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Fir

Firs are a genus of 48–56 species of evergreen coniferous trees in the family Pinaceae. They are found through much of North and Central America, Europe and North Africa, occurring in mountains over most of the range. Firs are most related to the genus Cedrus. Douglas firs are not true firs, they are large trees. Firs can be distinguished from other members of the pine family by the way in which their needle-like leaves are attached singly to the branches with a base resembling a suction cup, by their cones, like those of true cedars, stand upright on the branches like candles and disintegrate at maturity. Identification of the different species is based on the size and arrangement of the leaves, the size and shape of the cones, whether the bract scales of the cones are long and exserted, or short and hidden inside the cone. Firs can be distinguished from other members of the pine family by the unique attachment of their needle-like leaves to the twig by a base that resembles a small suction cup.

The leaves are flattened, sometimes looking like they are pressed, as in A. sibirica. The leaves have two whitish lines on the bottom, each of, formed by wax-covered stomatal bands. In most species, the upper surface of the leaves is uniformly green and shiny, without stomata or with a few on the tip, visible as whitish spots. Other species have the upper surface of leaves dull, gray-green or bluish-gray to silvery, coated by wax with variable number of stomatal bands, not always continuous. An example species with shiny green leaves is A. alba, an example species with dull waxy leaves is A. concolor. The tips of leaves are more or less notched, but sometimes rounded or dull or sharp and prickly; the leaves of young plants are sharper. The way they spread from the shoot is diverse, only in some species comb-shaped, with the leaves arranged on two sides, flat Firs differ from other conifers in having erect, cylindrical cones 5–25 cm long that disintegrate at maturity to release the winged seeds.

In contrast to spruces large fir cones do not hang, but are raised like candles. Mature cones are brown, young in summer can be green, for example: A. grandis, A. holophylla, A. nordmannianaor purple and blue, sometimes dark: A. fraseri, A. homolepis, A. koreana, A. lasiocarpa, A. nephrolepis, A. sibirica, A. veitchii. Section Abies is found in central and eastern Europe and Asia Minor. Abies alba – silver fir Abies nebrodensis – Sicilian fir Abies borisii-regis – Bulgarian fir Abies cephalonica – Greek fir Abies nordmanniana – Nordmann fir or Caucasian fir Abies nordmanniana subsp. Equi – trojani – Kazdağı fir, Turkish fir Abies nordmanniana subsp. Bornmülleriana – Uludağ fir Abies pinsapo – Spanish fir Abies pinsapo var. marocana – Moroccan fir Abies numidica – Algerian fir Abies cilicica – Syrian fir Section Balsamea is found in northern Asia and North America, high mountains further south. Abies fraseri – Fraser fir Abies balsamea – balsam fir Abies balsamea var. phanerolepis – bracted balsam fir Abies lasiocarpa – subalpine fir Abies lasiocarpa var. arizonica – corkbark fir Abies lasiocarpa var. bifolia – Rocky Mountains subalpine fir Abies sibirica – Siberian fir Abies sibirica var. semenovii Abies sachalinensisSakhalin fir Abies koreana – Korean fir Abies nephrolepis – Khinghan fir Abies veitchii – Veitch's fir Abies veitchii var. sikokiana – Shikoku fir Section Grandis is found in western North America to Mexico, Honduras and El Salvador, in lowlands in the north, moderate altitudes in south.

Abies grandis – grand fir or giant fir Abies grandis var. grandis – Coast grand fir Abies grandis var. idahoensis – interior grand fir Abies concolor – white fir Abies concolor subsp. Concolor – Rocky Mountain white fir or Colorado white fir Abies concolor subsp. Lowiana – Low's white fir or Sierra Nevada white fir Abies durangensis – Durango fir Abies durangensis var. coahuilensis – Coahuila fir Abies flinckii – Jalisco fir Abies guatemalensis – Guatemalan fir Abies guatemalensis var. guatemalensis Abies guatemalensis var. jaliscana Abies vejarii Section Momi is found in east and central Asia and the Himalaya at low to moderate altitudes. Abies kawakamii – Taiwan fir Abies homolepis – Nikko fir Abies recurvata – Min fir Abies recurvata var. ernestii – Min fir Abies firma – Momi fir Abies beshanzuensis – Baishanzu fir Abies holophylla – Manchurian fir Abies chensiensis – Shensi fir Abies chensiensis subsp. Salouenensis – Salween fir Abies pindrow – Pindrow fir Abies ziyuanensisZiyuan fir Section Amabilis is found in the Pacific Coast mountains in North America and Japan, in high rainfall areas.

