The Salisbury is a Grade II* listed pub on Grand Parade in Harringay, north London. The Salisbury was designed and built by John Cathles Hill, founder of The London Brick Company, the pub was opened in 1899 with W. A. Cathles, a cousin of Hill, as the manager. Its construction cost of £30,000 is approximately £3.05 million as of 2017, in this it is a paradox, as the hotel and public house which it comprises are distinct, but they are nevertheless equally one. The hotel is one of the finest which exists at the present day, it is one which will take a genius to eclipse. in 2003, following a period of dilapidation and decline, and temporary closure, it was sympathetically restored and reopened. In 2008, beer and architecture experts Geoff Brandwood and Jane Jephcote, selected The Salisbury as one of Londons top ten heritage pubs in their book, the exterior is classified as French Renaissance style with shaped gables, ogee domed cupolas and large pedimented dormers. It is constructed of red brick with bands and dressings.
Its slated mansard roof has a central tower topped with a wrought-iron crown. The pub has three stories and attic, polished black larvikite Corinthian pilasters support the fascia. The entrances have ornate wrought-iron screens above imposts, with elaborately tiled lobbies, the pubs interior was described by the architectural historian Mark Girouard as a magnificently elaborate and complete interior. On the first floor there is a room at the front which was in the past used as a restaurant. It has an elaborate, compartmented ceiling with ornate fibrous plasterwork, there is notable engraved glass by Cakebread & Robey in the doors separating off the residential part of the building. This floor was used as a church, but has recently been renovated into an expansive luxury apartment. The bar area has a ceiling with cast-iron columns. There is a large, curved wooden bar with a trough at its base. The bar forms a complete rectangle serving all parts of the large space, the saloon and public bars are divided by a wooden, arched screen containing glass engraved with Art Nouveau motifs.
At the rear is the billiard room, now a function room and kitchen. There are many elaborate engraved mirrors, some windows and fire surrounds. YouTube video of the little seen first floor of The Salisbury
Railway Fields is a Local Nature Reserve and a Site of Borough Importance for Nature Conservation, Grade I, in Harringay the London Borough of Haringey. About one hectare in area, it was a goods yard until 1967. Much of the site is wooded with open birch woodland running along part of the boundary with the railway, denser woodland and scrub occupies much of the rest of the site. There are areas of grassland and a small pond, at the centre of the reserve, a wooden cabin provides an office and a classroom. Over 200 species of flowers have been recorded. This includes the unique Haringey Knotweed discovered in 1987, a cross between the Japanese Knotweed and the Russian vine, more than sixty species of birds have been observed since Railway Fields opened. The area that is now the Railway Fields nature reserve was established as a yard on the Tottenham. It seems likely that the use of the goods yard was for coal. Just under 100 years later, in 1967, the yard was closed, in 1975 it was acquired by Haringey Council for a community centre for Haringey Social Services.
In 1986 it was opened as a park and used as an educational nature reserve. In 1990 it was declared a local nature reserve. The site is protected as public space in perpetuity as a Fields in Trust Queen Elizabeth II field. Harringay online - Website for Harringay residents Photo series by Henry Jacobs on Smug Mug The Conservation Volunteers
The offense must advance at least ten yards in four downs, or plays, or else they turn over the football to the opposing team, if they succeed, they are given a new set of four downs. Points are primarily scored by advancing the ball into the teams end zone for a touchdown or kicking the ball through the opponents goalposts for a field goal. The team with the most points at the end of a game wins, American football evolved in the United States, originating from the sports of association football and rugby football. The first game of American football was played on November 6,1869, during the latter half of the 1870s, colleges playing association football switched to the Rugby Union code, which allowed carrying the ball. American football as a whole is the most popular sport in the United States, Professional football and college football are the most popular forms of the game, with the other major levels being high school and youth football. As of 2012, nearly 1.1 million high school athletes and 70,000 college athletes play the sport in the United States annually, almost all of them men, in the United States, American football is referred to as football.
The term football was established in the rulebook for the 1876 college football season. The terms gridiron or American football are favored in English-speaking countries where other codes of football are popular, such as the United Kingdom, New Zealand, American football evolved from the sports of association football and rugby football. What is considered to be the first American football game was played on November 6,1869 between Rutgers and Princeton, two college teams, the game was played between two teams of 25 players each and used a round ball that could not be picked up or carried. It could, however, be kicked or batted with the feet, head or sides, Rutgers won the game 6 goals to 4. Collegiate play continued for years in which matches were played using the rules of the host school. Representatives of Yale, Columbia and Rutgers met on October 19,1873 to create a set of rules for all schools to adhere to. Teams were set at 20 players each, and fields of 400 by 250 feet were specified, Harvard abstained from the conference, as they favored a rugby-style game that allowed running with the ball.
