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Fiqh

Fiqh is Islamic jurisprudence. Fiqh is described as the human understanding of the sharia, human understanding of the divine Islamic law as revealed in the Quran and the Sunnah. Fiqh expands and develops Shariah through interpretation of the Quran and Sunnah by Islamic jurists and is implemented by the rulings of jurists on questions presented to them. Thus, whereas sharia is considered immutable and infallible by Muslims, fiqh is considered fallible and changeable. Fiqh deals with the observance of rituals and social legislation in Islam as well as political system. In the modern era, there are four prominent schools of fiqh within Sunni practice, plus two within Shi'a practice. A person trained in fiqh is known as a faqīh. Figuratively, fiqh means knowledge about Islamic legal rulings from their sources and deriving religious rulings from their sources necessitates the mujtahid to have a deep understanding in the different discussions of jurisprudence. A faqīh must look deep down into a matter and not suffice himself with just the apparent meaning, a person who only knows the appearance of a matter is not qualified as a faqīh.

The studies of fiqh, are traditionally divided into Uṣūl al-fiqh, the methods of legal interpretation and analysis. Furūʿ al-fiqh is the product of the application of Uṣūl al-fiqh and the total product of human efforts at understanding the divine will. A hukm is a particular ruling in a given case; the word fiqh is an Arabic term meaning "deep understanding" or "full comprehension". Technically it refers to the body of Islamic law extracted from detailed Islamic sources and the process of gaining knowledge of Islam through jurisprudence; the historian Ibn Khaldun describes fiqh as "knowledge of the rules of God which concern the actions of persons who own themselves connected to obey the law respecting what is required, recommended, disapproved or neutral". This definition is consistent amongst the jurists. In Modern Standard Arabic, fiqh has come to mean Islamic jurisprudence, it is not thus possible to speak of Chief Justice John Roberts as an expert in the common law fiqh of the United States, or of Egyptian legal scholar Abd El-Razzak El-Sanhuri as an expert in the civil law fiqh of Egypt.

The history of Islamic jurisprudence is "customarily divided into eight periods": the first period ending with the death of Muhammad in 11 AH. second period "characterized by personal interpretations" of the canon by the Sahabah or companions of Muhammad, lasting until 50 AH. from 50 AH until the early second century AH there was competition between a "a traditionalist approach to jurisprudence" in western Arabia where Islam was revealed and a "rationalist approach in Iraq". The "golden age of classical Islamic jurisprudence" from the "early second to the mid-fourth century when the eight "most significant" schools of Sunni and Shi'i jurisprudence emerged." From the mid-fourth century to mid-seventh AH Islamic jurisprudence was "limited to elaborations within the main juristic schools". The "dark age" of Islamic jurisprudence stretched from the fall of Baghdad in the mid-seventh AH to 1293 AH/1876 CE. In 1293 AH the Ottomans codified Hanafi jurisprudence in the Majallah el-Ahkam-i-Adliya. Several "juristic revival movements" influenced by "exposure to Western legal and technological progress" followed until the mid-20th century CE.

Muhammad Abduh and Abd El-Razzak El-Sanhuri were products of this era. The most recent era has been that of the "Islamic revival", "predicated on rejection of Western social and legal advances" and the development of Islamic states, social sciences and finance; the formative period of Islamic jurisprudence stretches back to the time of the early Muslim communities. In this period, jurists were more concerned with issues of authority and teaching than with theory and methodology. Progress in theory and methodology happened with the coming of the early Muslim jurist Muhammad ibn Idris ash-Shafi`i, who codified the basic principles of Islamic jurisprudence in his book ar-Risālah; the book details the four roots of law while specifying that the primary Islamic texts be understood according to objective rules of interpretation derived from scientific study of the Arabic language. Secondary sources of law were developed and refined over the subsequent centuries, consisting of juristic preference, laws of the previous prophets, extended analogy, blocking the means, custome urf and saying of a companion.

