Colombia the Republic of Colombia, is a sovereign state situated in the northwest of South America, with territories in Central America. Colombia shares a border to the northwest with Panama, to the east with Venezuela and Brazil and to the south with Ecuador and Peru, it shares its maritime limits with Costa Rica, Honduras, Jamaica and the Dominican Republic. Colombia is a unitary, constitutional republic comprising thirty-two departments, with the capital in Bogota. Colombia has been inhabited by various indigenous peoples since 12,000 BCE, including the Muisca and the Tairona, along with the Inca Empire that expanded to the southwest of the country; the Spanish arrived in 1499 and by the mid-16th century conquered and colonized much of the region, establishing the New Kingdom of Granada, with Santafé de Bogotá as its capital. Independence from Spain was achieved in 1819, but by 1830 the "Gran Colombia" Federation was dissolved, with what is now Colombia and Panama emerging as the Republic of New Granada.
The new nation experimented with federalism as the Granadine Confederation, the United States of Colombia, before the Republic of Colombia was declared in 1886. Panama seceded in 1903. Beginning in the 1960s, the country suffered from an asymmetric low-intensity armed conflict and rampant political violence, both of which escalated in the 1990s. Since 2005, there has been significant improvement in security and rule of law. Colombia is one of the most ethnically and linguistically diverse countries in the world, with its rich cultural heritage reflecting influences by indigenous peoples, European settlement, forced African migration, immigration from Europe and the Middle East. Urban centres are located in the highlands of the Andes mountains and the Caribbean coast. Colombia is among the world's 17 megadiverse countries, the most densely biodiverse per square kilometer. Colombia is a middle power and regional actor in Latin America, it is part of the CIVETS group of six leading emerging markets and a member of the UN, the WTO, the OAS, the Pacific Alliance, other international organizations.
Colombia's diversified economy is the fourth largest in Latin America, with macroeconomic stability and favorable long-term growth prospects. The name "Colombia" is derived from the last name of Christopher Columbus, it was conceived by the Venezuelan revolutionary Francisco de Miranda as a reference to all the New World, but to those portions under Spanish rule. The name was adopted by the Republic of Colombia of 1819, formed from the territories of the old Viceroyalty of New Granada; when Venezuela and Cundinamarca came to exist as independent states, the former Department of Cundinamarca adopted the name "Republic of New Granada". New Granada changed its name in 1858 to the Granadine Confederation. In 1863 the name was again changed, this time to United States of Colombia, before adopting its present name – the Republic of Colombia – in 1886. To refer to this country, the Colombian government uses the terms Colombia and República de Colombia. Owing to its location, the present territory of Colombia was a corridor of early human migration from Mesoamerica and the Caribbean to the Andes and Amazon basin.
The oldest archaeological finds are from the Pubenza and El Totumo sites in the Magdalena Valley 100 kilometres southwest of Bogotá. These sites date from the Paleoindian period. At Puerto Hormiga and other sites, traces from the Archaic Period have been found. Vestiges indicate that there was early occupation in the regions of El Abra and Tequendama in Cundinamarca; the oldest pottery discovered in the Americas, found at San Jacinto, dates to 5000–4000 BCE. Indigenous people inhabited the territory, now Colombia by 12,500 BCE. Nomadic hunter-gatherer tribes at the El Abra, Tibitó and Tequendama sites near present-day Bogotá traded with one another and with other cultures from the Magdalena River Valley. Between 5000 and 1000 BCE, hunter-gatherer tribes transitioned to agrarian societies. Beginning in the 1st millennium BCE, groups of Amerindians including the Muisca, Zenú, Tairona developed the political system of cacicazgos with a pyramidal structure of power headed by caciques; the Muisca inhabited the area of what is now the Departments of Boyacá and Cundinamarca high plateau where they formed the Muisca Confederation.
