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First Council of the Lateran

The First Council of the Lateran was the 9th ecumenical council recognized by the Catholic Church. It was convoked by Pope Callixtus II in December 1122 after the Concordat of Worms; the council sought to: bring an end to the practice of the conferring of ecclesiastical benefices by people who were laymen. The council convoked by Callixtus II was significant in size: three hundred bishops and more than six hundred abbots assembled at Rome in March, 1123. During the Council the decisions of the Concordat of Worms were ratified. Various other decisions were promulgated; the First Lateran Council was called by Pope Callixtus II whose reign began February 1, 1119. It demarcated the end of the Investiture Controversy which had begun before the time of Pope Gregory VII; the issues had been contentious and had continued with unabated bitterness for a century. Guido, as he was called before his elevation to the papacy, was the son of William I, Count of Burgundy, he was connected with nearly all the royal houses of Europe on both sides of his family.

He had been named the papal legate to France by Pope Paschal II. During Guido's tenure in this office, Paschal II yielded to the military threats of Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor, was induced to issue the Privilegium in the year 1111. By this document the Church gave up much of what had been claimed and subsequently attained by Pope Gregory VII and his Gregorian Reforms; these concessions did not bring the expected peace but were received with violent reactionary opposition everywhere. Europe had come to expect an end to the Investiture controversy, was not willing to return to the old days when the Holy Roman Emperor named the pope; the greatest resistance was seen in France and was led by Guido, who still held the office of the papal legate. He had been present in the Lateran Synod of 1112 which had proclaimed the Privilegium of 1111. On his return to France, Guido convoked an assembly of the Burgundian bishops at Vienne. There the lay investiture of the clergy was denounced as heretical. A sentence of excommunication was pronounced against Henry V, who had extorted through violence from the pope the concessions documented in the Privilegium.

The agreement was deemed to be opposed to the interests of the Church. The decrees from the assembly of Vienne which denounced the Privilegium were sent to Paschal II with a request for confirmation. Pope Paschal II confirmed these which were received in general terms, on October 20, 1112. Guido was created cardinal by Pope Paschal II; the latter did not seem to have been pleased with Guido’s bold and forward attacks upon Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor. On the death of Paschal II, January 21, 1118, Gelasius II was elected pope, he was seized by the Italian allies of Henry V, on his liberation by the populace fled to Gaeta, where he was crowned. Henry V received no satisfactory reply, he set about naming Burdinus, the archbishop of Braga, as his own pope. This pope assumed the name Gregory VIII, but came to be known as antipope Gregory VIII. Burdinus had been deposed and excommunicated because he had crowned Henry V and the Holy Roman Emperor in Rome in 1117; the excommunication of Bardinus was reiterated in Canon 6 of the document produced by Lateran I.

Gelasius II promptly excommunicated the antipope Gregory VIII and Henry V. Gelasius was forced to flee under duress from the army of Henry V, took refuge in the monastery of Cluny, where he died in January 1119. On the fourth day after the death of Gelasius II, February I, 1119, owing to the exertions of Cardinal Cuno, Guido was elected pope and assumed the title of Callixtus II, he was crowned Pope at Vienne on February 9, 1119. Because of his close connection with the great royal families of Germany, France and Denmark, Callixtus II's papacy was received with much anticipation and celebration throughout Europe. There was a real hope throughout the Continent that the Investiture Controversy might be settled once and for all. In the interest of conciliation the papal embassy was received by Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor at Strasburg. However, it soon became clear that Henry was not willing to concede his presumed and ancient right to name the pope and bishops within his kingdom. To demonstrate conciliation or because of political necessity, Henry withdrew his support for antipope Gregory VIII.

It was agreed that Pope Callixtus II would meet at Mousson. On June 8, 1119, Callixtus II held a synod at Toulouse to proclaim the disciplinary reforms he had worked to attain in the French Church. In October, 1119, he opened the council at Reims. Louis VI of France and most of the barons of France attended this council along with more than four hundred bishops and abbots; the Pope was to meet with Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor at Mousson. However, Henry showed up with an army of thirty thousand men. Callixtus II left Reims for Mousson, but upon learning of the warlike stance of Henry retreated back to Reims. Here, the Church dealt with issues of concubinage of the clergy, it was clear by now that Henry was in no mood to reconcile and a compromise with him was not to be had. The Conclave at Reims considered the situation and determined, as an entire Church, to formally excommunicate both Henry V and the antipope Gregory VIII; this oc