The Quran set the rights, the responsibilities and the rules for people and for societies to adhere to, like not dealing in interest. Muhammad provided an example, recorded in the hadith books, showing people how he implemented these rules in a society. After the passing of Muhammad, there was a need for jurists, to decide on new legal matters where there is no such ruling in the Quran or the Hadith, example of Islamic prophet Muhammad regarding a similar case. In the years proceeding Muhammad, the community in Madina continued to use the same rules. People therefore continued to use the same rules; the scholars

List of awards and nominations received by Michelle Williams (singer)

This is a list of awards and nominations received by Michelle Williams. The American Society of Composers and Publishers is a not-for-profit performance rights organization that protects its members' musical copyrights by monitoring public performances of their music, whether via a broadcast or live performance, compensating them accordingly. Williams has received 4 awards from the company as a member of Destiny's Child; the Gospel Touch Music Awards are held annually in the United Kingdom to recognize gospel and inspirational music. Williams has one award; the Grammy Awards are awarded annually by the National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences. Williams has won 1 award from 7 nominations as a member of Destiny's Child, but every awards is individually assigned to every member of the group; the NAACP Image Awards is an award presented annually by the American National Association for the Advancement of Colored People to honor outstanding people of color in film, television and literature.

Williams has received one nomination. The MOBO Awards are held annually in the United Kingdom to recognize artists of any race or nationality performing music of black origin. Williams has won one award from two nominations; the Soul Train Music Awards is an annual awards ceremony, established in 1987 to honor the best in African American music and entertainment. Williams has received one nomination; the Stellar Awards is an annual awards show in the US, honoring Gospel Music Artists and industry professionals for their contributions to the gospel music industry. The Stellar Awards ranks high in status as the only gospel music television awards program syndicated in over 140 markets nationwide. Williams has been nominated five times and won one award

Beaumont–Adams revolver

The Beaumont–Adams revolver is a black powder, double-action, percussion revolver. Adopted by the British Army in.442 calibre in 1856, it was replaced in British service in 1880 by the.476 calibre Enfield Mk I revolver. On 20 February 1856, Lieutenant Frederick E. B. Beaumont of the Royal Engineers was granted a British patent for improvements to the Adams revolver which allowed them to be cocked and fired either by manually cocking the hammer as in single-action revolvers, or by just pulling the trigger. Beaumont was granted a US Patent on 3 June of the same year. At that time there was intense competition between Adams and Colt, expanding its sales and had opened a London factory competing with the British firearms trade, manufacturing firearms with interchangeable parts; the older 1851 and 1854 Adams revolvers were self-cocking known as double-action. The Adams revolver was favoured by British officers in the Crimean War and colonial conflicts due to the stopping power of its larger 54 bore bullet, the speed of the Adams trigger-cocking action for close-quarters fighting.

In partnership with George and John Deane, the company of Deane, Adams & Deane produced the new revolver in a variety of calibres and sizes, from pocket pistols to large military versions. The United Kingdom adopted the 54-bore Beaumont–Adams in 1856, Holland and Russia following soon after. To meet the growing demand for its weapons, Adams & Deane contracted companies in Birmingham and Liége to manufacture their weapons under licence; the new revolver gave Robert Adams a strong competitive advantage and Samuel Colt shut his London factory due to a drop in sales. In the US, the Massachusetts Arms Company was licensed to manufacture about 19,000 specimens of the gun in.36 calibre, of which about 1,750 were purchased by the Union Army at the beginning of the American Civil War. They made a pocket version in.32 calibre. In 1867, Robert Adams' brother John Adams patented a breech-loading revolver, adopted by the British government in place of the Beaumont–Adams, it was a solid frame pistol with six chambers, in.450 caliber.

