In the history of Christianity, the first seven ecumenical councils include the following: the First Council of Nicaea in 325, the First Council of Constantinople in 381, the Council of Ephesus in 431, the Council of Chalcedon in 451, the Second Council of Constantinople in 553, the Third Council of Constantinople from 680–681 and the Second Council of Nicaea in 787. These seven events represented an attempt by Church leaders to reach an orthodox consensus, restore peace and develop a unified Christendom. Eastern Orthodox Christians, Oriental Orthodox Christians, the Church of the East, Old Catholic, Roman Catholics, all trace the legitimacy of their clergy by apostolic succession back to this period and beyond, to the earlier period referred to as Early Christianity; this era begins with the First Council of Nicaea, which enunciated the Nicene Creed that in its original form and as modified by the First Council of Constantinople of 381 was seen by all councils as the touchstone of orthodoxy on the doctrine of the Trinity.
The Eastern Orthodox Church and the Catholic Church accept all seven of these councils as legitimate ecumenical councils. The Oriental Orthodox Churches accept only the first three, while the Church of the East accepts only the first two. There is one additional council, held between the sixth and seventh ecumenical councils, which issued organizational and canonical rules but did not discuss theology, it is accepted as ecumenical by the Eastern Orthodox Church alone, however the Eastern Orthodox do not give it a number, but rather count it as a continuation of the sixth council. The Catholic Church does not accept the Quinisext Council, but both the Catholic Church and some Eastern Orthodox theologians and hierarchs consider there to have been further ecumenical councils after the first seven.. These seven ecumenical councils are: Emperor Constantine convened this council to settle a controversial issue, the relation between Jesus Christ and God the Father; the Emperor wanted to establish universal agreement on it.
Representatives came from across the Empire, subsidized by the Emperor. Previous to this council, the bishops would hold local councils, such as the Council of Jerusalem, but there had been no universal, or ecumenical, council; the council drew up the original Nicene Creed, which received nearly unanimous support. The council's description of "God's only-begotten Son", Jesus Christ, as of the same substance with God the Father became a touchstone of Christian Trinitarianism; the council addressed the issue of dating Easter, recognised the right of the See of Alexandria to jurisdiction outside of its own province and the prerogatives of the churches in Antioch and the other provinces and approved the custom by which Jerusalem was honoured, but without the metropolitan dignity. The Council was opposed by the Arians, Constantine tried to reconcile Arius, after whom Arianism is named, with the Church; when Arius died in 336, one year before the death of Constantine, the controversy continued, with various separate groups espousing Arian sympathies in one way or another.
In 359, a double council of Eastern and Western bishops affirmed a formula stating that the Father and the Son were similar in accord with the scriptures, the crowning victory for Arianism. The opponents of Arianism rallied, the First Council of Constantinople in 381 marked the final victory of Nicene orthodoxy within the Empire, though Arianism had by spread to the Germanic tribes, among whom it disappeared after the conversion of the Franks to Christianity in 496. In 331, Constantine I commissioned Eusebius to deliver fifty Bibles for the Church of Constantinople. Athanasius recorded Alexandrian scribes around 340 preparing Bibles for Constans. Little else is known. For example, it is speculated that this may have provided motivation for canon lists, that Codex Vaticanus and Codex Sinaiticus are examples of these Bibles. Together with the Peshitta and Codex Alexandrinus, these are the earliest extant Christian Bibles; the council approved what the current form of the Nicene Creed as used in most Oriental Orthodox churches is.
The Eastern Orthodox Church uses the council's text but with the verbs expressing belief in the singular: Πιστεύω instead of Πιστεύομεν. The Latin Rite of the Catholic Church uses the singular and, except in Greek, adds two phrases, Deum de Deo and Filioque; the form used by the Armenian Apostolic Church, part of Oriental Orthodoxy, has many more additions. This fuller creed may have existed before the Council and originated from the baptismal creed of Constantinople; the council condemned Apollinarism, the teaching that there was no human mind or soul in Christ. It granted Constantinople honorary precedence over all churches save Rome; the council did not include Western bishops or Roman legates, but it was accepted as ecumenical in the West. Theodosius II called the council to settle the christological controversy surrounding Nestorianism. Nestorius, Patriarch of Constantinople, opposed use of the term Theotokos; this term had long been used by orthodox writers, it was gaining popularity along with devotion to Mary as Mother of God.
