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Fire

Fire is the rapid oxidation of a material in the exothermic chemical process of combustion, releasing heat and various reaction products. Slower oxidative processes like rusting or digestion are not included by this definition. Fire is hot because the conversion of the weak double bond in molecular oxygen, O2, to the stronger bonds in the combustion products carbon dioxide and water releases energy. At a certain point in the combustion reaction, called the ignition point, flames are produced; the flame is the visible portion of the fire. Flames consist of carbon dioxide, water vapor and nitrogen. If hot enough, the gases may become ionized to produce plasma. Depending on the substances alight, any impurities outside, the color of the flame and the fire's intensity will be different. Fire in its most common form can result in conflagration, which has the potential to cause physical damage through burning. Fire is an important process; the positive effects of fire include maintaining various ecological systems.

The negative effects of fire include hazard to life and property, atmospheric pollution, water contamination. If fire removes protective vegetation, heavy rainfall may lead to an increase in soil erosion by water; when vegetation is burned, the nitrogen it contains is released into the atmosphere, unlike elements such as potassium and phosphorus which remain in the ash and are recycled into the soil. This loss of nitrogen caused by a fire produces a long-term reduction in the fertility of the soil, but this fecundity can be recovered as molecular nitrogen in the atmosphere is "fixed" and converted to ammonia by natural phenomena such as lightning and by leguminous plants that are "nitrogen-fixing" such as clover and green beans. Fire has been used by humans in rituals, in agriculture for clearing land, for cooking, generating heat and light, for signaling, propulsion purposes, forging, incineration of waste, as a weapon or mode of destruction. Fires start when a flammable or a combustible material, in combination with a sufficient quantity of an oxidizer such as oxygen gas or another oxygen-rich compound, is exposed to a source of heat or ambient temperature above the flash point for the fuel/oxidizer mix, is able to sustain a rate of rapid oxidation that produces a chain reaction.

This is called the fire tetrahedron. Fire can not exist in the right proportions. For example, a flammable liquid will start burning only if the fuel and oxygen are in the right proportions; some fuel-oxygen mixes may require a catalyst, a substance, not consumed, when added, in any chemical reaction during combustion, but which enables the reactants to combust more readily. Once ignited, a chain reaction must take place whereby fires can sustain their own heat by the further release of heat energy in the process of combustion and may propagate, provided there is a continuous supply of an oxidizer and fuel. If the oxidizer is oxygen from the surrounding air, the presence of a force of gravity, or of some similar force caused by acceleration, is necessary to produce convection, which removes combustion products and brings a supply of oxygen to the fire. Without gravity, a fire surrounds itself with its own combustion products and non-oxidizing gases from the air, which exclude oxygen and extinguish the fire.

Because of this, the risk of fire in a spacecraft is small. This does not apply. Fire can be extinguished by removing any one of the elements of the fire tetrahedron. Consider a natural gas flame, such as from a stove-top burner; the fire can be extinguished by any of the following: turning off the gas supply, which removes the fuel source. In contrast, fire is intensified by increasing the overall rate of combustion. Methods to do this include balancing the input of fuel and oxidizer to stoichiometric proportions, increasing fuel and oxidizer input in this balanced mix, increasing the ambient temperature so the fire's own heat is better able to sustain combustion, or providing a catalyst, a non-reactant medium in which the fuel and oxidizer can more react. A flame is a mixture of reacting gases and solids emitting visible and sometimes ultraviolet light, the frequency spectrum of which depends on the chemical composition of the burning material and intermediate reaction products. In many cases, such as the burning of organic matter, for example wood, or the incomplete combustion of gas, incandescent solid particles called soot produce the familiar red-orange glow of "fire".

This light has a continuous spectrum. Complete combustion of gas has a dim blue color due to the emission of single-wavelength radiation from various electron transitions in the excited molecules formed in the flame. Oxygen is involved, but hydrogen burning in chlorine produces a flame, producing hydrogen chloride. Other possible combinations produ

Kōwa Station

Kōwa Station is a train station in the town of Mihama, Chita District, Aichi Prefecture, operated by Meitetsu. Kōwa Station is a terminus the Meitetsu Kōwa Line, is located 28.8 kilometers from the opposing terminus of the line at Ōtagawa. Kōwa Station has a bay platform with two platforms serving four tracks; the station is staffed. Kōwa Station was opened on August 1935 as a station on the Chita Railway; the Chita Railway became part of the Meitetsu system on February 1, 1943. A new station building was completed in March 1979. In 2006, the Tranpass system of magnetic fare cards with automatic turnstiles was implemented. In fiscal 2018, the station was used by an average of 2171 passengers daily. Mihama Town Hall Japan National Route 247 List of Railway Stations in Japan Media related to Kōwa Station at Wikimedia Commons Official web page

Espelie Township, Marshall County, Minnesota

Espelie Township is a township in Marshall County, United States. The population was 58 at the 2000 census. Espelie Township was organized in 1903. Espelie is a name derived from Norwegian meaning "poplar slope". According to the United States Census Bureau, the township has a total area of 44.7 square miles, all of it land. As of the census of 2000, there were 58 people, 22 households, 15 families residing in the township; the population density was 1.3 people per square mile. There were 23 housing units at an average density of 0.5/sq mi. The racial make-up of the township was 100% White. There were 22 households out of which 40.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.1% were married couples living together, 31.8% were non-families. 31.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.64 and the average family size was 3.40. In the township the population was spread out with 34.5% under the age of 18, 5.2% from 18 to 24, 24.1% from 25 to 44, 22.4% from 45 to 64, 13.8% who were 65 years of age or older.

