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Fire (classical element)

Fire is one of the four classical elements in ancient Greek philosophy and science. Fire is considered to be both hot and dry, according to Plato is associated with the tetrahedron. Fire is one of the four classical elements in science, it was associated with the qualities of energy and passion. In one Greek myth, Prometheus stole fire from the gods to protect the otherwise helpless humans, but was punished for this charity. Fire was one of many archai proposed by the Pre-socratics, most of whom sought to reduce the cosmos, or its creation, to a single substance. Heraclitus considered fire to be the most fundamental of all elements, he believed fire gave rise to the other three elements: "All things are an interchange for fire, fire for all things, just like goods for gold and gold for goods." He had a reputation for speaking in riddles. He described how fire gave rise to the other elements as the: "upward-downward path", a "hidden harmony" or series of transformations he called the "turnings of fire", first into sea, half that sea into earth, half that earth into rarefied air.

This is a concept that anticipates both the four classical elements of Empedocles and Aristotle's transmutation of the four elements into one another. This world, the same for all, no one of gods or men has made, but it always was and will be: an ever-living fire, with measures of it kindling, measures going out. Heraclitus regarded the soul as being a mixture of fire and water, with fire being the more noble part and water the ignoble aspect, he believed the goal of the soul is to be rid of water and become pure fire: the dry soul is the best and it is worldly pleasures that make the soul "moist". He was known as the "weeping philosopher" and died of hydropsy, a swelling due to abnormal accumulation of fluid beneath the skin. However, Empedocles of Acragas, is best known for having selected all elements as his archai and by the time of Plato, the four Empedoclian elements were well established. In the Timaeus, Plato's major cosmological dialogue, the Platonic solid he associated with fire was the tetrahedron, formed from four triangles and contains the least volume with the greatest surface area.

This makes fire the element with the smallest number of sides, Plato regarded it as appropriate for the heat of fire, which he felt is sharp and stabbing. Plato’s student Aristotle did not maintain his former teacher's geometric view of the elements, but rather preferred a somewhat more naturalistic explanation for the elements based on their traditional qualities. Fire the hot and dry element, like the other elements, was an abstract principle and not identical with the normal solids and combustion phenomena we experience: What we call fire, it is not fire, for fire is an excess of heat and a sort of ebullition. According to Aristotle, the four elements rise or fall toward their natural place in concentric layers surrounding the center of the earth and form the terrestrial or sublunary spheres. In ancient Greek medicine, each of the four humours became associated with an element. Yellow bile was the humor identified with fire, since both were dry. Other things associated with fire and yellow bile in ancient and medieval medicine included the season of summer, since it increased the qualities of heat and aridity.

In alchemy the chemical element of sulfur was associated with fire and its alchemical symbol and its symbol was an upward-pointing triangle. In alchemic tradition, metals are incubated by fire in the womb of the Earth and alchemists only accelerate their development. Agni is a Vedic deity; the word agni is Sanskrit for fire, cognate with Latin ignis, Russian огонь, pronounced agon. Agni has three forms: fire and the sun. Agni is one of the most important of the Vedic gods, he is the acceptor of sacrifices. The sacrifices made to Agni go to the deities because Agni is a messenger from and to the other gods, he is ever-young, because the fire is re-lit every day, yet he is immortal. In Indian tradition Fire is linked to Surya or the Sun and Mangala or Mars, with the south-east direction. Fire and the other Greek classical elements were incorporated into the Golden Dawn system. Philosophus is the elemental grade attributed to fire; the elemental weapon of fire is the Wand. Each of the elements has several associated spiritual beings.