An 1875 Harvard-Yale game played under rugby-style rules was observed by two impressed Princeton athletes and these players introduced the sport to Princeton, a feat the Professional Football Researchers Association compared to selling refrigerators to Eskimos. Princeton, Harvard and Columbia agreed to play using a form of rugby union rules with a modified scoring system. These schools formed the Intercollegiate Football Association, although Yale did not join until 1879, the introduction of the snap resulted in unexpected consequences. Prior to the snap, the strategy had been to punt if a scrum resulted in bad field position, however, a group of Princeton players realized that, as the snap was uncontested, they now could hold the ball indefinitely to prevent their opponent from scoring. In 1881, both teams in a game between Yale-Princeton used this strategy to maintain their undefeated records, each team held the ball, gaining no ground, for an entire half, resulting in a 0-0 tie
A listed building or listed structure, in the United Kingdom, is one that has been placed on the Statutory List of Buildings of Special Architectural or Historic Interest. The statutory bodies maintaining the list are Historic England in England, Cadw in Wales, Historic Scotland in Scotland, the preferred term in Ireland is protected structure. In England and Wales, an amenity society must be notified of any work to a listed building which involves any element of demolition. Owners of listed buildings are, in circumstances, compelled to repair and maintain them. When alterations are permitted, or when listed buildings are repaired or maintained, slightly different systems operate in each area of the United Kingdom, though the basic principles of the listing remain the same. It was the damage to caused by German bombing during World War II that prompted the first listing of buildings that were deemed to be of particular architectural merit. The listings were used as a means of determining whether a building should be rebuilt if it was damaged by bombing.
Listing was first introduced into Northern Ireland under the Planning Order 1972, the listing process has since developed slightly differently in each part of the UK. In the UK, the process of protecting the historic environment is called ‘designation’. A heritage asset is a part of the environment that is valued because of its historic. Only some of these are judged to be important enough to have legal protection through designation. However, buildings that are not formally listed but still judged as being of heritage interest are still regarded as being a consideration in the planning process. Almost anything can be listed – it does not have to be a building and structures of special historic interest come in a wide variety of forms and types, ranging from telephone boxes and road signs, to castles. Historic England has created twenty broad categories of structures, and published selection guides for each one to aid with assessing buildings and these include historical overviews and describe the special considerations for listing each category.
Both Historic Scotland and Cadw produce guidance for owners, in England, to have a building considered for listing or delisting, the process is to apply to the secretary of state, this can be done by submitting an application form online to Historic England. The applicant does not need to be the owner of the building to apply for it to be listed, full information including application form guidance notes are on the Historic England website. Historic England assesses buildings put forward for listing or delisting and provides advice to the Secretary of State on the architectural, the Secretary of State, who may seek additional advice from others, decides whether or not to list or delist the building. In England and Wales the authority for listing is granted to the Secretary of State by the Planning Act 1990, Listed buildings in danger of decay are listed on the Historic England Heritage at Risk Register
City of London
The City of London is a city and county within London. It constituted most of London from its settlement by the Romans in the 1st century AD to the Middle Ages, the City is now only a tiny part of the metropolis of London, though it remains a notable part of central London. Administratively, it one of the 33 local authority districts of Greater London, the City of London is not a London borough. The City of London is widely referred to simply as the City and is colloquially known as the Square Mile. Both of these terms are often used as metonyms for the United Kingdoms trading and financial services industries. The name London is now used for a far wider area than just the City. London most often denotes the sprawling London metropolis, or the 32 London boroughs and this wider usage of London is documented as far back as 1888, when the County of London was created. The local authority for the City, namely the City of London Corporation, is unique in the UK and has some unusual responsibilities for a local council and it is unusual in having responsibilities and ownerships beyond its boundaries.