They farmed maize, potato and cotton, traded gold, blankets, ceramic handicrafts and rock salt with neighboring nations. The Tairona inhabited northern Colombia in the isolated mountain range of Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta; the Quimbaya inhabited regions of the Cauca River Valley between the Western and Central Ranges of the Colombian Andes. Most of the Amerindians practiced agriculture and the social structure of each indigenous community was different; some groups of indigenous people such as the Caribs lived in a state of permanent war, but others had less bellicose attitudes. The Incas expanded their empire onto the southwest part of the country. Alonso de Ojeda reached the Guajira Peninsula in 1499. Spanish explorers, led by Rodrigo de Bastidas, made the first exploration
The Ferrari F310, its evolution, the F310B, were the Formula One racing cars with which the Ferrari team competed in the 1996 and 1997 seasons. It was driven in both years by Eddie Irvine; this was the first Ferrari Formula One car to run on Shell fuel since the 1970s. The F310 and F310B won a total of 22 podiums, 7 pole positions and 172 points; the F310 proved to be a front-running car, but without the outright pace or superb reliability which led to the Williams FW18s dominating 1996. Schumacher was able to win three Grands Prix, but the F310's shortcomings were shown by Irvine's run of eight consecutive retirements, most of them mechanical, as well as three straight double retirements. Development proved troublesome, with the cars having to use the 1995 car's parts early in the season whilst structural problems were cured; this car was notable as being the first Ferrari F1 car to use the more conventional V10 engine format, because a V10 engine offered the best compromise between power and fuel efficiency.
The name F310 refers to the engine type, a 3 litre, 10 cylinder - a nomenclature consistent with that used for Ferrari's F1 cars from 1966 to 1980, similar to that used for the 2006 Ferrari 248. The engine was called the 310; the F310 was the only car in the 1996 field to have a low nose section, with the other teams having all switched to the more aerodynamically efficient high nose, first seen on the 1990 Tyrrell 019. From the start, chief designer John Barnard had announced his intentions to design a high nose for the car, saying that the F310 would be an ongoing project with the ultimate goal to win the world championship; the high nose was adopted permanently from the Canadian Grand Prix onwards. In an interview in 2012, Irvine did not have fond memories of the F310, calling it "an awful car" a "piece of junk" and "almost undriveable", as did John Barnard, who admitted that the car "wasn't good". With the hiring of Rory Byrne and Ross Brawn to replace Barnard. Regardless, double-champion Michael Schumacher held truth on his 1995 promise that "in 1996 we will win three grands prix in 1997 we will challenge for the championship" by taking the challenge to the last round.
He was, unable to hold off a storming drive by title challenger Jacques Villeneuve. The team nonetheless retained their constructors' points; the car appears in the video game F1 2013 as one of the classic cars. Henry, Alan. AUTOCOURSE 1996-97. Hazleton Publishing. Pp. 46–48. ISBN 1-874557-91-8. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list Henry, Alan. AUTOCOURSE 1997-98. Hazleton Publishing. Pp. 58–61. ISBN 1-874557-47-0. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list
Tifosi are a group of supporters that make up a tifo in sports. Tifosi is used for an all-male group. In Italian, tifosi means'those infected by typhus', in the sense of someone acting in a fevered manner; the word is used to describe fans of clubs in football. Apart from the many local fan clubs in Italy whose main role is to provide a meeting place for fans and friends and organize away trips, since the late 1960s many Italian fans rely on organized stadium groups known as Ultras; the main goal is to choreograph fan support with flags, coloured smoke screens, flares and chanting in unison. For most teams city rivalries, coat of arms and the overall iconography have roots in the Middle Ages and early Renaissance, it has become common to use the word Tifosi to refer to the supporters of Scuderia Ferrari in Formula One. Italian motor racing fans are well known for their love of Ferrari, though they have been staunch supporters of other Italian cars such as Maserati and Alfa Romeo; the Tifosi provide Formula One with some of its most stunning images, as a sea of red fills the grandstands at the Italian Grand Prix.
A similar sight could be observed in former years during the San Marino race, held at the Autodromo Enzo e Dino Ferrari near the town of Imola, only 80 km east of the Ferrari factory in Maranello. One of the most common Tifosi sights is the display of an enormous Ferrari flag in the grandstands during Formula One weekends at every race circuit, with large contingents showing up in Ferrari livery at home and nearby European tracks, it has not been uncommon for the Tifosi in Italy to cheer for a non-Italian driver in a Ferrari passing an Italian driver in another make of car for the lead of a race. At the 1983 San Marino Grand Prix, the crowd at Imola cheered long and loud when Riccardo Patrese crashed his Brabham out of the lead of the race only 6 laps from home, handing Frenchman Patrick Tambay the win in his Ferrari. Patrese himself had only passed Tambay for the lead half a lap earlier; the recent increase in their ranks can be directly traced to the rise of Michael Schumacher, who drove for Ferrari from 1996 to 2006, leading the team to the Constructors' Championship from 1999–2004.