After official acceptance of his pistol, Adams left the London Armoury Company and established his own factory, the Adams Patent Small Arms Company. His pistol was manufactured in three distinct variations between 1867 and about 1880; the models were tested and adopted by the British Army and Navy, with the last, the M1872 Mark III, seeing the widest use. The John Adams revolver remained the official sidearm of the British Army until replaced by the Enfield Mark I in 1880. Media related to Beaumont-Adams revolvers at Wikimedia Commons

Boulevard du Rhum

Boulevard du Rhum known as Rum Runners is a 1971 French-Italian-Spanish adventure film directed by Robert Enrico and produced by Alain Poiré. It is based on Jacques Pecheral's novel of the same name, it stars Brigitte Bardot and Lino Ventura and was released in France on 13 October 1971. Set in the prohibition era, a rum runner in the Caribbean falls in love with a beautiful silent film star, Linda Larue. Brigitte Bardot as Linda Larue Lino Ventura as Cornelius von Zeelinga Bill Travers as Sanderson Clive Revill as Lord Hammond La Polaca as Catharina Jess Hahn as Piet aka "Big Dutch" Antonio Casas as Wilkinson Andreas Voutsinas as Alvarez Guy Marchand as Ronald / The Actor Jack Betts as Renner Florence Giorgetti as Linda's guest The film began shooting in Mexico and the British Honduras in September 1970; the film was partially shot in Parisian studios and in Andalucia, Spain. The New York Times regarded the film as a professional breakthrough for Bardot, deeming it as a signifier of "the death of a star—the last star, perhaps—and the birth of an actress: Brigitte Bardot."

The score and soundtrack were composed by François de Roubaix, with Bardot lending her vocals to certain songs. 1. Chant des rumrunners / Générique 2. Sur le boulevard du rhum 3. Le jeu de l'aveugle 4. La posada / Gramophone rumba 5. Chanson de Ronald 6. Ragtime du ver solitaire 7. Bataille navale 8. Tango del patio 9. Linda et Cornelius 10. MacAlister's wedding song I 11. Ben-moor hôtel 12. Au cinéma muet 13. Plaisir d'amour 14. Prohibition rag 15. Linda et Cornelius Boulevard du Rhum on IMDb

Rob de Wit (footballer)

Rob de Wit is a Dutch former football player. De Wit made his debut for FC Utrecht in the 1982–83 season, he was a member of the Dutch squad at the 1983 FIFA World Youth Championship. He was transferred to Ajax Amsterdam two seasons July 1984, as successor of left wing attacker Jesper Olsen, who left to Manchester United. At Ajax, he became a crowd favourite, played nearly all of the matches, the 1984–1985 and 1985–1986 seasons. On 1985-05-01, still in his first season at Ajax, De Wit made his debut for the Dutch national team in a World Cup qualifier against Austria. Nearly two weeks De Wit scored the winning goal against Hungary, which won the Netherlands a play-off match against Belgium for the 1986 FIFA World Cup. De Wit's career came to an abrupt end in 1986, due to a cerebral hemorrhage while on holiday in Spain. At first, the consequences didn't seem to be serious. After an unsuccessful treatment in Sweden, it became clear that Rob de Wit would never play professional football again, he sustained two more cerebral hemorrhages in life: one in 1993 and one in January 2005.

De Wit played 103 league matches in scoring 23 goals. Statistics of Rob de Wit for the Netherlands national football team Rob de Wit scoring against Hungary on YouTube

Cineteca di Bologna

The Cineteca di Bologna is a film archive in Bologna, Italy. It was founded on 18 May 1962. Since 1989, it has been a member of the Fédération internationale des archives du film, it has been a member of the Association des cinémathèques européennes since its creation. Since March 2014, its president is Italian movie director Marco Bellocchio and its director is Gian Luca Farinelli. Among the various shows and festivals organized by the Cineteca di Bologna are: Il Cinema Ritrovato, Visioni Italiane and Human Rights Nights Film Festival. Il Cinema Ritrovato is a movie festival dedicated to the rediscovery of rare and not well-known movies, with particular interest to the first cinematographic productions, it has been held since 1986 and it presents a precious selection of rare movies or works that are considered lost, recovered from historical archives of many countries, sometimes restored films. The movies are projected in various places throughout the historical centre of Bologna, including Piazza Maggiore.

From 2001 until his death in 2014, the artistic director of the festival was Finnish film critic Peter von Bagh. The silent cinema critic Vittorio Martinelli worked with the festival until his death in 2008; the current directors of the festival are Gian Luca Farinelli, Mariann Lewinsky, Cecilia Cenciarelli and Ehsan Khoshbakh. List of film archives Official website