First Intermediate Period of Egypt

The First Intermediate Period described as a "dark age" in ancient Egyptian history, spanned one hundred and twenty-five years, from c. 2181–2055 BC, after the end of the Old Kingdom. It comprises the Seventh, Ninth and part of the Eleventh Dynasties; the concept of a "First Intermediate Period" was coined in 1926 by Egyptologists Georg Steindorff and Henri Frankfort. Little monumental evidence survives from this period from the beginning of the era; the First Intermediate Period was a dynamic time where rule of Egypt was equally divided between two competing power bases. One of those bases was at Heracleopolis in a city just south of the Faiyum region; the other was at Thebes in Upper Egypt. It is believed that during this time temples were pillaged and violated, artwork was vandalized, the statues of kings were broken or destroyed as a result of the postulated political chaos; these two kingdoms would come into conflict, leading to the conquest of the north by the Theban kings and the reunification of Egypt under a single ruler, Mentuhotep II, during the second part of the Eleventh Dynasty.

This event marked the beginning of the Middle Kingdom of Egypt. The fall of the Old Kingdom is described as a period of chaos and disorder by some literature in the First Intermediate Period, but by the literature of successive eras of ancient Egyptian history; the causes that brought about the downfall of the Old Kingdom are numerous, but some are hypothetical. One reason, quoted is the long reign of Pepi II, the last major pharaoh of the 6th Dynasty, he ruled from his childhood until he was elderly in his 90s, but the length of his reign is uncertain. He outlived many of his anticipated heirs. Thus, the regime of the Old Kingdom disintegrated amidst this disorganization. Another major problem was the rise in power of the provincial nomarchs. Towards the end of the Old Kingdom the positions of the nomarchs had become hereditary, so families held onto the position of power in their respective provinces; as these nomarchs grew powerful and influential, they became more independent from the king.

They erected tombs in their own domains and raised armies. The rise of these numerous nomarchs created conflicts between neighboring provinces resulting in intense rivalries and warfare between them. A third reason for the dissolution of centralized kingship, mentioned was the low levels of the Nile inundation which may have been caused by a drier climate, resulting in lower crop yields bringing about famine across ancient Egypt. There is however no consensus on this subject. According to Manning, there is no relationship with low Nile floods. "State collapse was complicated, but unrelated to Nile flooding history." The Seventh and Eighth Dynasties are overlooked because little is known about the rulers of these two periods. Manetho, a historian and priest from the Ptolemaic era, describes 70 kings; this is certainly an exaggeration meant to describe the disorganization of the kingship during this time period. The Seventh Dynasty may have been an oligarchy comprising powerful officials of the Sixth Dynasty based in Memphis who attempted to retain control of the country.

The Eighth dynasty rulers, claiming to be the descendants of the Sixth Dynasty kings ruled from Memphis. Little is known about these two dynasties since little textual or architectural evidence survives to describe the period. However, a few artifacts have been found, including scarabs that have been attributed to king Neferkare II of the Seventh Dynasty, as well as a green jasper cylinder of Syrian influence, credited to the Eighth Dynasty. A small pyramid believed to have been constructed by King Ibi of the Eighth Dynasty has been identified at Saqqara. Several kings, such as Iytjenu, are only attested once and their position remains unknown. Sometime after the obscure reign of the Seventh and Eighth Dynasty kings a group of rulers arose in Heracleopolis in Lower Egypt; these kings comprise the Tenth Dynasties, each with nineteen listed rulers. The Heracleopolitan kings are conjectured to have overwhelmed the weak Memphite rulers to create the Ninth Dynasty, but there is no archaeology elucidating the transition, which seems to have involved a drastic reduction in population in the Nile Valley.

