SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Islam

Islam is an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion which teachings and beliefs are that there is only one God and Muhammad is the messenger of God. It is the world's second-largest religion with over 1.8 billion followers or 24.1% of the world's population known as Muslims. Muslims make up a majority of the population in 49 countries. Islam teaches that God is merciful, all-powerful, unique, has guided mankind through prophets, revealed scriptures and natural signs; the primary scriptures of Islam are the Quran, believed to be the verbatim word of God, the teachings and normative examples of Muhammad. Muslims believe that Islam is the complete and universal version of a primordial faith, revealed many times before through prophets including Adam, Abraham and Jesus. Muslims consider the Quran in its Arabic to be the final revelation of God. Like other Abrahamic religions, Islam teaches a final judgment with the righteous rewarded in paradise and unrighteous punished in hell. Religious concepts and practices include the Five Pillars of Islam, which are obligatory acts of worship, following Islamic law, which touches on every aspect of life and society, from banking and welfare to women and the environment.

The cities of Mecca and Jerusalem are home to the three holiest sites in Islam. Aside from the theological narrative, Islam is believed to have originated in the early 7th century CE in Mecca, by the 8th century the Umayyad Caliphate extended from Iberia in the west to the Indus River in the east; the Islamic Golden Age refers to the period traditionally dated from the 8th century to the 13th century, during the Abbasid Caliphate, when much of the Muslim world was experiencing a scientific and cultural flourishing. The expansion of the Muslim world involved various states and dynasties such as the Ottoman Empire and conversion to Islam by missionary activities. Most Muslims are of one of two denominations. About 13 % of Muslims live in the largest Muslim-majority country. Muslims are the majority in Central Asia, are widespread in the Caucasus, Southeast Asia. India is the country with the largest Muslim population outside Muslim-majority countries. Sizeable Muslim communities can be found in the Americas, China and Russia.

Islam is the fastest-growing major religion in the world. Islām is a verbal noun originating from the triliteral root S-L-M which forms a large class of words relating to concepts of wholeness, sincerity and peace. In a religious context, it means "voluntary submission to God". Islām is the verbal noun of Form IV of the root, means "submission to God" or "surrender to God". Muslim, the word applied to an adherent of Islam, is the active participle of the same verb form, means "submitter to God" or "one who surrenders to God"; the word sometimes has distinct connotations in its various occurrences in the Quran. In some verses, there is stress on the quality of Islam as an internal spiritual state: "Whomsoever God desires to guide, He opens his heart to Islam." Other verses connect Islam and religion together: "Today, I have perfected your religion for you. Still others describe Islam as an action of returning to God—more than just a verbal affirmation of faith. In the Hadith of Gabriel, islām is presented as one part of a triad that includes imān, ihsān.

Islam was called Muhammadanism in Anglophone societies. This term has fallen out of use and is sometimes said to be offensive because it suggests that a human being rather than God is central to Muslims' religion, parallel to Buddha in Buddhism; some authors, continue to use the term Muhammadanism as a technical term for the religious system as opposed to the theological concept of Islam that exists within that system. Faith in the Islamic creed is represented as the six articles of faith, notably spelled out in the Hadith of Gabriel. Islam is seen as having the simplest doctrines of the major religions, its most fundamental concept is a rigorous monotheism, called tawḥīd. God is described in chapter 112 of the Quran as: "He is God, the One and Only. Islam rejects polytheism and idolatry, called Shirk, reject the Christian doctrine of the Trinity. In Islam, God is beyond all comprehension and thus Muslims are not expected to think of him as having a human form. God is described and referred to by certain names or attributes, the most common being Al-Rahmān, meaning "The Compassionate" and Al-Rahīm, meaning "The Merciful".

Islam teaches that the creation of everything in the universe was brought into being by God's command as expressed by the wording, "Be, it is" and that the purpose of existence is to worship or to know God. He is viewed as a personal god who responds whenever a person in distress calls him. There are no intermediaries, such as clergy, to contact God who states, "I am nearer to him than jugular vein." God consciousness is referred to as Taqwa. Allāh is traditionally seen as the personal name of God, a term with no plural or gender being ascribed, used by Muslims and Arabic-speaking Christians and Jew

Rhombidodecadodecahedron

In geometry, the rhombidodecadodecahedron is a nonconvex uniform polyhedron, indexed as U38. It has 120 edges and 60 vertices, it is given a Schläfli symbol t0,2, by the Wythoff construction this polyhedron can be named a cantellated great dodecahedron. Cartesian coordinates for the vertices of a uniform great rhombicosidodecahedron are all the permutations of where τ = /2 is the golden ratio, it shares its vertex arrangement with the uniform compounds of 20 triangular prisms. It additionally shares its edges with the rhombicosahedron; the medial deltoidal hexecontahedron is a nonconvex isohedral polyhedron. It is the dual of the rhombidodecadodecahedron, it has 60 intersecting quadrilateral faces. List of uniform polyhedra Wenninger, Dual Models, Cambridge University Press, doi:10.1017/CBO9780511569371, ISBN 978-0-521-54325-5, MR 0730208 Weisstein, Eric W. "Rhombidodecadodecahedron". MathWorld. Weisstein, Eric W. "Medial deltoidal hexecontahedron". MathWorld. Uniform polyhedra and duals

Yegoshikha

Yegoshikha Yagoshikha, was a village on the Yegoshikha River in the 17th–18th centuries. It is famous for its historical significance as oldest mentioned settlement at the place of the foundation of the city of Perm. Yegoshikha was founded in 1568, it was first mentioned in the voivod Prokopy Yelizarov 1647 census book: …settlement at the Kama River and the Yegoshikha River, in it there are peasant homesteads of Sergeyko Pavel's son Bryukhanov and his sons Klimko and Ivashko. In the 1687 census books of prince Feodor Belsky it was written: …settlement at the Kama River and the Yegoshikha River with homesteads of Ivashka Verkholantsev and Yaranko Bryukhanovs, Larka Bryukhanov, Ivashko Bryukhanov. In 1692, this settlement was mentioned as the village of Yegoshikha; the village was sometimes called Bryukhanovo for the family name of its first residents. In 1723, after the copper deposit was discovered there, Yegoshikha Copper Factory was founded at the bank of Yegoshikha by Vasily Tatishchev, the chief manager of the Ural factories.

In 1781, the workers' settlement was reorganized as the city of Perm by the decree of Catherine II. С. А. Торопов. "Пермь: путеводитель." – Пермь, Кн. изд-во, 1986. А.А. Дмитриев. Очерки из истории города Перми. – Пермь, 1889. Историческая справка об образовании города Перми Historical information on the foundation of Perm