One driver who never drove for the Prancing Horse, but will forever hold a special place in the hearts of the Tifosi is Frenchman Jean-Louis Schlesser. He drove for the Williams team at the 1988 Italian Grand Prix at Monza substituting for an ill Nigel Mansell. On lap 49 of the 51 lap race, Schlesser was unwittingly involved in the incident at the Variante del Rettifilo chicane that took out the leading McLaren-Honda of Ayrton Senna, fittingly handing Ferrari's Gerhard Berger and Michele Alboreto an emotional 1–2 Italian Grand Prix result only a month after the death of Enzo Ferrari. Berger's win handed McLaren their only loss of the 16-race 1988 season; the word is used to describe fans along the roadside at professional road cycling races in Italy such as Tirreno–Adriatico, Milan–San Remo, the Giro d'Italia, the Giro di Lombardia. Passionate supporters of Italian cycling teams & cyclists are called'the tifosi'. Curva Ultras
Fiorano Modenese is a comune in the province of Modena in the Italian region Emilia-Romagna, located about 45 kilometres west of Bologna and about 15 kilometres southwest of Modena. Neighboring municipalities are Formigine, Serramazzoni, Maranello. Ferrari's private testing track, the Fiorano Circuit is located on the border with Maranello. Castle of Spezzano, noted from 11th century, it includes a frescoed gallery with scenes of battles fought by duke Alfonso. At the lower floor is a hall with mid-16th century landscapes commissioned by Marco III Pio. A pentagonal tower once is now housed as a communal vinegar store. Sanctuary of the Beata Vergine del Castello di Fiorano Parish church of San Giovanni Battista Oratorio di San Rocco, Spezzano Museum of Ceramic Church of San Lorenzo, Nirano Salse of Nirano Theater Astoria Villas: Villa Campori, Villa Pace, Villa Guastalla, Villa Coccapani, Villa Cuoghi, Villa Messori. Municipal vinegar factory The municipality of Fiorano Modenese is divided on 4 districts: Fiorano Modenese, Spezzano and Nirano.
Nardò, Italy San Donato di Ninea, Italy Ozieri, Italy Burgos, Italy Bultei, Italy Onda, Spain Neve Shalom, Israel Official website
Autodromo di Modena
Autodromo di Modena was a race track on the edge of Modena in Italy. The track had a length of 2.4 km. It was opened in 1950 and the circuit was crossed by an airstrip of about 1.6 km in length, used by the local flying club. The track hosted nine editions of the Modena Grand Prix for F1 and F2 racing cars, the last one in 1961; the circuit continued to host other racing events until 1975. In the 1960s and 1970s the track served as a test track for Ferrari and Lamborghini during the morning or afternoon on week days. At other times of day it was used by residents of the adjacent military camp for driver training, equipped with less exotic vehicles. Despite the creeping expansion of nearby Modena, which involved a proliferation of apartment blocks and electricity pylons, the airstrip was a favoured venue for a number of local aerobatics enthusiasts; the circuit was subsequently demolished, the site redeveloped as a public park to honour Enzo Ferrari
Formula One is the highest class of single-seater auto racing sanctioned by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile and owned by the Formula One Group. The FIA Formula One World Championship has been one of the premier forms of racing around the world since its inaugural season in 1950; the word "formula" in the name refers to the set of rules to which all participants' cars must conform. A Formula One season consists of a series of races, known as Grands Prix, which take place worldwide on purpose-built circuits and on public roads; the results of each race are evaluated using a points system to determine two annual World Championships: one for drivers, the other for constructors. Drivers must hold valid Super Licences, the highest class of racing licence issued by the FIA; the races must run on tracks graded "1", the highest grade-rating issued by the FIA. Most events occur in rural locations on purpose-built tracks, but several events take place on city streets. Formula One cars are the fastest regulated road-course racing cars in the world, owing to high cornering speeds achieved through the generation of large amounts of aerodynamic downforce.