The founder of the Ninth Dynasty, Akhthoes or Akhtoy, is described as an evil and violent ruler, most notably in Manetho's writing. The same as Wahkare Khety I, Akhthoes was described as a king who caused much harm to the inhabitants of Egypt, was seized with madness, was killed by a crocodile; this may have been a fanciful tale. Kheti I was succeeded by Kheti II known as Meryibre. Little is certain of his reign, it may have been his successor, Kheti III, who would bring some degree of order to the Delta, though the power and influence of these Ninth Dynasty kings was insignificant compared to the Old Kingdom pharaohs. A distinguished line of nomarchs arose in Siut, a powerful and wealthy province in the south of the Heracleopolitan kingdom; these warrior princes maintained a close relationship with the kings of the Heracleopolitan royal household, as evidenced by the inscriptions in their tombs. These inscriptions provide a glimpse at the political situation, present during their reigns, they describe the Siut nomarchs digging canals, reducing taxation, reaping rich harvests, raising

Christopher Hughes (diplomat)

Christopher Hughes was an American attorney and diplomat who served as Chargé d'affaires in Sweden and The Netherlands in the 1820s and 1830s. He was the son in law of United States Senator Samuel Smith. Christopher Hughes, the son of Christopher Hughes, Sr. and Margaret Sanderson Hughes was born in Baltimore, Maryland on February 11, 1786. He was one of fourteen children, he had a twin sister, who married Colonel Samuel Moore, was the only sibling with whom he remained close. Another sister, was the wife of George Armistead. Hughes graduated from the College of New Jersey in 1805, studied law, was admitted to the bar in Baltimore. In 1811 he married the daughter of Senator Samuel Smith. During the War of 1812 Hughes served. In 1813 Hughes was the Secretary for the American delegation which negotiated the Treaty of Ghent that ended the war, an appointment which resulted in lifelong friendships with delegation members John Quincy Adams and Henry Clay. At the conclusion of the negotiations Hughes was one of two secretaries dispatched to the United States to deliver copies of the treaty, his meetings with President James Madison and Secretary of State James Monroe to report on the negotiations gave him the opportunity to establish relationships which enabled him to pursue a diplomatic career.

In 1815 Hughes was elected to the Maryland House of Delegates as a Democratic-Republican, he served one term. In 1816 he declined an opportunity to run for the United States House of Representatives, deferring to his father in law, elected. In 1816 Monroe dispatched Hughes to New Granada to negotiate with Spanish authorities, who had confiscated several American ships and their cargo and imprisoned the crews; the authorities in New Granada had sold off the ships and cargo by the time Hughes arrived, but he was able to secure the release of most of the 50 crew members, excepting those who had died, escaped or been freed. Monroe appointed Hughes as Chargé d'affaires in Stockholm, where he served until 1825. During his time in Sweden, Hughes worked to implement and expand on trade agreements negotiated by his predecessor, Jonathan Russell. After John Quincy Adams became President, he honored Hughes's request for a new diplomatic posting, nominating him to serve as Chargé d'affaires in The Netherlands.

In 1830 the United States decided to upgrade the post in The Netherlands to Minister Plenipotentiary, but disappointed Hughes by nominating William Pitt Preble of Maine. At the time the King of The Netherlands had agreed to mediate the Maine-New Brunswick boundary dispute between the United States and Great Britain, the Senate determined that U. S. interests would be better served by someone with first hand knowledge of the issue. After Preble's appointment was confirmed Hughes was nominated to return to Sweden as Chargé d'affaires, he continued his work to enhance trade between Sweden and the United States. Hughes's wife died in 1832, his father in law and son Charles in 1839, he had a daughter, who had settled in Baltimore after her mother's death. Margaret was the second wife of Senator Anthony Kennedy; as a result of these personal events Hughes began to ask for a new assignment that would enable him to change his location, in 1842 President John Tyler appointed Hughes to a second tour as Chargé d'affaires in The Netherlands.

He served until 1845, when the incoming administration of President James K. Polk and Secretary of State James Buchanan appointed Auguste Davezac to take his place. Hughes returned to Baltimore, where he lived in retirement until his death on September 18, 1849, he is buried in Baltimore's Green Mount Cemetery. Christopher Hughes, Lawyer, & Soldier at Find a Grave

Ree group

In mathematics, a Ree group is a group of Lie type over a finite field constructed by Ree from an exceptional automorphism of a Dynkin diagram that reverses the direction of the multiple bonds, generalizing the Suzuki groups found by Suzuki using a different method. They were the last of the infinite families of finite simple groups to be discovered. Unlike the Steinberg groups, the Ree groups are not given by the points of a connected reductive algebraic group defined over a finite field. However, there are some exotic pseudo-reductive algebraic groups over non-perfect fields whose construction is related to the construction of Ree groups, as they use the same exotic automorphisms of Dynkin diagrams that change root lengths. Tits defined Ree groups over infinite fields of characteristics 2 and 3. Tits and Hée introduced Ree groups of infinite-dimensional Kac–Moody algebras. If X is a Dynkin diagram, Chevalley constructed split algebraic groups corresponding to X, in particular giving groups X with values in a field F.

