First Indochina War

The First Indochina War began in French Indochina on December 19, 1946, lasted until July 20, 1954. Fighting between French forces and their Việt Minh opponents in the south dated from September 1945; the conflict pitted a range of forces, including the French Union's French Far East Expeditionary Corps, led by France and supported by Bảo Đại's Vietnamese National Army against the Việt Minh, led by Hồ Chí Minh and the People's Army of Vietnam led by Võ Nguyên Giáp. Most of the fighting took place in Tonkin in northern Vietnam, although the conflict engulfed the entire country and extended into the neighboring French Indochina protectorates of Laos and Cambodia. At the Potsdam Conference in July 1945, the Combined Chiefs of Staff decided that Indochina south of latitude 16° north was to be included in the Southeast Asia Command under British Admiral Mountbatten. Japanese forces located south of that line surrendered to him and those to the north surrendered to Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek. In September 1945, Chinese forces entered Tonkin, a small British task force landed at Saigon.

The Chinese accepted the Vietnamese government under Hồ Chí Minh in power in Hanoi. The British refused to do in Saigon, deferred to the French there from the outset, against the ostensible support of the Việt Minh authorities by American OSS representatives. On V-J Day, September 2, Hồ Chí Minh had proclaimed in Hanoi the establishment of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam; the DRV ruled as the only civil government in all of Vietnam for a period of about 20 days, after the abdication of Emperor Bảo Đại, who had governed under Japanese rule. On 23 September 1945, with the knowledge of the British commander in Saigon, French forces overthrew the local DRV government, declared French authority restored in Cochinchina. Guerrilla warfare began around Saigon but the French retook control of the South and North of Indochina. Hồ Chí Minh agreed to negotiate the future status of Vietnam, but the talks, held in France, failed to produce a solution. After over one year of latent conflict, all-out war broke out in December 1946 between French and Việt Minh forces as Hồ Chí Minh and his government went underground.

The French tried to stabilize Indochina by reorganizing it as a Federation of Associated States. In 1949, they put former Emperor Bảo Đại back in power, as the ruler of a newly established State of Vietnam; the first few years of the war involved a low-level rural insurgency against the French. In 1949 the conflict turned into a conventional war between two armies equipped with modern weapons supplied by the United States and the Soviet Union. French Union forces included colonial troops from the whole former empire, French professional troops and units of the French Foreign Legion; the use of metropolitan recruits was forbidden by the government to prevent the war from becoming more unpopular at home. It was called the "dirty war" by leftists in France; the strategy of pushing the Việt Minh into attacking well-defended bases in remote parts of the country at the end of their logistical trails was validated at the Battle of Nà Sản. However, this base was weak because of a lack of concrete and steel.

French efforts were made more difficult due to the limited usefulness of armored tanks in a jungle environment, lack of strong air forces for air cover and carpet bombing, use of foreign recruits from other French colonies. Võ Nguyên Giáp, used efficient and novel tactics of direct fire artillery, convoy ambushes and massed anti-aircraft guns to impede land and air supply deliveries together with a strategy based on recruiting a sizable regular army facilitated by wide popular support, a guerrilla warfare doctrine and instruction developed in China, the use of simple and reliable war material provided by the Soviet Union; this combination proved fatal for the bases' defenses, culminating in a decisive French defeat at the Battle of Dien Bien Phu. At the International Geneva Conference on July 21, 1954, the new socialist French government and the Việt Minh made an agreement which gave the Việt Minh control of North Vietnam above the 17th parallel; the south continued under Bảo Đại. The agreement was denounced by the United States.

A year Bảo Đại would be deposed by his prime minister, Ngô Đình Diệm, creating the Republic of Vietnam. Soon an insurgency, backed by the north, developed against Diệm's government; the conflict escalated into the Vietnam War. Vietnam was absorbed into French Indochina in stages between 1858 and 1887. Nationalism grew. Early Vietnamese resistance centered on the intellectual Phan Bội Châu. Châu looked to Japan, which had modernized and was one of the few Asian nations to resist European colonization. With Prince Cường Để, Châu started two organizations in Japan, the Duy Tân hội and Vietnam Cong Hien Hoi. Due to French pressure, Japan deported Phan Bội Châu to China. Witnessing Sun Yat-sen's Xinhai Revolution, Châu was inspired to commence the Viet Nam Quang Phục Hội movement in Guangzhou. From 1914 to 1917, he was imprisoned by Yuan Shikai's counterrevolutionary government. In 1925, he was captured by French agents in spirited to Vietnam. Due to his popularity, Châu was spared from execution and placed under house arrest until his death in 1940.