The cars underwent major changes in 2017, allowing wider front and rear wings, wider tyres, resulting in cornering forces closing in on 6.5g and top speeds of up to 375 km/h. As of 2019 the hybrid engines are limited in performance to a maximum of 15,000 rpm and the cars are dependent on electronics—although traction control and other driving aids have been banned since 2008—and on aerodynamics and tyres. While Europe is the sport's traditional base, the championship operates globally, with 11 of the 21 races in the 2018 season taking place outside Europe. With the annual cost of running a mid-tier team—designing and maintaining cars, transport—being US$120 million, Formula One has a significant economic and job-creation effect, its financial and political battles are reported, its high profile and popularity have created a major merchandising environment, which has resulted in large investments from sponsors and budgets. On 8 September 2016 Bloomberg reported that Liberty Media had agreed to buy Delta Topco, the company that controls Formula One, from private-equity firm CVC Capital Partners for $4.4 billion in cash and convertible debt.
On 23 January 2017 Liberty Media confirmed the completion of the acquisition for $8 billion. The Formula One series originated with the European Grand Prix Motor Racing of the 1930s; the formula is a set of rules. Formula One was a new formula agreed upon after World War II during 1946, with the first non-championship races being held that year. A number of Grand Prix racing organisations had laid out rules for a world championship before the war, but due to the suspension of racing during the conflict, the World Drivers' Championship was not formalised until 1947; the first world championship race was held at Silverstone, United Kingdom in 1950. A championship for constructors followed in 1958. National championships existed in the UK in the 1960s and 1970s. Non-championship Formula One events were held for many years, but due to the increasing cost of competition, the last of these occurred in 1983. On 26 November 2017, Formula One unveiled its new logo, following the 2017 season finale in Abu Dhabi during the Abu Dhabi Grand Prix at Yas Marina Circuit.
The new logo replaced F1's iconic'flying one', the sport's trademark since 1993. After a hiatus in European motor racing brought about by the outbreak of World War II in 1939, the first World Championship for Drivers was won by Italian Giuseppe Farina in his Alfa Romeo in 1950, narrowly defeating his Argentine teammate Juan Manuel Fangio. However, Fangio won the title in 1951, 1954, 1955, 1956, 1957, his streak interrupted by two-time champion Alberto Ascari of Ferrari. Although the UK's Stirling Moss was able to compete he was never able to win the world championship, is now considered to be the greatest driver never to have won the title. Fangio, however, is remembered for dominating Formula One's first decade and has long been considered the "Grand Master" of Formula One; this period featured teams managed by road car manufacturers Alfa Romeo, Mercedes-Benz, Maserati. The first seasons were run using pre-war cars like Alfa's 158, they were front-engined, with narrow tyres and 1.5-litre supercharged or 4.5-litre aspirated engines.
The 1952 and 1953 World Championships were run to Formula Two regulations, for smaller, less powerful cars, due to concerns over the paucity of Formula One cars available. When a new Formula One, for engines limited to 2.5 litres, was reinstated to the world championship for 1954, Mercedes-Benz introduced the advanced W196, which featured innovations such as desmodromic valves and fuel injection as well as enclosed streamlined bodywork. Mercedes drivers won the championship for two years, before the team withdrew from all motorsport in the wake of the 1955 Le Mans disaster. An era of British dominance was ushered in by Mike Hawthorn and Vanwall's championship wins in 1958, although Stirling Moss had been at the forefront of the sport without securing the world title. Between Hawthorn, Jim Clark, Jackie Stewart, John Surtees and Graham Hill, British drivers won nine Drivers' Championships and British teams won fourteen Constructors' Championsh
The Maserati MC12 is a limited production two-seater sports car produced by Italian car maker Maserati to allow a racing variant to compete in the FIA GT Championship. The car entered production with 25 cars produced. A further 25 were produced in 2005, making a total of 50 cars available for customers, each of, pre-sold for €600,000. With the addition of 12 cars produced for racing, only a total of 62 of these cars were produced. Maserati designed and built the car on the chassis of the Enzo Ferrari, but the final car is much larger and has a lower drag coefficient; the MC12 is longer and taller and has a sharper nose and smoother curves than the Enzo Ferrari, which has faster acceleration, better braking performance and a higher top speed. The top speed of the Maserati MC12 is 330 kilometres per hour whereas the top speed of the Enzo Ferrari is 350 kilometres per hour; the MC12 was developed to signal Maserati's return to racing after 37 years. The road version was produced to homologate the race version.
