Fireworks are a class of low explosive pyrotechnic devices used for aesthetic and entertainment purposes. The most common use of a firework is as part of a fireworks display, a display of the effects produced by firework devices. Fireworks take many forms to produce the four primary effects: noise, light and floating materials, they may be designed to burn with colored flames and sparks including red, yellow, blue and silver. Displays are common throughout the world and are the focal point of many cultural and religious celebrations. Fireworks are classified as to where they perform, either as a ground or aerial firework. In the latter case they may be shot into the air by a mortar; the most common feature of fireworks is a paper or pasteboard tube or casing filled with the combustible material pyrotechnic stars. A number of these tubes or cases are combined so as to make when kindled, a great variety of sparkling shapes variously colored. A skyrocket is a common form of firework; the aerial shell, however, is the backbone of today's commercial aerial display, a smaller version for consumer use is known as the festival ball in the United States.

Such rocket technology has been used for the delivery of mail by rocket and is used as propulsion for most model rockets. Fireworks were invented in China. One of the cultural practices for fireworks was to scare away evil spirits. Cultural events and festivities such as the Chinese New Year and the Mid-Autumn Moon Festival were and still are times when fireworks are guaranteed sights. China is exporter of fireworks in the world; the earliest fireworks came from China during the Song dynasty. Fireworks were used to accompany many festivities; the art and science of firework making has developed into an independent profession. In China, pyrotechnicians were respected for their knowledge of complex techniques in mounting firework displays. Chinese people believed that the fireworks could expel evil spirits and bring about luck and happiness. During the Han dynasty, people threw bamboo stems into a fire to produce an explosion with a loud sound. In times, gunpowder packed into small containers was used to mimic the sounds of burning bamboo.

These exploding bamboo stems and gunpowder firecrackers were interchangeable known as baozhu or baogan. By the 12th and the 11th century, the term baozhang was used to refer to gunpowder firecrackers. During the Song dynasty, many of the common people could purchase various kinds of fireworks from market vendors. Grand displays of fireworks were known to be held. In 1110, a large fireworks display in a martial demonstration was held to entertain Emperor Huizong of Song and his court. A record from 1264 states that a rocket-propelled firework went off near the Empress Dowager Gong Sheng and startled her during a feast held in her honor by her son Emperor Lizong of Song. Rocket propulsion was common in warfare, as evidenced by the Huolongjing compiled by Liu Bowen and Jiao Yu. In 1240 the Arabs acquired knowledge of its uses from China. A Syrian named Hasan al-Rammah wrote of rockets and other incendiaries, using terms that suggested he derived his knowledge from Chinese sources, such as his references to fireworks as "Chinese flowers".

In regards to colored fireworks, this was derived and developed from earlier Chinese application of chemical substances to create colored smoke and fire. Such application appears in the Huolongjing and Wubeizhi, which describes recipes, several of which used low-nitrate gunpowder, to create military signal smokes with various colors. In the Wubei Huolongjing, two formulas appears for firework-like signals, the sanzhangju and baizhanglian, that produces silver sparkles in the smoke. In the Huoxilüe by Zhao Xuemin, there are several recipes with low-nitrate gunpowder and other chemical substances to tint flames and smoke; these included, for instance, arsenical sulphide for yellow, copper acetate for green, lead carbonate for lilac-white, mercurous chloride for white. The Chinese pyrotechnics have been written about by foreign authors such as Antoine Caillot who wrote "It is certain that the variety of colours which the Chinese have the secret of giving to flame is the greatest mystery of their fireworks."

Or Sir John Barrow who wrote "The diversity of colours indeed with which the Chinese have the secret of cloathing fire seems to be the chief merit of their pyrotechny."Fireworks were produced in Europe by the 14th century, becoming popular by the 17th century. Lev Izmailov, ambassador of Peter the Great, once reported from China: "They make such fireworks that no one in Europe has seen." In 1758, the Jesuit missionary Pierre Nicolas le Chéron d'Incarville, living in Beijing, wrote about the methods and composition on how to make many types of Chinese fireworks to the Paris Academy of Sciences, which revealed and published the account five years later. Amédée-François Frézier published his revised work Traité des feux d'artice pour le spectacle in 1747, covering the recreational and ceremonial uses of fireworks, rather than their military uses. Music for the Royal Fireworks was composed by George Frideric Handel in 1749 to celebrate the Peace treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, which had been