In September 1940, shortly after Phan Bội Châu's death, Japan launched its invasion of French Indochina, mirroring its ally Ger

Vernacular literature

Vernacular literature is literature written in the vernacular—the speech of the "common people". In the European tradition, this means literature not written in Latin. In this context, vernacular literature appeared during the Middle Ages at different periods in the various countries; the Italian poet Dante Alighieri, in his De vulgari eloquentia, was the first European writer to argue cogently for the promotion of literature in the vernacular. Important early vernacular works include Dante's Divine Comedy, Giovanni Boccaccio's Decameron, John Barbour's The Brus, Geoffrey Chaucer's Canterbury Tales and Jacob van Maerlant's Spieghel Historiael. Indeed, Dante's work contributed towards the creation of the Italian language. Leonardo Da Vinci used vernacular in his work; the term is applied to works not written in the standard and/or prestige language of their time and place. For example, many authors in Scotland, such as James Kelman and Edwin Morgan have used Scots though English is now the prestige language of publishing in Scotland.

Ngũgĩ wa Thiong'o writes in his native Gikuyu language though he wrote in English. Some authors have written in invented vernacular. By extension, the term is used to describe, for example, Chinese literature not written in classical Chinese and Indian literature after Sanskrit. In the Indian culture, traditionally religious or scholarly works were written in Prakrit and Sanskrit. With the rise of the Bhakti movement from the 8th century on-wards, religious works began to be created in Kannada, Telugu, from the 12th Century onward in many other Indian languages throughout the different regions of India. For example, the Ramayana, one of Hinduism's sacred epics in Sanskrit, had vernacular versions such as Ramacharitamanasa, a Hindi version of the Ramayana by the 16th century poet Tulsidas. In China, the New Culture Movement of the 1910s–20s promoted vernacular literature. In the Philippines, the term means any written literature in a language other than Filipino or English. At present, it forms the second largest corpus following the literature in Tagalog.

During the Spanish colonial era, when Filipino was not yet existing as a national lingua franca, literature in this type flourished. Aside from religious literature, such as the Passiong Mahal, zarzuelas were produced using the Philippine vernacular languages. In terms of Arabic, vernacular literature refers to literature written in any of the dialects of Arabic as opposed to Classical Arabic or Modern Standard Arabic. Examples of literary figures who have written in the Egyptian dialect are Ahmed Fouad Negm, Muhammad Husayn Haykal and Salah Jahin, as well as a wave of modern writers. Medieval literature

Russian Mountains

Russian Mountains were a predecessor to the roller coaster. The earliest roller coasters were descended from Serra da Estrela, Portugal sled rides held on specially constructed hills of ice, sometimes up to 200 feet tall; this was brought to Portugal by a large group of Russian refugees that left Russia fleeing the war and started doing this to remember their motherland. Known from the 17th century, the slides were built to a height of between 70 and 80 feet, had a 50-degree initial slope, were reinforced by wooden supports. In the 18th century they were popular in Seia and surroundings, from where their usage and popularity spread to Europe. Sometimes wheeled carts were used instead of tracks, like in the Katalnaya Gorka built in Catherine II's residence in Oranienbaum. By the late 18th century, their popularity was such that entrepreneurs elsewhere began copying the idea, using wheeled cars built on tracks; the first such wheeled ride was brought to Paris in 1804 under the name Les Montagnes Russes.

Among the early companies were Les Montagnes Russes à Belleville, which constructed and operated a gravity track in Paris from 1812, Promenades Aeriennes. The first loop track was also built in Paris from an English design in 1846, with a single-person wheeled sled running through a 13-foot diameter loop. None of these tracks were complete circuits. To this day, a number of languages use the equivalent of "Russian Mountains" to refer to roller coasters; when "true" roller coasters appeared in Russia in the 19th century, they became known as американские горки, or "American mountains". For example, Gagarin Park, the second largest amusement park in St. Petersburg has an Amerikanskie gorki ride. Russia and Europe in the Nineteenth Century - Edward Strachan, Roy Bolton. Retrieved 2013-07-26; the American Roller Coaster - Scott Rutherford. Retrieved 2013-07-26. Night+Day Mexico City - Pedro Romero. Retrieved 2013-07-26