Abies amabilis – Pacific silver fir Abies mariesii – Maries' fir Section Pseudopicea is found in the Sino – Himalayan mountains at high altitudes. Abies delavayi – Delavay's fir Abies delavayi var. nukiangensis Abies delavayi var. motuoensis Abies delavayi subsp. Fansipanensis Abies fabri – Faber's fir Abies fabri subsp. Minensis Abies forrestii – Forrest's fir Abies densa – Bhutan fir Abies spectabilis – East Himalayan fir Abies fargesii – Farges' fir Abies fanjingshanensisFanjingshan fir Abies yuanbaoshanensis – Yuanbaoshan fir Abies squamata – flaky fir Section Oiamel is found in central Mexico at high altitudes. Abies religiosa – sacred fir Abies hickelii – Hickel's fir Abies hickelii var. oaxacana – Oaxaca fir Section Nobilis Abies procera – noble fir Abie

Sasirekha Parinayam (TV series)

Sasirekha Parinayam is a 2013 Indian drama television series, broadcast on MAA TV. It premiered on 2013, aired everyday at 09:00 PM IST, ended on 17 December 2016; the series stars Meghana Pratap in the lead roles. This story revolves around the love story of Abhimanyu. Sasi and Janu are cousins who both love Abhi, but Abhi only loves his mysterious "dream girl". Janu fails. Janu has an accident, changes her face, enters into Abhi's family as his dream girl. On the day of their engagement Sasi's sister reveals the truth about Janu and the engagement stops. After this incident everyone agrees for Abhi and Sasi's marriage except for Sasi's father, afraid of a tantric's words that his sister's husband will die on the event of Abhi and Sasi marrying, he agrees, but the tantric's words come true. As a result and Sasi fight and file a case for divorce due to a lot of misunderstandings. However, Sasi falls in love with him again. Abhi accepts Sasi as his wife, Abhi's friend Alekhya enters their lives, she implicates Abhi in a rape case as part of a plan to force him to divorce Sasi and marry her, which he refuses to do.

Sasi rescues Abhi from jail and together they run away from the police. They discover that Sasi looks like a missing princess Devayani, they agree to pretend that Sasi is Devayani in order to keep the kingdom from falling to Devayani's scheming relatives. The rest of the story consists of how Sasi and Abhi find out what happened to Devayani and unite her with her lover. After many twists Sasi and Abhi are successful in uniting Devayani and her lover

Road toll (historical)

The road toll was a historical fee charged to the territorial lords of travellers and merchants in return for permission to use the roads and waterways of the country or state concerned. It was reinforced in the Holy Roman Empire by the law of Straßenzwang which meant that traders in certain goods had to use specified roads. In return, they were guaranteed safe passage under the right of escort or Geleitrecht; the road toll was widespread in medieval times, and, in addition to the payments from the staple rights, was an important source of income. Road tolls had to be paid at strategic locations such as bridges or gates. In Europe, the road toll goes back to the practice of the Germanic tribes, who charged fees to travellers if they wanted to cross over mountain passages. From that time, road tolls became commonplace in medieval times in the Holy Roman Empire; the Empire had a "passage system" whereby a number of toll stations would be established on a route where small tolls were collected. Examples were the Ochsenweg in Schleswig-Holstein which had toll stations at Königsau and Rendsburg, Neumünster and Ulzburg, as well as the Gabler Road with the Karlsfried Castle as its toll station.

Another form of road tax was Liniengeld, which had to be paid when entering the city of Vienna from the beginning of the 18th century. A special form of road toll was the Pflasterzoll, which had to be paid to fund the initial cobbling of a road and its subsequent upkeep. Another form of toll on medieval travel, was the river toll, raised for the use of a waterway. Outside the towns themselves, toll stations were established in some cases at special locations: Loevestein Castle in the Netherlands was built at a strategic point on the confluence of two rivers. Ships and boats had to pay a river toll here; the Kingdom of Denmark had Kronborg Castle built from the receipts of the Sound Toll, a toll on ships for using the Sound of Denmark. In a document at the imperial castle of Cochem dated 17 March 1130, which Count Palatine William of Ballenstedt had made out, mention was made of the usual river toll charged on the Moselle at one of its toll stations; the building had the status of a toll castle.

By contrast, the castle of Pfalzgrafenstein Castle in the Rhine near Kaub was used to collect river tolls. Another well known toll site on the Rhine was the imperial palace of Kaiserswerth built in 1174. In Greek mythology the ferryman, charged the dead a river toll of one obolus for transporting them over the Acheron so that they were able to enter the Underworld or Hades. In the Middle Ages, road tolls were demanded from towns, monasteries and villages by roaming armed bands; this was true of the Normans and Vikings, but of large bands of robbers. This type of payment was referred to as Danegeld. In England, it is estimated. Toll road