Arkansas County Courthouse-Northern District

The Arkansas County Courthouse for the Northern District is located at East 3rd and College Streets in Stuttgart, the seat of the northern district of Arkansas County. It is a two-story Classical Revival brick structure resting on a raised basement, it was designed by J. B. Barrett of the Stuttgart firm Barrett & Ogletree, built in 1928, in response to the designation of growing Stuttgart as the seat of the northern district of the county; the building is an excellent local example of Classical Revival styling, with main entrances on its northern and eastern facades topped by broad pediments and entablatures, with a stepped brick parapet above. The building was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1992. National Register of Historic Places listings in Arkansas County, Arkansas

Mark Tetto

Mark Tetto is an American who lives and performs in South Korea as a television personality and businessman. He is a cast member in the variety show Non Summit and Where Is My Friend's Home, he was born to Italian parents. After moving to South Korea, he gave himself a Korean name "Tae Hyeon Jun" with his Korean last name "Tae" inspired by his original family name "Tetto." He is known to be living in a traditional Korean house located in Seoul. The beautifully designed and structured interiors of his house and his private collection of ancient Korean porcelains were featured in TV shows, he named his house as "Pyeonghaengjae" which can be translated as "parallel' in Korean with the intention of referring to a place where many people and friends can peacefully interact in a parallel space surrounded by nature. Mark has reported that he has been engaged in learning the Korean string instrument, gayageum, he graduated with a Bachelor of Arts in Chemistry from Princeton University in 2002, with a Master of Business Administration from the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania in 2007.

From 2002 to 2004, he was Supervisor and General Manager for McMaster-Carr in New Brunswick, New Jersey. Between 2007 and 2010, he was an associate in the Investment Banking Division for Morgan Stanley, he moved to South Korea to work as a Senior Manager in the Corporate Strategic Planning Team for Samsung Electronics from 2010 to 2014. He was with Vingle as a Chief financial officer for about a year. In addition to his native English language, he speaks fluent Italian. Due to appearances in April 2015, on the Non-Summit spin-off Where Is My Friend's Home, in Nepal, the subsequent April 2015 Nepal earthquake and the May 2015 Nepal earthquake, he became a spokesperson for JTBC and the two television shows, along with Nepalese cast member Sujan Shakya, for outreach. Official website Mark Tetto on Twitter Mark Tetto on Instagram

John Onesimus Foster

John Onesimus Foster was an American Methodist minister. He was a member of the Rock River Conference, a chaplain for the Sons of the American Revolution, a faculty member at the University of Puget Sound. John Onesimus Foster was born on December 1833 in La Porte, Indiana, his family moved to Iowa in 1840. From 1854 to 1860 he attended Cornell College in Mount Vernon, in 1862 he graduated from the Garrett Biblical Institute in Evanston, Illinois. In 1874 he graduated from the first normal class of the Chautauqua Institution. All told he received diplomas for normal and literary work, along with a Master of Arts, a Bachelor of Divinity, a Doctor of Divinity. In 1904 Foster moved to Seattle, joined the Washington State Society of the Sons of the American Revolution that year, he became the State Chaplain for Washington, served as the president of the Seattle chapter. In 1905 he began teaching theology at the University of Puget Sound in Washington. Still teaching in his 80s, he was thought to be the oldest college teacher in the country.

Foster, considered "an inventor of many ingenious devices and processes" worked as an editor and wrote several books, including The Heart of the Bible. In 1863 Foster married Caroline Amelia Bolles. Grace Foster became a missionary, married the minister Stephen J. Herben a Garrett Institute alumnus. Foster died on November 3, 1920, in Seattle, at the age of 86. At the time he was believed to be the oldest professor still teaching in the United States. Foster, John Onesimus. Life and Labors of Mrs. Maggie Newton Van Cott, the First Lady Licensed to Preach in the Methodist Episcopal Church in the United States. Cincinnati: Hitchcock and Walden. Clark, A. Howard, ed.. "Biographies of General Officers". National Year Book. National Society of the Sons of the American Revolution. Pp. 5–10. Downs, Winfield Scott, ed.. "Herben, Rev. Stephen Joseph". Encyclopedia of American Biography. New Series. New York: American Historical Society. Pp. 129–131. Leonard, John William, ed.. "Herben, Grace Foster". Woman's Who's who of America: A Biographical Dictionary of Contemporary Women of the United States and Canada.

