longer-range widebody products— the twin-jet A330 and the four-engine A340— have efficient wings, enhanced by winglets. The Airbus A340-500 has an operating range of 16,700 kilometres, the second longest range of any commercial jet after the Boeing 777-200LR. All Airbus aircraft developed since have cockpit systems similar to the A320, making it easier to train crew. Production of the four-engine A340 was ended in 2011 due to lack of sales compared to its twin-engine counterparts, such as the Boeing 777. Airbus is studying a replacement for the A320 series, tentatively dubbed NSR, for "New Short-Range aircraft"; those studies indicated a maximum fuel efficiency gain of 9–10% for the NSR. Airbus however opted to enhance the existing A320 design using new winglets and working on aerodynamical improvements; this "A320 Enhanced" should have a fuel efficiency improvement of around 4–5%, shifting the launch of an A320 replacement to 2017–2018.
On 24 September 2009, the COO Fabrice Bregier stated to Le Figaro that the company would need from €800 million to €1 billion over six years to develop the new aircraft generation and preserve the company technological lead from new competitors like the Chinese Comac C919, scheduled to operate by 2015–2020. In July 2007, Airbus delivered its last A300 to FedEx, marking the end of the A300/A310 production line. Airbus intends to relocate Toulouse A320 final assembly activity to Hamburg, A350/A380 production in the opposite direction as part of its Power8 organisation plan begun under ex-CEO Christian Streiff. Airbus supplied replacement parts and service for Concorde until its retirement in 2003; the Airbus Corporate Jets modifies new aircraft for private and corporate customers. It has a model range that parallels the commercial aircraft offered by the company, ranging from the A318 Elite to the double-deck Airbus A380 Prestige. Following the entry of the 737 based Boeing Business Jet, Airbus joined the business jet market with the A319 Corporate Jet in 1997.
Although the term Airbus Corporate jet was used only for the A319CJ, it is now us
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
Grand Slam (bomb)
The Grand Slam was a 22,000 lb earthquake bomb used by RAF Bomber Command against strategic targets during the Second World War. Known as the Bomb, Medium Capacity, 22,000 lb, it was a scaled-up version of the Tallboy bomb and closer to the original size that the bombs' inventor, Barnes Wallis, had envisaged when he first developed his earthquake bomb idea, it was nicknamed "Ten ton Tess". It was the most powerful non-atomic aerial bomb used in combat until 2017, when a US GBU-43/B MOAB was used in a 2017 attack against ISIL forces in Afghanistan; when the success was proved, Wallis designed a yet more powerful weapon… This 22,000 lb bomb did not reach us before the spring of 1945, when we used it with great effect against viaducts or railways leading to the Ruhr and against several U-boat shelters. If it had been necessary, it would have been used against underground factories, preparations for attacking some of these were well advanced when the war ended. On 18 July 1943, work started on a larger version of the Tallboy bomb.
As with the original Tallboy, the Grand Slam's fins generated a stabilizing spin and the bomb had a thicker case than a conventional bomb, which allowed deeper penetration. Unlike the Tallboy, the Grand Slam was designed to penetrate concrete roofs, it was more effective against hardened targets than any existing bomb. After release from the Avro Lancaster B. Mk 1 bomber, the Grand Slam would reach near-supersonic speed, approaching 715 mph; when it hit, it would penetrate deep underground before detonating. The resulting explosion could cause the formation of a camouflet and shift the ground to undermine a target's foundation; the first Grand Slam was tested at the Ashley Range in the New Forest, on 13 March 1945. Like the Tallboy, after the hot molten Torpex was poured into the casing, the explosive took a month to cool and set. Therefore, the Grand Slam had a low consequent high value for each bomb; as a result, aircrews were told to land with their unused bombs on board rather than jettison them into the sea if a sortie was aborted.
By the end of the war, 42 Grand Slams had been dropped in active service:Bielefeld, 14 March 1945 The No. 617 Squadron RAF Avro Lancaster of Squadron Leader CC Calder dropped the first Grand Slam bomb from 11,965 ft on the Schildesche viaduct. A large section of the Bielefeld viaduct collapsed through the earthquake bomb effect of the Grand Slam and Tallboy bombs of No. 617 Squadron. No aircraft were lost. Arnsberg, 15 March 1945 Two aircraft of No. 617 Squadron RAF each carried a Grand Slam and 14 aircraft of No. 9 Squadron RAF carried Tallboy bombs to attack the railway viaduct in poor weather. One Grand Slam and 10 Tallboys were dropped, while one of the Lancasters was forced to bring its bomb back; the viaduct was not cut and no aircraft were lost. Arnsberg, 19 March 1945 19 Lancasters of No. 617 Squadron, six carrying Grand Slams, the remainder Tallboys, attacked the railway viaduct at Arnsberg. All Grand Slams blew a 40-foot gap in the viaduct; the standing structure was damaged. Arbergen, 21 March 1945 20 Lancasters of No. 617 Squadron, two carrying Grand Slams, the remainder Tallboys, attacked the railway bridge at Arbergen.
The Grand Slams landed off target due to heavy flak and aiming problems. One 617 Lancaster was lost. Nienburg, 22 March 1945 20 Lancasters of No. 617 Squadron, six carrying Grand Slams, the remainder Tallboys, attacked the railway bridge at Nienburg, between Bremen and Hanover. Five Grand Slams made the bridge was destroyed. Another five bombs were brought home by the squadron. Bremen, 23 March 1945 20 Lancasters of No. 617 Squadron, six carrying Grand Slams, the remainder Tallboys, attacked a railway bridge near Bremen. The Grand Slams appear to have landed too far from the target, brought down by a Tallboy. Author Jon Lake claims instead. Farge, 27 March 1945 20 Lancasters of No. 617 Squadron attacked the Valentin submarine pens, a huge, nearly-ready structure with a concrete roof up to 23 ft thick. Two Grand Slam bombs hit the pen, failing to penetrate a 14 ft 5 inches thick roof but causing large holes by exploding within the concrete. No aircraft were lost. Hamburg, 9 April 1945 17 aircraft of No. 617 Squadron, two with Grand Slams and the remainder with Tallboy bombs attacked the U-boat shelters.
The Grand Slams appear to have missed. No aircraft were lost. Heligoland, 19 April 1945 20 aircraft of No. 617 Squadron, six with Grand Slams and the remainder with Tallboy bombs, along with 16 aircraft from No. 9 Squadron, attacked coastal gun-batteries. No aircraft were lost. Beginning in March 1946, Project Ruby was a joint Anglo–American project to investigate the use of penetration bombs against protected, concrete targets; the target selected was the Valentin submarine pens near Bremen, rendered unusable and abandoned since 617 Squadron's attack on 27 March 1945. Grand Slams were carried by Lancasters from US Boeing B-29 Superfortress. Around 140 sorties were flown, testing a range of different bombs including the rocket-assisted Disney bomb. Five complete Grand Slam bombs are preserved and displayed in the United Kingdom at the RAF Museum, London. Main portions of these bombs, without their lightweight tails, can be seen at the Kelham Island Museum i