Kholoud Waleed

Kholoud Waleed is a Syrian journalist, co-founder and editor of the underground newspaper Enab Baladi. She is a recipient of the Anna Politkovskaya Award for her reporting about the Syrian Civil War. Waleed grew up in Darayya and studied English Literature at Damascus University before becoming a teacher in her native Syria; as a result of the Darayya massacre, she fled to the countryside with her family. Not having any journalistic training, Waleed teamed up with friends to report about civil war in Syria; as their work gained momentum, they created the newspaper Enab Baladi with the intention of reporting the "voice of the vulnerable". Waleed and the newspaper claim that they have been subject to threats from multiple parties involved in the war which prompted her to live in hiding, her brother was arrested by government forces in 2012 and his fate is unknown. For a period of time she was exiled in Turkey. Despite this, she organised demonstrations, demanding democracy and free speech as well as highlighting human rights abuses.

In 2015 she was awarded the Anna Politkovskaya Award for her continued efforts as a journalist

Phil McGuire (footballer)

Philip McGuire is a Scottish former professional footballer. He is the manager of Carnoustie Panmure in the SJFA East Superleague. McGuire, a central defender or sometime midfielder, started his career with Aberdeen where he made 181 appearances, scoring 10 goals, he came through the ranks into the first team. McGuire was part of the 2000 Scottish Cup Final and 2000 Scottish League Cup Final teams, both of which Aberdeen lost. In 2001-02 and 2002-03 he was voted into the SPL Team of the Year. In 2002 there was major speculation that McGuire would leave Aberdeen to join Celtic, but after discussions the deal broke down. McGuire signed a three-year deal in October 2002 to remain at Aberdeen, he joined Doncaster Rovers in July 2005 on a free transfer. McGuire played 18 games for the English League One club, he was injured in a match with Nottingham Forest. He managed to come back early and captained the reserves to the League and Cup double on his comeback trail. McGuire returned to Scotland in July 2006, signing a two-year deal with Dunfermline Athletic, who paid a six figure fee to take him back.

McGuire helped. Dunfermline were relegated from the SPL that season. On 31 August 2007, he signed for Inverness Caledonian Thistle on loan and became one of the first players to move back up the divisions on a loan agreement until 13 January. After the loan spell expired, McGuire signed a ​2 1⁄2-year deal with Inverness after Caley Thistle and the Pars agreed a fee. McGuire finished the 2007-08 season in a respected position. In October 2008, with Inverness Caledonian Thistle going well in the League campaign, McGuire suffered an ankle injury which ruled him out for nine weeks. McGuire returned early to help Inverness Caledonian Thistle, who at this stage had slipped down to bottom of the table. Within weeks, Inverness parted company with manager Craig Brewster. Terry Butcher and Maurice Malpas took over the mantle at Inverness Caledonian Thistle. McGuire found his first team games rare and he decided at the end of that season to leave the club, relegated to the First Division, despite having a year remaining on his contract.

McGuire turned down several clubs in Britain as he was looking to move abroad and explore different options with coaching and options outside football. He joined the New York Red Bulls in the MLS as a coach but decided it was the wrong time. On Friday, 25 September 2009 he signed for Formartine United on a one-year deal to help raise the profile of the new club and raise the awareness of the Highland League. McGuire teamed up with the Scottish Sun to write a weekly diary about his time with the club and created media interest in the small football club. McGuire left Formartine United at the end of January 2010, he finished off the season with Arbroath. McGuire headed to Cyprus with AEK Larnaca and was offered a two-year deal, but after a short period of time returned to the UK due to financial problems with the club. In 2011, McGuire signed for Lochee United; the following season, McGuire signed for Montrose for the 2012-13 season. In August 2013, McGuire signed for Jeanfield Swifts in the East Region Premier League as a Player/Assistant Manager.

In October 2013, McGuire transferred to St Andrews United in the East Region Super League as a Player/Coach. During his Aberdeen spell, McGuire was capped at B level, he did not play in a full international. In June 2014 McGuire was named manager of Junior team St Andrews United, he was sacked from this position on 5 December 2015. He was part of the St Andrews University F. C. coaching staff. McGuire took up the managerial position at Brechin Victoria in June 2017, before joining Carnoustie Panmure in September 2018. Phil McGuire at Post War English & Scottish Football League A–Z Player's Database Phil McGuire at Soccerbase