The archangel of fire is Michael, the angel is Aral, the ruler is Seraph, the king is Djin, the fire elementals are called salamanders. Fire is considered to be active. Many of these associations have since spread throughout the occult community. Fire in Tarot symbolizes passion. Many references to fire in tarot are related to the usage of fire in the practice of alchemy, in which the application of fire is a prime method of conversion, everything that touches fire is changed beyond recognition; the symbol of fire was a cue pointing towards transformation, the chemical variant being the s

Alexander Agassiz Medal

The Alexander Agassiz Medal is awarded every three years by the U. S. National Academy of Sciences for an original contribution in the science of oceanography, it was established in 1911 by Sir John Murray in honor of his friend, the scientist Alexander Agassiz. Source: National Academy of Sciences Johan Hjort Albert I, Prince of Monaco For his original contributions to the science of oceanography. Charles D. Sigsbee Otto S. Pettersson For his studies on the physics of the sea. Wilhelm Bjerknes For his outstanding contributions to dynamic oceanography. Max Weber For his distinguished research in the field of oceanography. Vagn W. Ekman For his work in physical oceanography. J. Stanley Gardiner For his contributions to oceanography. Johannes Schmidt For his conduct of numerous oceanographic expeditions, his investigations of the life of eels, the investigations of numerous problems connected with fishes, among which may be mentioned his work on fish genetics and geographic variation. Henry B. Bigelow Albert Defant For his studies on atmospheric and oceanic circulation and his notable contributions to theoretical oceanography.

Bjørn Helland-Hansen For his studies in physical oceanography and for his contributions to knowledge of the dynamic circulation of the ocean. Haakon H. Gran For his contributions to knowledge of the factors controlling organic production in the sea. T. Wayland Vaughan For his investigations of corals and submarine deposits, for his leadership in developing oceanographic activities on the Pacific coast of America. Martin Knudsen Edgar J. Allen Harald U. Sverdrup Frank R. Lillie Columbus Iselin II For his studies of the Gulf stream system, for his leadership in the development of a general program of the physical oceanography of the North Atlantic, for his distinctive direction of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution both in times of peace and war. Joseph Proudman For his distinguished studies of the tides of the world. Felix A. Vening Meinesz For his contributions to oceanography by his invention of an apparatus for the determination of gravity at sea, by making many measurements of gravity over each of the great oceans, by the utilization of these observations in interpreting the physical properties and behavior of the Earth's crust.

Thomas G. Thompson For his leadership in investigations of the complex chemistry of the ocean, with special attention to the waters of the north-east Pacific, Puget Sound, San Juan Archipelago, the Bering and Chukchi Seas. Harry A. Marmer For his distinguished contributions in tidal surveys, his projects have made available to oceanographers accurate, long-period records for large areas where very little observational data were available. The program and work which he has originated will produce reliable conclusions on present-day tectonic processes and the rate of change in the quantity of water in the ocean. H. W. Harvey Maurice Ewing Alfred C. Redfield Martin W. Johnson For his outstanding leadership in biological and general oceanography. Among Dr. Johnson's contributions are explanations for two newly discovered acoustic phenomena in the sea; these explanations brought biologist and physicists together in a common interest, introduced underwater acoustics as a prime tool for marine ecology.

Anton F. Bruun For his leadership in the study of the biology of the deep ocean. George E. R. Deacon For his investigations of the hydrography of the southern ocean. Roger R. Revelle For his contributions to the understanding of oceanic processes and the geology of the sea floor, through his research, to the advancement of scientific oceanography throughout the world. Sir Edward Bullard For his significant investigations of the earth from its surface to its core. Carl H. Eckart For his significant contributions to physical oceanography. Frederick C. Fuglister For his successful observations of the Gulf Stream and its vortices. Seiya Uyeda For his contributions to the tectonic and thermal history of the earth and, most notably, the Sea of Japan. John H. Steele Walter H. Munk For his outstanding experimental and theoretical research on the spectrum of motion in the oceans and the earth. Henry M. Stommel For his work at sea, in the laboratory, by analyses through which he made major advances in understanding of ocean circulation and distribution of water masses.

Wallace S. Broecker For his work on chemical exchange among the oceans and solid Earth, making great contributions to understanding the role of the oceans in the Earth's carbon cycle and its climate. Cesare Emiliani For masterful achievements using isotopic palaeotemperatures to establish the climatic history of the Pleistocene and for suggesting their relation to the Milankovitch orbital cycles. Joseph L. Reid For his exploration and observation of the circulation of the world ocean, assembly of its many interacting parts with a lifetime of care and insight. Victor V. Vacquier For his discovery of the flux-gate magnetometer, for the marine magnetic anomaly surveys that led to the acceptance of the theory of sea-floor spreading. Walter C. Pitman, III For his fundamental contribution to the plate tectonic revolution through insightful analysis of marine magnetic anomalies and for his studies of the causes and effects of sea-level changes. Charles Shipley Cox For his pioneering studies, both theoretical and instrumental, of oceanic waves and mixing, of electromagnetic fields in the ocean and in the seafloor.