The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 132.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 137.5 males. The median income for a household in the township was $43,750, the median income for a family was $44,250. Males had a median income of $29,167 versus $19,583 for females; the per capita income for the township was $12,565. There were 9.5% of families and 13.6% of the population living below the poverty line, including 15.4% of under eighteens and none of those over 64

Petr Pála

Petr Pála is a former professional tennis player from the Czech Republic. Together with Pavel Vízner he reached the men's doubles final of the 2001 French Open but lost to Indians Mahesh Bhupathi and Leander Paes. Pála was coached by his father František, a professional tennis player on the ATP tour. Pála never had the opportunity to do his singles ability justice on the ATP Tour due to injury; when he recovered from these injuries he returned to the doubles tour, but could not gain entry to official ATP matches. Pála became the non-playing captain of the Czech Republic Fed Cup team in December 2007. Since he has led the Fed Cup team to world titles in 2011, 2012, 2014, 2015 and 2016, becoming the most successful Fed Cup team captain of all time. Petr Pála at the Association of Tennis Professionals Petr Pála at the International Tennis Federation

The Valley of Death (film)

The Valley of Death or Winnetou and Shatterhand in the Valley of Death is a 1968 western film directed by Harald Reinl and starring Lex Barker, Pierre Brice and Rik Battaglia. It was the last in a series of films based on Karl May novels; these had enjoyed major commercial success, although this film's box office returns were disappointing. It was a remake of an earlier film in the series Treasure of the Silver Lake, it was shot at the Spandau Studios on location in Yugoslavia. The film's sets were designed by the art director Vladimir Tadej. Bergfelder, Tim. International Adventures: German Popular Cinema and European Co-Productions in the 1960s. New York: Berghahn Books. ISBN 978-1-57181-539-2; the Valley of Death on IMDb

HMS Astraea (1893)

HMS Astraea was an Astraea-class second class cruiser of the Royal Navy. She was built towards the end of the nineteenth century, survived to serve in the First World War. Astraea was ordered as part of the eight-ship Astraea class under the Naval Defence Act of 1889, she was laid down at Devonport Dockyard in August 1890 and launched from there on 17 March 1893. She was completed and commissioned for service in November 1895. Astraea served in the Mediterranean Sea in early 1900 under the command of Captain Alfred Paget, was in China the following year under the command of Captain Casper Joseph Baker, she left Hong Kong on 27 March 1902, homeward bound, arriving in Singapore on 2 April, Colombo on 10 April, Suez on 27 April, Malta on 2 May, in Plymouth on 14 May, having convoyed the destroyer Skate from the Mediterranean. She paid off at Chatham on 12 June 1902, was placed in the B Division of the Fleet Reserve, she was again sent to the China Station in 1906, followed by a period at Colombo between 1908 and 1911.

She returned to Britain in January 1912. She was recommissioned at the Nore in June 1912, joined the Third Fleet. By April 1913 she had been reassigned to operate off the Cape of Good Hope as part of the squadron assigned to the West Africa Station, she was serving off East Africa at Zanzibar when the First World War broke out, the squadron was assigned to protect British Empire shipping travelling on the trade routes around the African coast. On 8 August 1914 Astraea bombarded Dar-es-Salaam, part of the German colony of German East Africa. Astraea's guns destroyed a radio station, fearing an imminent landing, the German authorities scuttled their floating dock to block the harbour; this had the subsequent effect of preventing the German commerce raider SMS Königsberg from being able to return to the port. Astraea was one of the ships assigned to hunt and blockade Königsberg in the Rufiji Delta. In May 1915 Astraea became the ship of the senior naval officer assigned to support the invasion of Kamerun, replacing the cruiser Challenger in the role.

One of Astraea's First World War officers was Harold Owen, younger brother of the wartime poet Wilfred Owen. Shortly after the signing of the Armistice, Astraea was anchored in Table Bay. Harold wrote:I had gone down to my cabin thinking to write some letters. I drew aside the door curtain and stepped inside and to my amazement I saw Wilfred sitting in my chair. I felt shock run through me with appalling force and with it I could feel the blood draining away from my face. I walked jerkily into the cabin -- all my limbs stiff and slow to respond. I did not sit down but looking at him I spoke quietly: "Wilfred, how did you get here?" He did not rise and I saw that he was involuntarily immobile, but his eyes which had never left mine were alive with the familiar look of trying to make me understand. I felt not fear—I had none when I first drew my door curtain and saw him there—only exquisite mental pleasure at thus beholding him, he was in uniform and I remember thinking how out of place the khaki looked amongst the cabin furnishings.

With this thought I must have turned my eyes away from him. I wondered if I had been dreaming but looking down I saw that I was still standing. I felt tired and moving to my bunk I lay down; when I woke up I knew with absolute certainty. Harold only learned that Wilfred had been killed in action on 4 November 1918, a week before he had appeared to him on Astraea. Astraea returned to the UK and was paid off in July 1919, she was sold on 1 July 1920 to the ship breakers Castle, but was subsequently resold and was broken up in Germany in 1920. From the Royal Navy log book for HMS Astraea, 22 April 1913. Transcribed by the Old Weather project