One requirement for participation in the FIA GT is the production of at least 25 road cars. Three GT1 race cars were entered into the FIA GT with great success. Maserati began racing the MC12 in the FIA GT toward the end of the 2004 season, winning the race held at the Zhuhai International Circuit; the racing MC12s were entered into the American Le Mans Series races in 2005 but exceeded the size restrictions and paid weight penalties due to excess range. Under the direction of Giorgio Ascanelli, Maserati began development of an FIA GT-eligible race car; this car, which would be named the MC12, was called the "MCC" and it was to be developed with a road-going version, the "MCS". Frank Stephenson did the majority of the body styling, but the initial shape was developed during wind tunnel testing from an idea had by Giorgetto Giugiaro; the MCC has a similar body shape to the MC12, but there are several key differences, most notably the rear spoiler. Andrea Bertolini served as the chief test driver throughout development, although some testing was done by Michael Schumacher, who tested the MCC at the Fiorano Circuit.
During the development process, the MCC name was set aside after Maserati established the car's official name, MC12. The car is based on the Enzo Ferrari, using a modified version of the Ferrari Dino V12, the same gearbox and the same chassis and track; the windshield is the only externally visible component shared with the Enzo. The increased size creates greater downforce across the MC12's body in addition to the downforce created by the two-metre spoiler; the MC12 is a two-door coupe with a targa top roof, although the detached roof cannot be stored in the car. The mid-rear layout keeps the centre of gravity in the middle of the car, which increases stability and improves the car's cornering ability; the standing weight distribution is 41% front and 59% rear. At speed, the downforce provided by the rear spoiler affects this to the extent that at 200 kilometres per hour the downforce is 34% front and 66% rear. Though the car is designed as a homologation vehicle and is a modification of a racing car, the interior is intended to be luxurious.
The interior is a mix of gel-coated carbon fibre, blue leather and silver "Brightex", a synthetic material, found to be "too expensive for the fashion industry". The centre console features the characteristic Maserati oval analogue clock and a blue ignition button, but it has been criticised for lacking a radio, car stereo or a place to install an aftermarket sound system; the body of the car, made of carbon fibre, underwent extensive wind tunnel testing to achieve maximum downforce across all surfaces. As a result, the rear spoiler is two metres wide but only 30 millimetres thick, the underside of the car is smooth, the rear bumper has diffusers to take advantage of ground effect. Air is sucked into the engine compartment through the air scoop; the exterior is available only in the white-and-blue colour scheme, a tribute to the America Camoradi racing team that drove the Maserati Tipo Birdcages in the early 1960s. Bespoke colour schemes are available by paying an extra amount; the car is noted for the awkwardness.
This, combined with the lack of a rear window, can make parking the MC12 challenging. The MC12 sports a 232 kg, 6.0 L. Each cylinder has 4 valves, lubricated via a dry sump system, with a compression ratio of 11.2:1. These combine to provide a maximum torque of 652 N⋅m at 5,500 rpm and a maximum power of 630 PS at 7,500 [rpm; the redline rpm is indicated at 7,500—despite being safe up to 7,700—whereas the Enzo has its redline at 8,00 rpm. The Maserati MC12 can accelerate from 0 to 100 km/h in 3.8 seconds and on to 200 km/h in 9.9 seconds. It can complete a standing 1⁄4 mile in 11.3 seconds with a terminal speed of 200 km/h or a standing kilometre in 20.1 seconds. The maximum speed of the Maserati MC12 is 330 km/h. Power is fed to the wheels through a six-speed semi-automatic transmission; the gearbox is the same as the Enzo's transmission