Klaus Wyrtki For fundamental contributions to the understanding of the

Manuel Álvarez Bravo

Manuel Álvarez Bravo was a Mexican artistic photographer and one of the most important figures in 20th century Latin American photography. He was raised in Mexico City. While he took art classes at the Academy of San Carlos, his photography is self-taught, his career spanned from the late 1920s to the 1990s with its artistic peak between the 1920s and 1950s. His hallmark as a photographer was to capture images of the ordinary but in ironic or Surrealistic ways, his early work was based on European influences, but he was soon influenced by the Mexican muralism movement and the general cultural and political push at the time to redefine Mexican identity. He rejected the picturesque, he had numerous exhibitions of his work, worked in the Mexican cinema and established Fondo Editorial de la Plástica Mexicana publishing house. He won numerous awards for his work after 1970, his work was recognized by the UNESCO Memory of the World registry in 2017. Álvarez Bravo was born in Mexico City on February 4, 1902.

His father was a teacher but pursued painting and writing, producing several plays and his grandfather was a professional portrait maker. Because of this, Alvarez Bravo had early exposure to the medium, he grew up in the historic center of Mexico City behind the Cathedral, in one of the many former colonial buildings converted into apartments for the city's middle and lower classes. He was eight years old, he came across dead bodies as a child. This would have an effect on his photography later. From 1908 to 1914 Alvarez Bravo attended elementary at the Patricio Saénz boarding school in Tlalpan, but he had to leave school at the age of twelve when his father died, he worked as a clerk at a French textile factory for a time, at the Mexican Treasury Department. He studied accounting at night for a while but switched to classes in art at the Academy of San Carlos. Alvarez Bravo met Hugo Brehme in 1923 and bought his first camera in 1924, he began experimenting with it, with some advice from Brehme and subscriptions to photography magazines.

In 1927, he met photographer Tina Modotti. Álvarez Bravo had admired Modotti's work in magazines such as Forma and Mexican Folkways before they met. She introduced him to a number of intellectuals and artists in Mexico City, including photographer Edward Weston, who encouraged him to continue with the craft. During his lifetime, Alvarez Bravo married three times, with all three wives photographers in their own right, his first wife was Lola Alvarez Bravo, whom he married in 1925, just as he was beginning his career as a freelance photographer. He taught her the craft but she did not achieve the renown that he did, they had one son and separated in 1934. His second wife was Doris Heyden and his third was French photographer Colette Álvarez Urbajtel. In 1973 he donated his personal collection of photographs and cameras to the Instituto Nacional de Bellas Artes. An additional 400 photographs are purchased by the Mexican government for the Museo de Arte Moderno, he died on October 19, 2002. Álvarez Bravo's photography career spanned from the late 1920s to the 1990s.

It formed in the decades after the Mexican Revolution when there was significant creative output in the country, much of it sponsored by the government wanting to promote a new Mexican identity based on both modernity and the country's indigenous past. Although he was photographing in the late 1920s, he became a freelance photographer full-time in 1930, quitting his government job; that same year, Tina Modotti was deported from Mexico for political activities and she left Alvarez Bravo her camera and her job at Mexican Folkways magazine. For this publication, Alvarez Bravo began photographing the work of the Mexican muralists and other painters. During the rest of the 1930s, he established his career, he met photographer Paul Strand in 1933 on the set of the film "Redes", worked with him briefly. In 1938, he met French Surrealist artist André Breton, who promoted Alvaréz Bravo's work in France, exhibiting it there. Breton asked for a photograph for the cover of catalog for an exhibition in Mexico.