The Corporation is headed by the Lord Mayor of the City of London, the current Lord Mayor, as of November 2016, is Andrew Parmley. The City is a business and financial centre. Throughout the 19th century, the City was the primary business centre. London came top in the Worldwide Centres of Commerce Index, published in 2008, the insurance industry is focused around the eastern side of the City, around Lloyds building. A secondary financial district exists outside of the City, at Canary Wharf,2.5 miles to the east, the City has a resident population of about 7,000 but over 300,000 people commute to and work there, mainly in the financial services sector. It used to be held that Londinium was first established by merchants as a trading port on the tidal Thames in around 47 AD. However, this date is only supposition, many historians now believe London was founded some time before the Roman conquest of Britain in 43 AD. They base this notion on evidence provided by both archaeology and Welsh literary legend, archaeologists have claimed that as much as half of the best British Iron Age art and metalwork discovered in Britain has been found in the London area.
One of the most prominent examples is the famously horned Waterloo Helmet dredged from the Thames in the early 1860s and now exhibited at the British Museum. Also, according to an ancient Welsh legend, a king named Lud son of Heli substantially enlarged and improved a pre-existing settlement at London which afterwards came to be renamed after him, the same tradition relates how this Lud son of Heli was buried at Ludgate
An arboretum in a narrow sense is a collection of trees only. Related collections include a fruticetum, and a viticetum, a collection of vines, more commonly, today, an arboretum is a botanical garden containing living collections of woody plants intended at least partly for scientific study. An arboretum specializing in growing conifers is known as a pinetum, other specialist arboreta include saliceta and querceta. The term arboretum was first used in an English publication by John Claudius Loudon in 1833 in The Gardeners Magazine, egyptian Pharaohs planted exotic trees and cared for them, they brought ebony wood from the Sudan, and pine and cedar from Syria. It is reported that Hatshepsut had these trees planted in the courts of her Deir el Bahri mortuary temple complex, Arboreta are special places for the cultivation and display of a wide variety of different kinds of trees and shrubs. Many tree collections have been claimed as the first arboretum, in most cases, Arboreta differ from pieces of woodland or plantations because they are botanically significant collections with a variety of examples rather than just a few kinds.
Of course there are many tree collections that are older than the eighteenth century in different parts of the world. Loudons Arboretum et Fruticetum Britannicum,8 vols, Loudon urged that a national arboretum be created and called for arboreta and other systematic collections to be established in public parks, private gardens, country estates and other places. He regarded the Derby Arboretum as the most important landscape-gardening commission of the part of his career because it demonstrated the benefits of a public arboretum. The more lofty trees suffered from the high winds. We walked round the two spirals of this coil of trees and shrubs, viz. from Acer to Quercus. There is no garden scene about London so interesting, a plan of Loddiges arboretum was included in The Encyclopaedia of Gardening,1834 edition. One example of an early European tree collection is the Trsteno Arboretum, the date of its founding is unknown, but it was already in existence by 1492, when a 15 m span aqueduct to irrigate the arboretum was constructed, this aqueduct is still in use.
The garden was created by the prominent local Gučetić/Gozze family and it suffered two major disasters in the 1990s but its two unique and ancient Oriental Planes remained standing. Udhagamandalam Arboretum, The Nilgiris, India The arboretum at Ooty was established in 1992 with an aim of conserving native and indigenous trees and it was established during the year 1992 and maintained by Department of Horticulture with Hill Area Development Programme funds. The area is the natural habitats of indigenous and migratory birds. During the year 2005-2006, it was rehabilated with funds provided by the Hill Area Development Programme by providing permanent fencing, a foot path, and other infrastructure facilities. The arboretum is the realization of the dream of William Douglas Cook, the arboretum is now the National Arboretum of New Zealand, and holds some 4,000 different trees and climbers
The Victorian era was the period of Queen Victorias reign, from 20 June 1837 until her death on 22 January 1901. It was a period of peace, refined sensibilities. Some scholars date the beginning of the period in terms of sensibilities, the era followed the Georgian period and preceded the Edwardian period. The half of the Victorian age roughly coincided with the first part of the Belle Époque era of continental Europe, culturally there was a transition away from the rationalism of the Georgian period and toward romanticism and mysticism with regard to religion, social values, and arts. The end of the saw the Boer War. Domestically, the agenda was increasingly liberal with a number of shifts in the direction of political reform, industrial reform. Two especially important figures in period of British history are the prime ministers Benjamin Disraeli and William Gladstone. Disraeli, favoured by the queen, was a gregarious Conservative and his rival Gladstone, a Liberal distrusted by the Queen, served more terms and oversaw much of the overall legislative development of the era.