New York: American Commonwealth Co. pp. 382–383

Royal commission

A royal commission is a major ad-hoc formal public inquiry into a defined issue in some monarchies. They have been held in the United Kingdom, Canada, New Zealand, Saudi Arabia. A royal commission is similar in function to a commission of inquiry found in other countries such as Ireland, South Africa, regions such as Hong Kong, it has considerable powers greater than those of a judge but restricted to the terms of reference of the commission. These powers include taking evidence under oath and requesting documents; the commission is created by the head of state on the advice of the government and formally appointed by letters patent. In practice—unlike lesser forms of inquiry—once a commission has started the government cannot stop it. Governments are very careful about framing the terms of reference and include in them a date by which the commission must finish. Royal commissions are called to look into matters of great importance and controversy; these can be matters such as government structure, the treatment of minorities, events of considerable public concern or economic questions.

Many royal commissions last many years and a different government is left to respond to the findings. In Australia—and New South Wales—royal commissions have been investigations into police and government corruption and organised crime using the broad coercive powers of the royal commissioner to defeat the protective systems that powerful, but corrupt, public officials had used to shield themselves from conventional investigation. Royal commissions are chaired by one or more notable figures; because of their quasi-judicial powers the commissioners are retired or serving judges. They involve research into an issue, consultations with experts both within and outside government and public consultations as well; the warrant may grant immense investigatory powers, including summoning witnesses under oath, offering of indemnities, seizing of documents and other evidence, holding hearings in camera if necessary and—in a few cases—compelling all government officials to aid in the execution of the Commission.

The results of Royal Commissions are published in reports massive, of findings containing policy recommendations. While these reports are quite influential, with the government enacting some or all recommendations into law, the work of some commissions have been completely ignored by the government. In other cases, where the commissioner has departed from the Warranted terms, the commission has been dissolved by a superior court. Royal Commission in the matter of an inquiry into a statement that there was a document missing from the official files in relation to "The Brisbane Line" Royal Commission on loss of HMAS Voyager, investigated the collision between HMAS Melbourne and HMAS Voyager Royal Commission on the statement of Lieutenant Commander Cabban and matters incidental thereto, investigated claims that the captain of HMAS Voyager drank to excess and was unfit for command Royal Commission on Intelligence and Security investigated the country's intelligence agencies Royal Commission On Human Relationships, inquired into and reported on the family, social and sexual aspects of male and female relationships.

Royal Commission on the activities of the Federated Ship Painters and Dockers Union, investigated organised crime influences and drug trafficking in a large trade union Royal Commission of Inquiry into Drug Trafficking Royal Commission into British nuclear tests in Australia Royal Commission into Aboriginal Deaths in Custody, investigated the disproportionate number of deaths of Australian Aboriginals while in custody Royal Commission into HIH Insurance, investigated the collapse of HIH Insurance Australia's second largest insurance company Royal Commission into the Building and Construction Industry, investigated the conduct of industrial relations within the building industry Inquiry into certain Australian companies in relation to the UN Oil-For-Food Programme, investigation into the alleged participation of the AWB into the Oil for Food program Royal Commission into Institutional Responses to Child Sexual Abuse Royal Commission into the Home Insulation Program, investigated the death of four male workers, ninety-four house fires related to insulation, allegations of fraud as a result of the implementation of the Home Insulation Program Royal Commission into Trade Union Governance and Corruption Royal Commission into the Protection and Detention of Children in the Northern Territory Royal Commission into Misconduct in the Banking and Financial Services Industry Royal Commission into Aged Care Quality and Safety Royal Commission into Violence, Abuse and Exploitation of People with Disability Royal Commission into the New South Wales Police Service investigated Police corruption in New South Wales.

Royal Commission into Drug Trafficking

Notelaea microcarpa

Notelaea microcarpa is a bush or small crooked tree from the Olive Family, found in eastern Australia. Two varieties are recognised; the habitat is in the under-storey of eucalyptus woodland, north of the Hunter Region, north to Queensland. On rocky sites, associated with the White Box; the gorge mock olive is found in the drier fire free gully rainforests, in the north of New South Wales. It may grow at an altitude of between 500 and 700 metres above sea level. Sites include Chaelundi National Park; this plant first appeared in the scientific literature in 1810, in the Prodromus Florae Novae Hollandiae, authored by the prolific Scottish botanist, Robert Brown