Alvarez Bravo created "La buena fama durmiendo". The photograph would be reproduced many times after that however. Alvarez Bravo trained most of the next generation of photographers including Nacho López, Héctor García and Graciela Iturbide. From 1938 to 1939, he taught photography at the Escuela Central de Artes Plásticas, now the National School of Arts. In the latter half of the 1960s he taught at the Centro Universitario de Estudios Cinematográficos. From 1943 to 1959, he worked in the Mexican film industry doing still shots, prompting him to experiment some with cinema. In 1949, he collaborated with José Revueltas in an experimental film called Coatlicue. In 1957 he worked making stills for the film Nazarín by Luis Buñuel, his career included over 150 individual exhibitions of his work along with participation in over 200 collective exhibitions. In 1928, a photograph of his was chosen to be exhibited in the First Salón Mexciano de la Fotografía, his first individual exhibition was at the Galería Posada in Mexico City in 1932.

In 1935, he exhibited with Henri Cartier-Bresson at the Palacio de Bellas Artes, with catalogue texts from Langston Hughes and Luis Cardoza y Aragón. In 1940 his work was part of a surrealist exhibition by André Breton at the gallery belonging to Inés Amor. Edward Steichen selected three of Bravo's pictures for MoMA's 1955 The Family of Man exhibition, exhibited around the world, seen by more people than any other to date. In 1968, the Palacio de Bellas Artes held a retrospect


Uzzipari was a Roman town of the Roman Empire during late antiquity. An exact location for the town has been lost to history although that it was in the Roman province of Africa Proconsolaris means it must have been in northern Tunisia. In antiquity the town was the seat of a Christian bishopric, suffragan of the Archdiocese of Carthage. There are three documented bishops of this diocese; the Catholic Bishop Mariano attended the Council of Carthage 411, participated in another council of Carthage in 419. Augenzio who attended the synod in Carthage called by the Vandal king Huneric in 484, after which Augenzio was exiled. Semenzio took part in the Carthaginian council of 525. Today Uzzipari survives as a titular bishopric of the Roman Catholic Church and the current Bishop is Thomas Chakiath of Ernakulam-Angamaly

John Calhoun Dickenson

John Calhoun Dickenson was a Virginia planter and politician who served in both chambers of the Virginia General Assembly, including in the Virginia Senate during the American Civil War and after Congressional Reconstruction ended, is referred to with the honorific "Colonel" alluding to his service with the Home Guard during the American Civil War. He was born in Old Town in Grayson County, Virginia to merchant Martin Dickenson and his wife Mary, who survived her husband by 25 years, he had two brothers and six sisters, farmed both on Elk Creek and near Oldtown in Grayson County. Martin Dickenson had worked for merchant and Grayson County's first clerk, William Bourne Sr. and served as the county's deputy clerk and succeeded Bourne as clerk, serving from 1793 until his death in 1834. John Dickenson married Rosamond Bourne Hale on October 14, 1839, they had several children before her death in 1854. Two sons would fight for the Confederacy: William Martin Dickenson, James P. Dickenson, they had daughters Bettie S, Lucy and Mary and sons Benjamin Rush Floyd Dickenson and Thomas Jefferson Dickenson, as well as at least two children who died as infants.

After Rosamund's death, J. C. Dickenson remarried in 1856, to Margaret Ellen Andis Dickenson with whom he raised Sarah Josephine Dickenson Edwards, Robert Lee Dickenson, Sue Blanche Dickenson and John Calhoun Dickenson to adulthood. Margaret Dickenson predeceased her husband, dying in October 1887 in Boone County, Indiana while visiting relatives. John Dickenson owned a large estate on the New River and with Ezra Nuckolls operated stores at Old Town, Elk Creek and Bridle Creek, all in Grayson County; the merchants hauled provisions from Lynchburg using the James River Canal as well as wagons. By the 1860 U. S. census, he was one of the county's richest men, with real estate worth $35,500 and personal property worth $28,750. Grayson County voters elected Col. John C. Dickenson to be their clerk in 1849 and he was re-elected numerous times until resigning after 11 years. After serving as a legislator for 14 years, Dickenson served as Magistrate and as chairman of Grayson county, he was a Democrat, casting his first vote in 1836.