He taught that there were two separate persons in the incarnate Christ, though whether he taught this is disputed. The council deposed Nestorius, repudiated Nestorianism, proclaimed the Virgin Mary as the Theoto
Pterostylis microglossa known as the Kalbarri shell orchid, is a species of orchid endemic to the south-west of Western Australia. Non-flowering plants have a rosette of leaves flat on the ground but flowering plants lack a rosette and have a flowering stem with leaves and a single green and brownish-red flower. Pterostylis microglossa is a terrestrial, deciduous, herb with an underground tuber. Non-flowering plants have a rosette of more or less round leaves and sometimes the plants form colonies so that the rosette leaves cover an area of several square metres. Flowering plants lack a rosette but have a single green and brownish-red flower 20–25 mm long and 8–10 mm wide on a flowering stem 50–120 mm high. There are between four and six leaves 10–25 mm long and 3–6 mm wide on the flowering stem; the dorsal sepal and petals are fused, forming a hood or "galea" over the column, the dorsal sepal with a short point. The lateral sepals are held have erect, tips 12 -- 15 mm long; the labellum is short but just visible above the sinus between the lateral sepals.
Flowering occurs in July. Pterostylis microglossa was first formally described in 2012 by David Jones and Christopher French from a specimen collected near Kalbarri National Park and the description was published in Australian Orchid Review; the species had been known as Pterostylis sp.'Kalbarri'. The specific epithet is derived from the Ancient Greek words mikros meaning "small" or "little" and glossa meaning "tongue" referring to the short labellum; the Kalbarri shell orchid grows in shallow soil on granite outcrops and on consolidated sand dunes between Shark Bay and the Moore River in the Geraldton Sandplains and Swan Coastal Plain biogeographic regions. Pterostylis microglossa is listed as "not threatened" by the Government of Western Australia Department of Parks and Wildlife
Kamoi was an oiler/seaplane tender/flying boat tender of the Imperial Japanese Navy, serving from the 1920s through World War II. She was planned in 1920 as one of six of the oilers under the Eight-eight fleet final plan. Kamoi was completed 12 September 1922, classified as a special service ship. On 27 September she sailed to Yokosuka, from where she sailed to the Japanese mainland and back no fewer than 25 times. Somewhere around the end of 1932, she was converted to seaplane tender for January 28 Incident at Uraga Dock Company, an overhaul, finished in February 1933. Upon completion of this evolution, she was assigned to the Combined Fleet. On 1 June 1934, Kamoi was reclassified as a warship. On 1 June 1936, she was assigned to the Third Carrier Division. While on this assignment, during July 1937, she was assigned to search for downed American aviator Amelia Earhart. However, the order was cancelled. In 1939, the ship was once again overhauled, flying boat tending facilities were added. On 15 November 1940, Kamoi was reassigned to the 24th Air Flotilla.
On 1 December 1941, the 24th Air Flotilla was assigned to the 4th Fleet. In January 1942, she provided support to the Kavieng invasions. On 1 April 1942, the 24th Air Flotilla was assigned to the 11th Air Fleet. On 1 April 1943, she was assigned to Southwest Area Fleet. On 28 January 1944, Kamoi sustained heavy damage in an attack by the submarine USS Bowfin off Makassar. During the resulting repairs at Singapore, her aviation facilities were removed; as such, she was reclassified as a special service ship on 15 April 1944. Repairs were completed on 29 August. On 24 September, she was damaged by aircraft of Task Force 38 at Coron Bay. Three days she sustained heavy damage in an attack by a United States Navy submarine outside Manila Bay. At some unspecified point afterward, she went into repairs at Yokosuka Naval Arsenal. Repairs were completed on 31 December, at which point she joined the Hi-87 convoy from Moji to Singapore. On 16 January 1945, she was damaged in an air raid on Hong Kong, she was separated from the convoy at this time.
On 5 April 1945, with repairs still incomplete, she was once again damaged by air raid sinking in shallow water. Kamoi was decommissioned on 3 May 1947. Kamoi was scrapped by the British force. Barnegat-class seaplane tender Currituck-class seaplane tender Japanese seaplane tender Notoro Japanese seaplane tender Akitsushima Model Art Extra No.537, "Drawings of Imperial Japanese Naval Vessels Part-3", "Model Art Co. Ltd". 1999. Collection of writings by Sizuo Fukui Vol.7, "Stories of Japanese Aircraft Carriers", "Kōjinsha". 1996, ISBN 4-7698-0655-8. Ships of the World special issue Vol.40, "History of Japanese Aircraft Carriers", "Kaijinsha". 1994. Shinshichirō Komamiya, The Wartime Convoy Histories, "Shuppan Kyōdōsha". Archived from the original on 2011-07-22. Retrieved 2009-05-01. 1987, ISBN 4-87970-047-9. The Maru Special, Japanese Naval Vessels No. 25, "Japanese seaplane tenders", "Ushio Shobō". 1979. Kamoi Class Specs