These groups have the following automorphisms: Any endomorphism σ of the field F induces an endomorphism ασ of the group X Any automorphism π of the Dynkin diagram induces an automorphism απ of the group X. The Steinberg and Chevalley groups can be constructed as fixed points of an endomorphism of X for F the algebraic closure of a field. For the Chevalley groups, the automorphism is the Frobenius endomorphism of F, while for the Steinberg groups the automorphism is the Frobenius endomorphism times an automorphism of the Dynkin diagram. Over fields of characteristic 2 the groups B2 and F4 and over fields of characteristic 3 the groups G2 have an endomorphism whose square is the endomorphism αφ associated to the Frobenius endomorphism φ of the field F. Speaking, this endomorphism απ comes from the order 2 automorphism of the Dynkin diagram where one ignores the lengths of the roots. Suppose that the field F has an endomorphism σ whose square is the Frobenius endomorphism: σ2 = φ; the Ree group is defined to be the group of elements g of X such that απ = ασ.

If the field F is perfect απ and αφ are automorphisms, the Ree group is the group of fixed points of the involution αφ/απ of X. In the case when F is a finite field of order pk there is an endomorphism with square the Frobenius when k = 2n + 1 is odd, in which case it is unique. So this gives the finite Ree groups as subgroups of B2, F4, G2 fixed by an involution; the relation between Chevalley groups, Steinberg group, Ree groups is as follows. Given a Dynkin diagram X, Chevalley constructed a group scheme over the integers Z whose values over finite fields are the Chevalley groups. In general one can take the fixed points of an endomorphism α of X where F is the algebraic closure of a finite field, such that some power of α is some power of the Frobenius endomorphism φ; the three cases are as follows: For Chevalley groups, α = φn for some positive integer n. In this case the group of fixed points is the group of points of X defined over a finite field. For Steinberg groups, αm = φn for some positive integers m, n with m dividing n and m > 1.

In this case the group of fixed points is the group of points of a twisted form of X defined over a finite field. For Ree groups, αm = φn for some positive integers m, n with m not dividing n. In practice m=2 and n is odd. Ree groups are not given as the points of some connected algebraic group with values in a field, they are the fixed points of an order m=2 automorphism of a group defined over a field of order pn with n odd, there is no corresponding field of order pn/2. The Ree groups of type 2B2 were first found by Suzuki using a different method, are called Suzuki groups. Ree noticed that they could be constructed from the groups of type B2 using a variation of the construction of Steinberg. Ree realized that a similar construction could be applied to the Dynkin diagrams F4 and G2, leading to two new families of finite simple groups; the Ree groups of type 2G2 were introduced by Ree, who showed that they are all simple except for the first one 2G2, isomorphic to the automorphism group of SL2.

Wilson gave a simplified construction of the Ree groups, as the automorphisms of a 7-dimensional vector space over the field with 32n+1 elements preserving a bilinear form, a trilinear form, a bilinear product. The Ree group has order q3 where q = 32n+1The Schur multiplier is trivial for n ≥ 1 and for 2G2′; the outer automorphism group is cyclic of order 2n + 1. The Ree group is occasionally denoted by Ree, R, or E2* The Ree group 2G2 has a doubly transitive permutation representation on q3 + 1 points, more acts as automorphisms of an S Steiner system, it acts on a 7-dimensional vector space over the field with q elements as it is a subgroup of G2. The 2-sylow subgroups of the Ree groups are elementary abelian of order 8. Walter's theorem shows that the only other non-abelian finite simple groups with abelian Sylow 2-subgroups are the projective special linear groups in dimension 2 and the Janko group J1; these groups played a role in the discovery of the first modern sporadic group. They have involution centralizers of the form Z/2Z × PSL2, by investigating groups with an involution centralizer of the similar form Z/2Z × PSL2 Janko found the sporadic group J1.

Kleidman determined their maximal subgroups. The Ree groups of typ