The population of England and Wales almost doubled from 16.8 million in 1851 to 30.5 million in 1901, Scotlands population rose rapidly, from 2.8 million in 1851 to 4.4 million in 1901. However, Irelands population decreased sharply, from 8.2 million in 1841 to less than 4.5 million in 1901, mostly due to the Great Famine. Between 1837 and 1901 about 15 million emigrants departed the UK permanently, in search of a life in the United States, South Africa, New Zealand, Australia. During the early part of the era, politics in the House of Commons involved battles between the two parties, the Whigs/Liberals and the Conservatives. These parties were led by such prominent statesmen as Lord Melbourne, Sir Robert Peel, Lord Derby, Lord Palmerston, Disraeli, Victoria became queen in 1837 at age 18. Her long reign until 1901 was mainly a time of peace, Britain reached the zenith of its economic, political and cultural power. The era saw the expansion of the second British Empire, Historians have characterised the mid-Victorian era as Britains Golden Years.
There was prosperity, as the income per person grew by half. There was peace abroad, and social peace at home, opposition to the new order melted away, says Porter. The Chartist movement peaked as a movement among the working class in 1848, its leaders moved to other pursuits, such as trade unions
Manor House, London
Manor House is a district of north east London that mainly falls within the London Borough of Hackney, although it is located on the border with the London Borough of Haringey. Taking its name from Manor House tube station on the Piccadilly line, it is centred on the crossroads of Seven Sisters Road, the western border is defined by Finsbury Park in the neighbourhood of Harringay. Its other borders are defined by the New River, which loops around it on three sides, the area consists mainly of the Woodberry Down Estate, but there are two small shopping areas, a school and a pub. The pub was the source of both the name of the station and the area. The first pub on the site was built by Stoke Newington builder Thomas Widdows between 1830 and 1834 next to the turnpike on Green Lanes. Prior to this date a cottage had existed on the site, Thomas Widdows was both the owner of the house and its occupant. With the building soon to be sited on the junction of the existing Green Lanes turnpike road, the new building was within sight of the Hornsey Wood Tavern, which had been formed out of the old Copt Hall, the manor house of the Manor of Brownswood.
It is possible that its name was taken from this connection The land itself however was on the demesne of Stoke Newington Manor, so it is equally possible that the Manor House name was just a fashionable name, more related to the connection with Stoke Newington Manor. Baily died just three years and the tavern was taken over by George Stacey who had previously been at the Adelaide Tavern in Hackney Road, Stacey placed a tablet on the pub with the following inscription. However, nothing is known of the incident, The tavern changed hands several times after Stacey. In 1851 it was purchased by James Toomer, according to the Morning Post, Toomer was well respected in literary and theatrical circles. The new owner added function rooms including a hall and ballroom which became known as the Manor House Assembly Rooms. Soon after purchase he obtained licences for music and dancing and the pub became a regular venue for events of both sorts. In the summer of 1870 Toomer advertised a new ballroom and that summer sold the pub, in 1890 it was taken on by James Swinyard who remodelled and modernised it shortly after the sale.
Swinyard managed the pub till his death in 1910, subsequently his widow Amelia took over the licence until the late 1920s. In 1930 the imminent arrival of the Piccadilly Line led to the widening of the road, the demolition of the old tavern, Amelia died in 1937, aged 90 in a nursing home in Muswell Hill. In years the pub was the first employer of Richard Desmond, now the owner of the Daily Express, the building housed a nightclub that was popular among Goths in the mid-1980s. Two decades earlier it had functioned as a music venue for rhythm and blues enthusiasts
Basketball is a non-contact team sport played on a rectangular court by two teams of five players each. The objective is to shoot a ball through a hoop 18 inches in diameter and 10 feet high that is mounted to a backboard at each end of the court. The game was invented in 1891 by Dr. James Naismith, a team can score a field goal by shooting the ball through the basket being defended by the opposition team during regular play. A field goal scores three points for the team if the player shoots from behind the three-point line. A team can score via free throws, which are worth one point, the team with the most points at the end of the game wins, but additional time is mandated when the score is tied at the end of regulation. The ball can be advanced on the court by passing it to a teammate and it is a violation to lift, or drag, ones pivot foot without dribbling the ball, to carry it, or to hold the ball with both hands resume dribbling. The game has many techniques for displaying skill—ball-handling, passing, dunking, shot-blocking.
