The First English Civil War began the series of three wars known as the English Civil War. "The English Civil War" was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations that took place between Parliamentarians and Royalists from 1642 until 1651, includes the Second English Civil War and the Third English Civil War. The wars in England were part of the Wars of the Three Kingdoms, being fought contemporaneously with equivalents in Scotland and Ireland; the First Civil War ended with King Charles I in custody and cessation of armed political Royalism, though the new power-in-charge was indecisive, as England and Scotland were in the hands of any one of the four parties that opposed the Royalists. Convention uses the name "The English Civil War" to refer collectively to the civil wars in England and the Scottish Civil War, which began with the raising of King Charles I's standard at Nottingham on 22 August 1642, ended on 3 September 1651 at the Battle of Worcester. There was some continued organised Royalist resistance in Scotland, which lasted until the surrender of Dunnottar Castle to Parliament's troops in May 1652, but this resistance is not included as part of the English Civil War.
The English Civil War can be divided into three: the First English Civil War, the Second English Civil War, the Third English Civil War. For the most part, accounts summarise the two sides that fought the English Civil Wars as the Royalist Cavaliers of Charles I of England versus the Parliamentarian Roundheads. However, as with many civil wars, loyalties shifted for various reasons, both sides changed during the conflicts. During this time, the Irish Confederate Wars continued in Ireland, starting with the Irish Rebellion of 1641 and ending with the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland, its incidents had little or no direct connection with those of the Civil War, but the wars were mixed with, formed part of, a linked series of conflicts and civil wars between 1639 and 1652 in the kingdoms of England and Ireland, which at that time shared a monarch, but were distinct states in political organisation. These linked conflicts are known as the Wars of the Three Kingdoms by some recent historians, aiming to have a unified overview, rather than treating parts of the other conflicts as a background to the English Civil War.
On the side of the King were enlisted: a deep-seated loyalty resulting from two centuries of effective royal protection. The first and last of these motives animated the foot-soldiers of the Royal armies; these troops, who followed their squires to the war saw the enemy as fanatics. The cavalry was composed of the higher social orders; the rebel troops on the other hand were drawn from the ranks of the middle class or bourgeois. The various groups of mercenary troops or soldiers of fortune seeking employ on either side of the conflict since the end of the German wars all felt the well hardened regulars' contempt for citizen militia; the other side of the war saw the causes of the quarrel as a constitutional issue, but as the war progressed they became more radical and religiously focused. Thus, the elements of resistance in Parliament and the nation were at first confused, strong and direct. Democracy, moderate republicanism, the desire for constitutional guarantees could hardly make head way against the various forces of royalism, for the most moderate men of either party were sufficiently in sympathy to admit compromise.
But the backbone of resistance was the Puritan element, this waging war at first with the rest on the political issue, soon brought the religious issue to the front. The Presbyterian system more rigid than that of the Archbishop of Canterbury, William Laud and the other bishops, whom few on either side except Charles himself supported, seemed destined for replacement by the Independents and by their ideal of free conscience, but for a generation before the war broke out, the system had disciplined and trained the middle classes of the nation to centre their will on the attainment of their ideals. The ideals changed during the struggle, but not the capacity for striving for them, the men capable of the effort came to the front, imposed their ideals on the rest by the force of their trained wills; the parliamentarians had the stronger material force. They controlled the navy, the nucleus of an army, being organised for the Irish war, nearly all the financial resources of the country, they had the sympathies of most of the large towns, where the trained bands, drilled once a month, provided cadres for new regiments.
By recognising that war was they prepared for war before Royalists did. The Earl of Warwick, the Earl of Essex, the Earl of Manchester, other nobles and gentry of the Parliamentary party had great wealth and territorial influence. On the other hand, Charles could raise men without authority from Parliament by using impressment and the Lords-Lieutenant, but could not raise taxes to support them, thus he depended on financial support from his adherents, such as the Earl of Newcastle and the Earl of Derby. Both the king and the Parliament raised men when and where they could, both claimed
This is a list of Superfund sites in Mississippi designated under the Comprehensive Environmental Response and Liability Act environmental law. The CERCLA federal law of 1980 authorized the United States Environmental Protection Agency to create a list of polluted locations requiring a long-term response to clean up hazardous material contaminations; these locations are known as Superfund sites, are placed on the National Priorities List. The NPL guides the EPA in "determining which sites warrant further investigation" for environmental remediation; as of May 1, 2010, there were four Superfund sites on the National Priorities List in Mississippi. Two more sites have been proposed for entry on the list and three others have been cleaned up and removed from it. Proposed for addition to National Priorities List Deleted from National Priorities List List of Superfund sites in the United States List of environmental issues List of waste types TOXMAP EPA list of proposed Superfund sites in Mississippi EPA list of current Superfund sites in Mississippi EPA list of Superfund site construction completions in Mississippi EPA list of deleted Superfund sites in Mississippi EPA list of deleted Superfund sites in Mississippi
Albert Theodore Tuttle was a general authority of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints from 1958 until his death. Tuttle was born in Utah; as a young man, he was a Mormon missionary in the Northern States Mission of the LDS Church. He began his college education at Snow College and after his mission received a bachelor's degree from Brigham Young University and a master's degree from Stanford University, he did graduate studies at the University of Utah. During World War II, Tuttle served two-and-a-half years as a Marine Corps line officer in the Pacific theater, he played an active part in the famous Raising of the Flag on Iwo Jima. Prior to his call as a general authority, Tuttle worked as a teacher and administrator in the Church Educational System, he was a seminary principal at several locations in Utah. He was the director of the Institute of Religion in Reno and from 1953 until his call as a general authority was the head of the church's seminary and institute program. Tuttle and his wife, Marne Whitaker, were the parents of seven children.
Tuttle became a member of the seven-man First Council of the Seventy in 1958. In 1976, he joined the newly reconstituted First Quorum of the Seventy and became a member of the Presidency of the Seventy, he remained in the presidency of the Seventy until 1980. From 1980 to 1982, Tuttle was president of the church's Provo Temple. In 1986, he became the second counselor to Robert L. Simpson in the church's Sunday School general presidency, but only held this position for a few months before his death the same year. Tuttle died of cancer in Utah. "Elder A. Theodore Tuttle Eulogized," Ensign, February 1987, p. 74. Leon R. Hartshorn. Outstanding Stories by General Authorities. Vol. 1, p. 215. Grampa Bill's G. A. Pages: A. Theodore Tuttle LDS General Conference talks by A. Theodore Tuttle