Grayson County voters elected Dickenson to represent them in the Virginia House of Delegates in 1853 and re-elected him twice. In 1859 Samuel McCamant replaced him in the lower house, as voters in Carroll, Grayson and Pulaski Counties elected John Dickenson to the Virginia Senate. Although too old to serve in the military during the American Civil War, two of his sons fought for the Confederacy. Dickenson estimated that he gave $20,000 to Confederate soldiers' families during that conflict, plus lost about $50,000 in livestock and meat to support troops as well as "lost about 40 Negroes by Lincoln's free proclamation." In 1863, voters elected Confederate veteranJames Craig Taylor to replace Dickenson in the Virginia Senate until the Commonwealth surrendered. Voters from Carroll and Wythe Counties returned Dickenson to the State Senate in 1874, where he replaced Confederate veteran Abner W. C. Nowlin. Dickenson replaced in the Senate beginning in 1879 by Peyton G. Hale. Dickenson attributed his success in life to the industry and energy he put into it.

He died in Grayson County on July 17, 1890 and was buried in the family graveyard in what is now Riverside, Virginia. Dickenson County, formed in 1880, was named after his relative William J. Dickenson who represented Buchanon and Wise Counties during the American Civil War

Hugo Otopalik

Hugo Otopalik was an American football player, wrestler and athletic director at Iowa State University. He was the architect of the first NCAA Championships in both the sport of golf. Otopalik, a native of David City, attended the University of Nebraska competing in football and track & field. On the gridiron Otopalik played halfback and his squads were three time MVIAA champions in 1915, 1916 and 1917, he was a standout wrestler at Nebraska. He was an All-American and the 175 lb Western Conference champion in both 1916 and 1917. Post-college, Otopalik fulfilled his military duty by serving in the Army during WWI, he served under General John Pershing and rose to the rank of First Sergeant before the end of the War in 1918. Otopalik was recruited to become the assistant wrestling coach at Iowa State under head coach Charles Mayser in 1920. In 1923 Mayser unexpectedly resigned and Hugo volunteered to take over on a temporary basis, he remained the head coach for 29 years until his death in 1953. Otopalik took over an Iowa State program, in its infancy and was able to establish the groundwork of a powerhouse.

He led the Cyclones to their first NCAA team title in any sport, in 1933. Additionally he coached seven individual NCAA champions: Arthur Holding, Hugh Linn, Richard Cole, Robert Hess, Merrill Frevert and George Martin, he coached the team to five conference titles in 1929, 1933, 1937, 1941 and 1947. At the international level, Otopalik coached the U. S. squad at the 1932 Los Angeles Olympics. Under his leadership, Robert Pearce, Jack van Bebber and Peter Mehringer brought home gold while Edgar Nemir and Jack Riley took silver. Otopalik assisted in organizing the first NCAA Wrestling Championship, it was hosted by the Cyclones in Iowa. Hugo served as the first secretary of the National Wrestling Coaches Association from 1932 to 1936, served in leadership positions developing AAU wrestling in the United States; when the Big Six began sponsoring men's golf as an official sport, Iowa State needed a coach. Golf was not as elevated as football or basketball so the athletic administration didn't see a need to "hire a real coach".

Otopalik was free because the golf season didn't overlap with the wrestling season, so he added head golf coach to his job description. Otopalik helmed the golf program from 1931 to 1953, except the 1947 season, which Jack McGuire coached, his team's had Big Six Championships in 1940 and 1947 as well as a Big Seven Title in 1953. They placed in the NCAA tournament in 1939, 1940, 1947, 1949, 1952, 1953 with 4th, 8th, 34th, 12th, 22nd, 19th-place finishes respectively. In addition to his coaching duties at Iowa State, Otopalik was instrumental in creating the first NCAA Golf Championship; as a result, he was the Tournament Director of the first NCAA Championship held at the Wakonda Club in Des Moines, IA. In 2006, Otopalik was inducted into the Iowa State Cyclones Hall of Fame. In 2012, he was inducted into the National Wrestling Hall of Fame. National Wrestling Hall of Fame profile Iowa State Hall of Fame profile Hugo Otopalik at Find a Grave