The point guard directs the on court action of the team, implementing the coachs game plan, Basketball is one of the worlds most popular and widely viewed sports. Outside North America, the top clubs from national leagues qualify to continental championships such as the Euroleague, the FIBA Basketball World Cup attracts the top national teams from around the world. Each continent hosts regional competitions for teams, like EuroBasket. The FIBA Womens Basketball World Cup features the top womens basketball teams from continental championships. The main North American league is the WNBA, whereas the EuroLeague Women has been dominated by teams from the Russian Womens Basketball Premier League, in early December 1891, Canadian Dr. He sought a vigorous indoor game to keep his students occupied, after rejecting other ideas as either too rough or poorly suited to walled-in gymnasiums, he wrote the basic rules and nailed a peach basket onto a 10-foot elevated track. Basketball was originally played with a soccer ball and these laces could cause bounce passes and dribbling to be unpredictable.
Eventually a lace-free ball construction method was invented, and this change to the game was endorsed by Naismith, dribbling was not part of the original game except for the bounce pass to teammates. Passing the ball was the means of ball movement. Dribbling was eventually introduced but limited by the shape of early balls. Dribbling only became a part of the game around the 1950s
Finsbury Park station
Finsbury Park is a busy intermodal interchange station in north London. The interchange consists of a National Rail station, a London Underground station, the main entrances are by the eastern bus station on Station Place. There is another exit by the bus station along Wells Terrace, incorporating the Underground ticket office. The complex is located in Travelcard Zone 2, the station is named after the nearby Finsbury Park, one of the oldest of Londons Victorian parks. It is used by many Arsenal supporters on matchdays, as the ground is just a short walk away. When the Victoria line was built in the 1960s, the walls in Finsbury Park station were decorated with mosaics of duelling pistols, Finsbury Fields was close to the present-day Finsbury Square,3 miles south. At the same time the long entrance subways and the Wells Terrace booking hall were rebuilt to a high standard, Finsbury Park station has a long and complex history involving the participation of many railway companies and there have been various changes to the station infrastructure.
British Transport Police maintain a presence at Finsbury Park and have a station at the Wells Terrace entrance. Ticket barriers were installed to platforms 1,2,5 and 6 in 2011, Finsbury Park is on the route of the East Coast Main Line from Kings Cross to the north of England and Scotland. The southern section of this was built in stages during the 1840s, tracks were first laid through Finsbury Park in 1850 to the GNRs temporary terminus at Maiden Lane just north of the permanent terminus at Kings Cross. The first station at Finsbury Park opened on 1 July 1861 and was originally named Seven Sisters Road, soon after the first station opened, the Edgware and London Railway began construction of a line from Finsbury Park to Edgware. The GNR took over the EH&LR shortly before its opening on 22 August 1867, the station was given its current name Finsbury Park on 15 November 1869. The Edgware branch platforms were on side of the main tracks. The southbound track of the branch crossed over the line by a bridge on its way into the station.
The tunnels were constructed with a diameter to accommodate this service. The GN&CR tunnels, terminated beneath the line station without a connection to the surface. The line opened on 14 February 1904, the Great Northern and Brompton Railway opened on 15 December 1906 between Finsbury Park and Hammersmith in west London. The GN&SR was taken over in 1901 by a led by Charles Yerkes before any work had been carried out
Finsbury Square is a 0. 7-hectare square in central London which includes a six-rink grass bowling green. It was developed in 1777 on the site of an area of green space to the north of London known as Finsbury Fields, in the parish of St Lukes. It is sited on the east side of City Road, opposite the east side of Bunhill Fields and it is approximately 200m north of Moorgate station, 300m north-west of Liverpool Street station and 400m south of Old Street station. Nearby locations are Finsbury Circus and Finsbury Pavement and it is served by bus routes 21,43,141,271,214 and 274. Past residents of the square include Pascoe Grenfell Hill, Thomas Southwood Smith, Finsbury Squares Guildhall is the traditional home of the City of London Yeomanry. In 1784, Vincenzo Lunardi achieved the first successful attempt at hot air balloon flight from Finsbury Square, the south side of the square was known as Sodomites Walk in the 18th century and was notorious as a gay cruising area. On 22 October 2011, Occupy London protesters began to camp on the Square and they were subsequently removed in an eviction described by the council as peaceful and low key.
In January 2013, the University of Liverpool announced that its London Campus would be based at 33 Finsbury Square, in 2013 a memorial was installed at the SW of the square commemorating those who died in the 1975 Moorgate tube crash. Significant development work is underway at Finsbury Square. The office building at 22-25 Finsbury Square was converted into a hotel with completion in 2016. Finsbury Square is the venue for an occasional farmers’ market